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articles in english
21. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Seung-Ju Lee Philosophical Community of Inquiry as a New Approach to Moral Education in Korea
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The current moral education is focused on character building of Lickona. Several papers and books pointed out that his thesis has some drawbacks. As a teacher in charge of moral education in class, I have also found out them without effort. For these reasons, I simply pointed out disadvantages of Lickona’s thesis on this paper, then studied how to apply philosophical community of inquiry (PCOI) as the new model of moral education for Korean middle school classes (Now I teach students moral subject at Wondong middle school in Gyeong-nam, Republic of Korea). This study is thought to be well-grounded as an alternative idea because it has been very successful when I have tried to apply PCOI model to Korean classroom for about 4 years. With this PCOI model, I won the first rank in Gyeong-nam secondary teaching contest in 2007. I have tried to apply PCOI model to Korean history, economy, the world history and geography class as well as moral class. And I have been studying how to apply to these subjects more effectively.
22. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
N. I. Makarova Non-suppressive Educational Activity is the Future of Modern Russian Educational
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Today in education as well as in a society suppression and aggression reveal itself very actively. The word "suppression" in a modern society is used in many meanings; it includes all forms of physical, psychological and economic suppression. There is no system or mechanism to oppose it, to protect the education area of suppression and aggression, they are not outworked. Philosophy of education considers non-aggressive activity as a modern trend in Russian education, which developing non-aggressive relations as a standard of social life will help the society to overcome the revealed suppression and aggression. Non-suppression is a principle, action, position. Non-suppression is an ideological, ethic and vital principle, which is based on recognition of all living, a man and his life, rejection of suppression as a way of relation of a man with the world, the nature and other people. There are many methods of non-suppressedactivity in education. First of all, it is a refusal of force; non-suppressed action as a collaboration, joint activity; non-suppressed action as a help; non-suppressed action as a reduction of aggressive value of opposite side.
23. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Eva Neu, Michael Ch. Michailov, Ursula Welscher Anthropology and Philosophy in Agenda 21 of UNO
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Agenda 21 of United Nations demands better situation of ecology, economy, health, etc. in all countries. An evaluation of scientific contributions in international congresses of fundamental anthropological sciences (philosophy, psychology, psychosomatics, physiology, genito-urology, radio-oncology, etc.) demonstratesevidence of large discrepancies in the participation not only of developing and industrial countries, but also between the last ones themselves. Low degree of research and education leads to low degree of economy, health, ecology, etc. [Lit.: Neu, Michailov et al.: Physiology in Agenda 21. Proc. Int. Un. Physiol. Sci. San Francisco, Faseb J. 19/5, A1355, 2005; Agenda 21 in Psychol. 28th Int. Congr. Psychol. Beijing, 1028.62/3028.96, 2004]. CONCEPTION: The science is leading in the social and economic development of humanity, but the misuse of science causes disastrous repercussions (ecological and self-destruction). New models for scientific education, beginning with philosophy, followed by philosophical, pedagogical, medical, theological anthropology, and research are necessary tosupport Agenda 21 and prevent misuse of science. According to proposals on foundation of experimental schools (Immanuel Kant) and international universities (Bertrand Russell) the International Academy of Science/ICSD supports these ideas and initiated the creation of first (interdisciplinary) International Faculties forAnthropology as paradigm for humanization, higher effectiveness and pluralistic internationalization of science, leading to better education ("Erziehung und Ausbildung") and research in all countries, i.e. decrease of the gap between industrial and developing countries. CONCLUSION: Foundation of international institutes for general (philosophy, pedagogy, medicine) as well as for special anthropology (theology, informatics-logic-mathematics, culture, biology, (bio-) physics/chemistry) in context of an integralanthropology via networks of national ones from selected countries of Africa, America, Asia, Australia, Europe can permit the necessary implication of philosophy in education of anthropological sciences as well as research and education (post graduate) by common international research and educational programmes, lecturers, students, etc. in one country. This project needs political and financial support by UNO, European Union, governments, banks, industries to support the education of a homo sanus, humanus et spiritualis for the future humanity.
24. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Oksana Mikhalina Comparative Philosophical Investigations for Education
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An accelerating rate of systemic, structural and institutional convergences leads to the transformation of world educational space. A comparative study makes possible to analyse at a systems level both philosophy of education as systematic scientific knowledge and education as a system. Philosophy attempts not only to comprehend the existing system and to formulate values for the educational system of the future, but also to generalize and compare existing experience. But “experience” has different meanings. First, it indicates the concrete, urgent experience of reality and contains the components of sensory receptions and sensations, their spiritualizing senses, an entire conceptual complex, and also accumulated habits, skills, and knowledge. From the other side, it is understood as a component of social-historical existence, including the storage, creation and transfer of cultural senses, objectified in the standards and values, in lingual and objective forms; this means that an educational experience is the axiological basis of education, its value-purposeful characteristics. Philosophy of education is an independent specific field of knowledge adequately reflecting conceptual, theoretic-methodological and practical trends of education. It has global, national and local level of its reflection. Comparative investigation in philosophy of education is a comparison of such levels and explanation of their interaction. Themain methodological question is the extent to which it is expedient to use the achievements of foreign experience in educational theory and practice in another country. Comparative study makes it possible to pass from descriptions to the answer to more fundamental questions: to explanation and development of reasons.
25. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Nina Nalivaiko The Problems of Values in the Modern Theory of Education
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The issues that we raised go beyond the framework of just pedagogical research, since they cover an area of research in the juncture of the sciences about the human being. We are talking about the interdisciplinary analysis and integration of the fundamental foundations of the solution of the problems of both theoretical and constructive-designing character. At that, the philosophy of education carries out its regulatory function determining directions and boundaries of the research. The philosophy of education inscribes itself in the cultural dominant of the time, in such way fostering the choice of the development strategy of the educational systems, which will be adequate to the positive tendencies of social development, the modern spiritual search of humanity. The research in the area of education philosophy is connected with the integration of sociological, culturological, philosophical, economical, political, biological, psychological and other knowledge. The interdisciplinary character is a necessary condition of overcoming certain isolation of the modern theory of pedagogics from general processes of cultural, scientific, and social development; a condition of significant growth of its conceptual and theoretical level, serious strengthening of its role and importance in determining the prospects of education, in the development of educational programs, projects of various levels.
26. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Jānis (John) Ozoliņš Creativity and the Aims of Education
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In the mind of many governments the aim of education is not just to develop the potential of each young person and adult, but to also develop their creativity. Part of the logic of the rhetoric of constant improvement is that the improvement of literacy and numeracy is not enough, but that education must also unlock thepotential of every human being. Though few, if any, would dispute this as a laudable aim of education, the equating of creativity with the development of a person’s full potential is misguided. Though creativity does admit of degrees, at its highest level, it breaks new theoretical ground, solves formerly intractable problems and inspires new approaches to practical problems; at this level it cannot be taught and doubtful whether anyone can be taught to be creativeat any level. Moreover, the products of creative work will not always have economic value. It is argued that though it is important to encourage creativity, it should not be expected that creative outcomes will follow from such encouragement. The nature of creativity is such that governments should be careful what they wishfor.
27. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
B. Sambasiva Prasad Bertrand Russell’s Philosophy of Education
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According to Russell, the aim of education is three-fold: acquisition of the skills necessary for making life comfortable, to provide for the wise use of leisure by proper cultural growth and to cultivate the sense of citizenship. Russell argues that utility should not be the only aim of education. In addition to that, the humanistic elements of education are to be cultivated. He prefers to distinguish between ‘education of character’ and education in knowledge’. What he means is that the education system must aim at eliciting in every boy and girl, the intrinsic quality that exists. Russell rejects the view that classics are ornamental and science is useful. The study of classics, he feels, will enable a man to become a full-fledged human being because they touch upon the aesthetic and spiritual dimensions of man. According to Russell, education should aim at broad cultivation of the mind leading to an awareness of man’s place and destiny in the society and the universe.
28. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Joshua Sung-Chang Ryoo John Locke on Liberty and Education
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This paper is a section that is included in a philosophy of education doctoral thesis on John Locke’s educational epistemology. In this part, I argue that Locke’s conception of liberty as limited based on the natural law and later the civil laws can shed a light on our understanding of freedom in our educational practice. Lockean call for the balance between limited freedom of individual and limited governance of political authority is theoretically translated at the end of this paper into the call for the practical balance between limited freedom of students and limited governance of teachers. Then this paper will offer logical ground for Locke’s understanding of freedom and its limitation, and suggest a theoretical connection to an argument on epistemic liberty in education.
29. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Sang-Jun Ryu Strengthening the Thinking in Korean Secondary Education
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As far as I’m concerned, Korean moral education is facing the new challenge and new era. I’m teaching Korean secondary school studens as an Ethic teacher in high school and EBS lecturer as well. I’m worried about Korean education especially in middle and high school. There was missing thinking those parts cause an entrance examination, only for university in Korea. In this a serious worry, I found some exits from significant experience. First, I’d like to mention about P4C (Philosophy for children) Program which was learned from Professor Mattew Lipman of Mont Clair State University in New Jersey, U.S.A. This program is emphasizing upon thinking skill including creative, critical, and caring thinking. The huge shift from knowledge based education to thinking based education inKorea contemporarily. Also Student-based education is new stream of Korean education system. Teachers think students come to school to get knowledge, parents think children can learn judgment at school which was "lost area.”All this things come from philosophy, when we ask for reason it is a philosophical question. For example, "Why is he a hero?”, “He is brave.” "Why is he brave?" Which is philosophical conceptualization? Every day life gives us some questions and concepts like: love, freedom and philosophy gives us answers to those question so without philosophy we cannot have happy life. In reality of Korean education system there is no independent class for philosophy. So philosophy can be taught in Korean language classes or social studies. I started using P4C program from Lipman: I taught students making questions or making stories. These exercising result was remarkable and amazing. So questions are thebeginning of discovering new knowledge. Even if the knowledge is known by other people students can enjoy the process of discovering new knowledge. They could also get thinking skills.
30. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Isabelle Sabau Session – Philosophy of Education Emerging Pedagogies, Enabling Technologies
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The exponential growth of digital and communication technologies coupled with the rising need for continuing education have resulted in a proliferation of distance learning opportunities on a global scale. The most common and preferred option for the delivery of flexible education is online learning which relies oncomputers and the Internet to enable collaboration, participation and instruction. This new modality of learning requires novel pedagogical approaches and the seamless and transparent integration of technology. This paper proposes to discuss the emerging pedagogical underpinnings and their connection to thetechnologies that enable anytime, anywhere educational participation.
31. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Kanit (Mitinunwong) Sirichan Thinking Critically as an Examination of Thoughts
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In introducing a course on critical thinking or reasoning, many emphasize the philosophical background of the idea of critical thinking, that is, the Socratic motto: “life without examination is not worth living”. It is actually right to do so, because critical thinking is basically the activity of doing philosophy. However, in manyuniversities, the course on critical thinking is taught mainly as a basic course for first year undergraduates who may not go on to major in philosophy. Beside the fact that critical thinking as an activity of doing philosophy provides a good tool for arguing about any subjects, there is a political agenda in making the course a requisite one for non-philosophy students, that is, the ability to think critically is a desirable property for being a “good citizen” in a democratic society. Underlying this idea is the model of rational man in the age of Enlightenment. Putting aside the controversy over the notion of rationality, my question is what exactly is the activity called critical thinking or reasoning, and then on such understanding, what should be the right direction in teaching critical thinking. My answer is that critical thinking is an examination of thoughts because reasoning is rule-governed. However, grasping a thought requires the idea of an agency. Hence, the main aim of teaching critical thinking is not to get just a technician game kids, rather it is to reveal the possibility of being a philosophical mindfulness person. Thepaper consists of three main parts. The first part concerns the idea that critical thinking is an examination of thoughts. Thoughts are inferentially structured and are constrained by truth. This means that thought content are conceptual – reasoning is inherently logical or rule-governed. The second part considers the connection of content of thoughts, truth and thinkers. An individuation of thought content is by object of thoughts. The idea of object of thoughts involves the idea of truth which is perspectival. Therefore, to understand what truth is requires an idea of agency, the one who grasps thoughts. In the last part, I then propose that the rightdirection in teaching critical thinking is to accommodate an independent ability to see the world aright.
32. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Son Dong-Huyn New Trends in University Education and Philosophy Education in Korea
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The gist of this paper is to closely examine the actual demands of the students under the education of philosophy, and execute such a philosophy education as to meet the demands, so that any plan of securing the proper status of philosophy education in the university society might be made. While it says that the philosophy education should be newly programmed, such a new programming cannot be talked about without considering the new trends or framework in the university education on the whole, which is called the “convergence education.” In case the convergence education is highlighted more intensively, the significance of the philosophy education becomes prominent more and more, and this is very encouraging thereto.
33. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Flavia Stara Reading William James: Educating for Moral Insight and Values
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This paper reconstructs the concept of the «feeling» elaborated by William James in the text The Varieties of Religious Experience: a study in human nature as a mean towards a moral education. The analysis of the feeling expecially the religious one is structurally connected, in this writing of James, not only with thebiographical problem of the conscience and the knowledge of the self, but also with the strategically wider issue, of «a study of the human nature». The analysis of the experience conducted from the pragmatist perspective allows us to specify the pedagogical function of the «spiritual feeling» in the path of consciousness of the subject: the faith, in fact, seen in its operative dynamic, increases the experimental conviction that the world can improve and it prepares in such way to raise and to invigorate the relationship with the life. In such perspective it is underlined the «therapeutic» function of moral emotions for the existence in general, and their specific impact on the process of formation and behavior of the human being.
34. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Charles C. Verharen A Philosophy Curriculum for Universalized University Education: A Cuban Model
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Focusing on philosophy’s roles in problem solving, this essay proposes a philosophy curriculum for a university “universalized” according to a Cuban model. This model arises from Fidel Castro Ruz’s “dream” that the Cuban nation itself should become a university for its people. The paper’s immediate stimulus was aVenezuelan paper on rural universalized universities at the Havana conference on university education, Universidad 2008. What should be the place of philosophy in a university curriculum for rural students? In the idiom of Richard Rorty, philosophy is the collection of stories we tell ourselves for guidance through life. Philosophy’s critical function is to generate new stories when old ones fail to solve the problems that gave birth to them. The essay’s three parts address three levels of generality in philosophical reflection. The most general philosophical theories, such as Marxism or pragmatism, offer wholesale guidelines for life. More specific theories direct the practices of narrow subjects, such as physics, psychology, or economics. The most specific theories focus on the nexus of theoryand practice in solving life’s most concrete problems. The essay advocates a philosophy curriculum that contrasts students’ current philosophies with alternatives from the history of thought. Students absorb philosophies from the cultures in which they are raised. When students understand the accidental nature of their guiding thoughts, they are motivated to reflect critically on historical alternatives. When students study how to solve their problems using more specific disciplines like the arts and sciences, the history of the philosophies of those subjects will help them understand their freedom to choose among alternative solutions. When students reflect on the daily problems they must solve, attention to the connections of theory and practice can amplify their range of choices.
35. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Vlasova Svetlana V Adequate Presentation of Science Values in Educational Process
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The different manifestations of negative relations to science exist in modern society that is revealed in broad spreading of antiscientific knowledge, fall the prestige of the fundamental science, reduction the interest youth to naturally-scientific education, reduction naturally-scientific component of school and highereducation. The search of the ways, allowing form the adequate attitude pupils to science in process of the education, is actual for getting over these trends. It means that the complex of values, which can be connected with a science, must be revealed, and then these ideas should find the embodiment in educational practice. In paper it is shown that for forming adequate relations pupils to science and scientific picture of the world it is necessary in training to attract attention to value of the science and scientific picture of the world. Analysis of values connecting with science, including scientific picture of the world, is executed in these paper.
36. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Yusef Waghid Towards a Philosophy of Islamic Education
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In this essay, I shall explore some of the constitutive features associated with a philosophy of Islamic education. Firstly, I argue that the rationale of Islamic education is to engender a good person – a person of virtue who has the capacity to enact justice to everyone wherever he or she might be. Secondly, I shall show how such a form of universal justice can be achieved through the acts of ummah (communal engagement), shūrā (public deliberation) and jihād (just striving, including the recognition of the rights of others).
37. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Gerd Gerhardt Zum Begriff und zur Ordnung von Werten, Normen und Tugenden
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On Concept and Order of Values, Norms and Virtues Based on the well known change of values during the last 30 years and the alleged necessity of values education the concept of value will be distinguished from the concepts of norm and virtue. Then a list of values, norms and virtues is presented - tabulated according several spheres of life. This overview provokes the question, what the fundamental and essential in this order is.
38. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Fidel Gutiérrez Vivanco La Formación Universal del Ser Humano
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El objetivo de la educación es la formación universal del ser humano. ¿Qué significa la formación universal del ser humano? Significa su máxima realización. Esta máxima realización hace posible la reproducción de los valores universales por medio de la educación garantizando la continuidad de la especie humana. Esta tarea de la educación se ve truncado en el hombre moderno por el paradigma fragmentario de formación unilateral. Esta formación unilateral es la causa de la fragmentación espiritual del individuo que se refleja en la crisis existencial y de valores. El predominio de los antivalores en la sociedad conduce a la involución espiritual del individuo y, en consecuencia, a la destrucción de la sociedad. Ante este problema global, surge la necesidad de replantear el objetivode la educación sobre nuevas bases ontológicas que comprende la naturaleza y esencia del hombre, y los principios universales.
articles in russian
39. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
В.М. Кондратьев Education in the Epoch of Changes
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The epoch of changes is characterized as an epoch of structural changes in society and education is a process of getting realized independence in exploring the space and time in his life. In the center is a mechanism of influence of social changes in the quality of system of education as a system phenomen. The basicelements of educational system are educational, productional and leisure activity. The characteristic feature of out present life is the accordance of rational and irrational in our life. The Internet PR, advertising influences on the strengthening of irrational in the life of society Rational beginning in limited by productive sphere. Changes in the content and methods of education at school and high educational establishments leads to the shortening of reflexive knowledge as a result we see the descries of degree of self dependence of students, workers and citizens’. Russia is in need of the development of new educational strategies.
40. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Куренкова Римма Аркадьевна Phenomenology of Education: Up-to-date Dialogue between Philosophy and Pedagogics
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In the report phenomenological ideas of the dialogue between philosophy and pedagogics of today are being considered. The status-modes and types of linking between phenomenology and practice of education and up-bringing, socio-cultural and axiological problems of modern education. Its philosophical and anthropological essence, cognition and gnosiological aspects of the process of education and up-bringing are shown. Fundamental concepts of phenomenology such as “experience”, “intentionality”, “horizons of mentality”, “emotion”, “phenomenological reduction”, “intersubjectivity”, “the world of vitality” and others are interpreted from the pedagogical point of view. Category-conceptional system including “methodology of education”, “paideutics”, ”aesthesis”, “ideatics”, “locus of reflection” as well as the principles of the phenomenology of education – “unity of all living”, “individual genesis of life”, “self-individualization” and “cognition creativity” – get their formulation. Innovatory methods of teaching sociohumanities and art-aesthetical disciplines are set forth in the report.