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Displaying: 21-33 of 33 documents


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21. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 23 > Issue: 1
Fernando Broncano Trusting others. The epistemological authority of testimony
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I propose to consider the interpersonal character of testimony as a kind of social bond created by the mutual intention of sharing knowledge. The paper explores the social mechanism that supports this mutual intention starting from an initial situation of modelling the other’s epistemic perspective. Accepting testimony as a joint action creates epistemic duties and responsibilities and the eventual success can be considered as a genuine achievement at the social level of epistemology. Trust is presented here as the symptom that both parties are involved in such a social bond.
22. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 23 > Issue: 1
Paul Faulkner Cooperation and trust in conversational exchanges
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A conversation is more than a series of disconnected remarks because it is conducted against a background presumption of cooperation. But what makes it reasonable to presume that one is engaged in a conversation? What makes it reasonable to presume cooperation? This paper considers Grice’s two ways ofanswering this question and argues for the one he discarded. It does so by means of considering a certain problem and analysis of trust.
23. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 23 > Issue: 1
Gloria Origgi Trust, authority and epistemic responsibility
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In this paper I argue that the epistemology of trust and testimony should take into account the pragmatics of communication in order to gain insight about the responsibilities speakers and hearers share in the epistemic access they gain through communication. Communication is a rich process of information exchangein which epistemic standards are negotiated by interlocutors. I discuss examples which show the contextual adjustment of these standards as the conversation goes on. Our sensitivity to the contextual dimension of epistemic standards make us more responsible communicators.
24. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 23 > Issue: 1
Jesús Vega Encabo Epistemic merit, autonomy, and testimony
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In this paper, it is argued that both the informer and the hearer in a testimonial situation deserve epistemic merit insofar as they contribute to the collaborative achievement of sharing knowledge. The paper introduces a distinction between the ideals of self-sufficiency and epistemic autonomy. The autonomous exerciseof our epistemic agency is very often carried out under strong conditions of epistemic dependence. Testimony exhibits a kind of social dependence that does not threaten the autonomy of the subjects that need to consider their own epistemic capacities. When involved in a testimonial situation, both speaker and hearer declare, at least implicitly, the standings they occupy in an epistemic space and are obliged to recognise certain epistemic requirements.
25. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 23 > Issue: 1
Paula Olmos Situated practices of testimony. A rhetorical approach
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Contrary to most current epistemologists who concentrate on core cases of rather ‘spontaneous’ (deliberately de-contextualized) trust and belief in the face of assertions, Classical rhetoricians addressed the study of ‘testimony’ as an (at least) two-acts phenomenon: that of the ‘disclosure’ of information and that of the ‘appeal’ to its authority in subsequent discursive practices. Moreover, they primarily focused on this second phase as they assumed that it was such argumentative setting that finally gave ‘testimonial’ relevance to the first act. According to this ‘rhetorical’ model, then, it is the dynamics (by means of an in medias res approach) and pragmatics (by means of a deliberate attention to specifically ‘situated’ practices) of such complex process that is the core issue regarding ‘testimony’.
forum
26. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 23 > Issue: 1
Miranda Fricker On Miranda Fricker’s Epistemic Injustice: Power and the Ethics of Knowing: Précis
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This paper summarizes key themes from my Epistemic Injustice: Power and the Ethics of Knowing (OUP, 2007); and it gives replies to commentators.
27. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 23 > Issue: 1
Francisco Javier Gil Perfectioning trust, reinforcing testimony
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Miranda Fricker characterizes the most basic or primary form of epistemic, testimonial injustice by way of a set of negative delimitations. In this paper I raise some doubts about how these delimitations are drawn, about the wrongful harms and disadvantages the testimonial injustice is supposed to entail and produce,and about the way Miranda Fricker clarifies the perfectionist character of the corrective virtue on the part of hearers, the ethical and intellectual virtue of testimonial justice.
28. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 23 > Issue: 1
Jesús Zamora Bonilla Pure intuition: Miranda Fricker on the economy of prejudice
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Two aspects of Miranda Fricker’s book are criticised: the implicit assumption that ethical theory can solve fundamental problems in epistemology, and the excessive reliance on testimony as a fundamental source of knowledge. Against the former, it is argued that ethical theories are based on cultural prejudicesto a higher extent than epistemological theories. Against the latter, argumentation is proposed as a more important epistemic practice than testimony.
29. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 23 > Issue: 1
Miranda Fricker Replies to critics
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articles
30. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 23 > Issue: 1
Valeriano Iranzo Bayesianism and inference to the best explanation
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Bayesianism and Inference to the best explanation (IBE) are two different models of inference. Recently there has been some debate about the possibility of “bayesianizing” IBE. Firstly I explore several alternatives to include explanatory considerations in Bayes’s Theorem. Then I distinguish two different interpretationsof prior probabilities: “IBE-Bayesianism” (IBE-Bay) and “frequentist-Bayesianism” (Freq-Bay). After detailing the content of the latter, I propose a rule for assessing the priors. I also argue that Freq-Bay: (i) endorses a role for explanatory value in the assessment of scientific hypotheses; (ii) avoids a purely subjectivist reading of prior probabilities; and (iii) fits better than IBE-Bayesianism with two basic facts about science, i.e., the prominent role played by empirical testing and the existence of many scientific theories in the past that failed to fulfil their promises and were subsequently abandoned.
31. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 23 > Issue: 1
Juan Manuel Sánchez Arteaga La biología humana como ideología (Human biology as ideology): el racismo biológico y las estructuras simbólicas de dominación racial a fines del siglo XIX (Biological racism and symbolic structures for racial domination in the last part of the XIXth. century)
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RESUMEN: A través de un repaso a las teorías científicas más ortodoxas (a fines del siglo XIX) acerca de la diversidad biológica en nuestra especie —tal y como aparecen en la obra de autores como Darwin, Broca, Huxley, Haeckel, Vogt, etc.— el presente artículo propone la existencia de una conexión ideológica entre las teorías evolutivas sobre las así llamadas “razas humanas” (especialmente los modelos darwinistas sobre evolución humana), y las jerarquías raciales que, a su vez, establecía la lógica económica del imperialismo occidental.ABSTRACT: Taking into account the scientific theories about biological diversity in our species, specially those that constituted the orthodoxy in the last part of the XIXth century (i.e. those of authors such as Darwin, Broca, Huxley, Haeckel, Vogt, etc.), this paper analyzes the ideological connections that could be established between evolutionary and biological theories about “human races” (specially the Darwinist models about human evolution) and, on the other hand, the racial hierarchies imposed by the economic logic of victorian imperialism.
books received
32. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 23 > Issue: 1
BOOKS RECEIVED
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33. Theoria. Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia: Volume > 23 > Issue: 1
SUMMARY
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