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Displaying: 21-35 of 35 documents

articles in english
21. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Yunus Tuncel Crime and Punishment: The Problem of the Power of Normalization in Nietzsche and Foucault
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In this paper, I will approach the problem of normalization within the context of crime and punishment in Nietzsche and Foucault. In modern theory and law, a linear, causal relationship has been established between crime and punishment with no regard to the socio-cultural context in which crimes and punishments take place. It was not until the nineteenth century that the problems of this relationship were exposed most notably by Dostoyevsky in fiction and later by Nietzsche in his theoretical writings (the essays) and in his introspective reflections (the aphorisms). Although, according to Foucault, the reformists of penal institutions around the turn to the nineteenth century expanded the domain of crime and punishment to other areas and social contexts, they too were not radical enough tounderstand the problem of crime and punishment in-depth and were not, therefore, capable of exposing them as a syndrome that is deeply rooted in the Occidental world-interpretation, its values and institutions. What I would like to show in this paper is how the syndrome of crime and punishment in the West is intricately tied to, what Nietzsche calls, the morality of good and evil (the slave morality, its absolute truth, and its normalizing trend and power) and how Foucault transplants the Nietzschean critical project to its institutional context. Despite agreements and continuities between the two thinkers, no doubt their differences toowill come to surface in this study.
22. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Wang Keping The Theory of Art as Sedimentation
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For so long a time it has been getting increasingly formidable, if not possible, to define art in general ever since the advent of the so-called “found art” or “ready-mades” of Marcel Duchamp and Andy Warhol, among other avant-garde or pop artists. But this does not have too much constraint over some philosophers who have made persistent attempts in this regard. What have turned out to be considerably influential are the “artworld” framed by Arthur C. Danto and the “institutional theory” proposed by George Dickie. Nevertheless, Li Zehou, a contemporary Chinese philosopher, argues that the two theories aforementioned are not self-sufficient and convincing enough. For they could not well explicate the distinction between art and non-art, not to speak of the difference between artworks as artifacts and those as aesthetic objects. He then continues to treat art as sedimentation from an anthropo-historical viewpoint peculiar of his practical aesthetics (shijian meixue). His argument is underlined by a transcultural approach that is deployed to expand the intellectual horizon and consequently bear the theoretical fruit.
23. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Johannes Weiss Humankind as such or An End of Culture
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What is termed today globalisation or, in French, mondialisation, and viewed very sceptically, in many cases also sharply criticized and even rejected, has neither descended over humanity like a natural catastrophe nor is it the unintentional evil of irreproachable good intentions. It is, rather, at its core at any rate, exactly what the so-called „project of modernity“ wanted and aimed at from the very beginning, and what has been worked out, propagated and put into practice particularly in the area of the European-American enlightenment, in the systems of ideas that followed and socio-cultural and political movements connected with it. And yet the intellectual and political Protagonists of the said project would be taken aback if they were to see what has become of it. After sufficient reflection and analysis, however, they would have to realize that it had to lead to this, at least by and large. In my paper I intend to show this and back it up.
24. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
S.E. Yachin Culture of Gift as Alternative To Risks of Cultural Globalization
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The basic risk for culture in conditions of globalization consists in full submission of its existence to economic (market) rules. The masscult deprived a variety - a product of such submission. But a source of creative development was and there is a cultural variety. Domination of a masscult leads to decrease in creative potential of the person and a society. Becoming of metaculture as culture of gift of a modern society represents alternative as to principles of a masscult, and ideas of multiculturalism and tolerance. The principle of tolerance is a recognition of powerlessness to involve cultures in productive dialogue, de-facto it is recognition of the established cultural barriers. The culture of gift (metaculture) is based on following principles: 1) reflexivity, 2) ethicness, 3) positive role ofOtherness, 4) the sacrifice of an autonomy to (accept of gift), 5) new cultural-historical type of rationality is focused not on things, but on events, 6) more easy approach to products of cultural creativity and in this direction - alternative to deadlocks of protection to intellectual property (copyright). Development of metaculture corresponds to principles of a symbolical exchange and «copyleft».
articles in french
25. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Serge Cantin L’universalité de la théorie dumontienne de la culture
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L’année 2007 marquait le dixième anniversaire de la mort du grand sociologue québécois Fernand Dumont (1927-1997), qui était aussi, et par‐dessus tout, philosophe, mais également théologien et poète. Au cours de ces dix années, le prestige attaché à sa pensée et à son oeuvre n’a cessé de grandir, comme en témoigne la récente publication de ses oeuvres complètes en cinq volumes aux Presses de l’Université Laval (Québec). Dans cette communication, nous ferons ressortir l'universalité de la théorie dumontienne de la culture et sa valeur heuristique eu égard aux problèmes de notre temps. Telle que nous la concevons – dans une perspective qui s’inspire largement de l’herméneutique contemporaine – l’universalité est toujours singulière en ce sens qu’elle ne peut être scindéed’une expérience de culture, en l’occurrence celle de l'« émigration » ou du déracinement, que Dumont a subie comme un véritable « traumatisme » mais à laquelle il a cherché en même temps à répondre, en édifiant une théorie universelle de « la culture comme distance et mémoire » dont il a exposé le cadre général dans son oeuvre maîtresse parue en 1968, Le Lieu de l’homme.
26. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Gabriela Vasilescu La communication dans les espaces multiculturels: Communicating in Multicultural Framework
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L’évolution du processus de communication met en attention un concept qui permet une analyse plurivalente sur les espaces multiculturels – la culture communicationnelle. Ce concept rend possible le déchiffrage des relations entre ethos, logos et pathos, contient l’échange d’information obtenue par un message dans un contexte qui libère le processus communicationnel des barrières nationales. La culture communicationnelle est une résultante du processus de globalisation, entraînant les acteurs sociaux vers de nouvelles coordonnées axiologique par l’internationalisation des économies et des cultures. Au neveu global, on observe l’apparition de nouveaux standards éthiques dont les actants de la communication ont besoin au moment du passage au-delà des espaces culturels nationaux. La communication joint d’un caractère bivalent étant un instrument d’émancipation de l’individu mais aussi le moyen de contrôle des autorités économiques et politiques par l’impôt de certains modelés de comportement et de certaines représentations sociales
articles in german
27. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Eiji Makino Kulturphilosophe und die Kritik der gefühlsreichen Vernunft
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This discourse aims to consider the relationship between culture and emotion in light of cultural philosophy by analyzing the sublime emotion,which is an emotional expression of human beings. Firstly,consideration will be given to the necessity of analyzing the sublime emotion in terms of the cultural,social and political aspects of present-day Japan. Secondly, the double-barreled characteristics of the sublime emotion, which have been lost amidst the globalizing trends of the day, will be clarified. In this regard, in particular, I would like to shed light on the relationship between the sublime emotion and the critique of postcolonial reason. Thirdly, through these considerations, the fact that the sublime emotion has diverse functions in its historical and social contexts will be elucidated. I will first examine the negative meaning of the sublime emotion throught a critique of emotional reason, and then focus my attention to the positive meaning of the sublime emotion with the aim of considering the relationships between conditions of sublime potential and others. Fourthly, efforts will be made to pursure the method of reconciliation between the universalisitic, essentialist statements and the relativistic, constructivist statements, using the critique of emotional reason. In conclusion, I will elaborate on the sublime and critical functions based on emotional reason from a pluralistic standpoint.
articles in russian
28. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Olga Afanasyeva Spiritual Culture and National Self-Identification as Major Factors in Overcoming Crisis in Russia
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Liberal-Democratic changes in the Russian Society have brought a number of acute problems threatening national security and leading to converting Russia into a peripheral socio-cultural system («national self-identification crisis»). Scientific research shows that the main indicator of the said crisis is not only the critical economic differentiation of people into the «poor» and «rich» Russia (with the different ways of life, needs, mentality) but also spiritual degradation, spread of aggressive – depressive syndrome (growth of hatred, feeling of injustice, loss of meaning of the life, anger, melancholy, hopelessness, loneliness etc.). Twothirds of the citizens (74.9%) interviewed in 2006 think that their social status does not correspond to their personal achievements in education and professional abilities. One of the main reasons of their distrust towards the government bodies is insufficient professional and cultural level, absence of unity of a word and business. It is worth mentioning that books and articles of scientists and ideologists who resist Western liberalism are freely published, but you can hardly see these people close to the President. Russians are openly and secretly under pressure of ideas propagandizing negative past which undermine national self-identification, national pride for the great history of their country. The original sphere of influence of Russian language and Russian culture is shortening under the press of mass-culture. Meanwhile, 67% of Russians expressed their negative attitude towards massive Western cultural expansion. The Futureof Russia is in safeguarding national intellectual and spiritual values, Science, education and in supporting the person of work and creativity.
29. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Pavel Chelyshev Кризис обыденного сознания в современном мире
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Ordinary consciousness is viewed as a variety of practically spiritual attitude to life, as an element of socially-transformational activity in its various manifestations as characteristics of life itself as syncretic phenomenon, performing a function of integral reality mastering on a level of everyday life. Direct contact with life, a pragmatic mood and practical orientation of ordinary consciousness clear up its ontological status and make it possible to speak about its eternal role in the social and private life of man; about relative independence concerning specialized forms and levels of social consciousness, which came out of the ordinaryconsciousness and later separated from it. In the XX century the stake of society on pragmatism of ordinary consciousness while increasing the supremacy of utilitarian relations above human relations (a man becomes one of the material things) against a background of globalization and postmodernism led culture to the spiritual crisis, into the oblivion of spiritual values by contemporary man. Of course, globalization brings a number of advantages creating a sense of identity all over the world. It lowers trade barriers, shipping costs, telecommunication and computing costs, improves communication among peoples. However, there is debate about whether the power of international capital and the supposed homogenization of taste worldwide are good things or not. Globalization imposes a common standard of living on states and peoples, which belittles their cultural and national originality. Such a standard of living (mainly founded on principles of practicism) hinders mankind’s and man’s development. For the collective life is dialectical unity of diversity. The world must be smile and multipolar simultaneously. Unstable equilibrium between the whole and its parts leads to spiritual crisis. The social production of «useful» man closed up practically the possibility of bringing up man as the personality. That is why it so important today to recognize the necessity and possibility of moral and spiritually–religioustransformation of ordinary consciousness. The Eastern Wonder of the XX century (the South Korea, China and Japan) in the sphere of economics is based on the synthesis of national and human laws of being.
30. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Larisa Dmitrieva «Сакральное-профанное» в контексте современной визуальной культуры
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1. An abundance of profane images in the modern culture is a result of penetration of some carnival elements in the culture in general. 2. Christian culture is playing a role of mental basis for European civilization that is why we perceive the images of the modern advertisement as antisacral. 3. In fact, the advertising images are not profane only; they are significantly sacralized. 4. The fact that the advertising images can be both sacral and profane is connected with the lack of basic binary oppositions in the modern culture. 5. The lack of basic oppositions engenders a parody as a most relevant creative technique 6. The fact that anti-sacral images are sacralized in the modern advertisement can be regarded both as the real sacralization and as the parody of the similar cultural situation, where the objective reality has the status of product category.
31. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Vardan Torosyan Судьба философии в мире XXI века или мира без философии?
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“Philosophy has been criticized during the 25 centuries of its existence, - Yurgen Habermas has noticed, - but the fact that it is still alive means that it is as usual necessary. How long?” In different historical periods claims to philosophy concerned to the fact, that it couldn’t manage to accomplish its task – to help mankind to find the way to the fair society, to the world without wars and (according to Marx) from “mankind prehistory” to its “true history”. During the XIXth century, and especially during the XXth century, it had become obvious impossibility of idea, “been acceptable for everyone”, and the danger of totalitarian indoctrination of any “truth”. However statement of truth pluralism has resulted in post-modernistic disavowal from the notion of truth. In the modern pragmatic world, where “that is true, what is useful”, anxiety and warning of philosophers annoy, rather than make fall to thinking. But the great danger is represented not because of philistine indifference to philosophy, but because of the fact, that philosophers often surrender, speaking about “death of philosophy”. The novaday’s philosopher shouldbe concerned not about the fate of philosophy in the world of the XXIst century, but by the world fate without philosophy.
articles in chinese
32. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Ziyi Feng 全球化条件下的民族文化发展
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In view of previous discussions about national culture were limited in the framework of “traditional-modern”, this essay attempts to re-exam this framework in a wider field of “globalization-nationalization”, and treats the development of national culture under the condition of globalization. Since globalization has become an important background and inner essential factor, no matter maintenance, inheritance, accumulation or development of culture cannot be separated fromglobalization, the new frame of reference. Under the condition of globalization, development of culture has its own new characteristics and inner logic, so development of national culture has to be advanced on basis of following these points and law. If a developing country wants to advance the development of national culture, it has to raise cultural consciousness, adjust cultural mind, strengthen cultural transform, and push cultural conformity and innovation.
33. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Yan Yin 论个体自我认同危机
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Self-identity of Individual-subject is evaluative knowledge and factive confirmation on basic of an evaluative knowledge on “who am I”. Crisis of Self-identity of Individual-subject is a extremely stern reality which Individual-subject is confronted with in modern sociality. The paper researches the essence of self-identity of individual-subject, and analyzes the characteristics and reasons of crisis of self-identity of individual-subject from the point of view of theory of evaluation. The paper hold that crisis of self-identity of individual-subject is a difficult position of self-evaluation of individual-subject in modern sociality, and arrives at conclusion that crisis of self-identity of individual-subject can be overcome and prevented by modeling positive self and building a reasonable mechanism of self-evaluation of individual-subject.
34. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Yan Zhao On Transformation of Historical Forms of Globalization
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As an objective tendency in social development, globalization has experienced three different historical forms. They are globalization as communication survival purposes, globalization for capital expansion and globalization in amalgamation of cultures. The thesis point out that globalization does not equally mean capitalization. The capital expansion, however, is only one of the forms of globalization process. In the era of the new globalization, both the developed and the developing countries have to coordinate and make active and positive use of the favorite conditions as well as opportunities for further development. The developed and developing countries must learn to respect each other and open up more channels of communication to understand each other better in an effort to better serve their own interests and create a win-win situation despite of their different cultures and stages of development. This is the only way to bring about harmonious coexistence for peoples of various countries around the world.
articles in korean
35. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Myeong-jin Nam A Study on Dongyi (東夷) culture′s Origin of Yi (易) Philosophy
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The oriental culture has generally been known to bloom in China in regional framework, and established the form of a country in ancient times, and continuously develop as Yu (虞) / Xia (夏) / Yin (殷) [Shang=商] / Zhou (周) in periodical framework. There are several documents to discover the origin along with archaeological and cultural configuration related to prehistory tales or the history of tribal settlement in ancient times. Unfortunately, however, there were few outputs that unveiled the original source in cultural or theoretical angles. Generally, a certain race and a local culture can be a good resource to be considered, the base of ideology, and further, the root of philosophy in a country. It can be found that, in comparison with pre-history legends and archaeological research results, the source of Chinese philosophy is mainly composed of exterior cultures from foreign settlers rather than its own one. In short, it is possible to setup the preposition or hypothesis that the source of Chinese philosophy and thoughts was not from Han (漢) race, but from old Dongyi (東夷) race. Thus, it is necessary to study deeply on that point as a key clue, linking the characteristics of Zhouyi (周易) philosophy' which is the origin of Chinese philosophy to Dongyi culture. As mentioned in the passages above, it was demonstrated that the fundamental issue of Yi philosophy lies in the principle of time operation in Tiantao (天道), and the formulation of Yi philosophy, and through the analysis of fourteen saints in the process of review of Shengtong, (聖統) the stream of old saints by the principle of Lishu (曆數) more than half of saints were from Dongyi family. In addition, the historical fact that the Dongyi tribe had raised the Yin (Shang) culturewhich mainly formed the base of Chinese cultures as a ancient dynasty shows the deep relation between Zhouyi and the Dongyi culture, and further, it seems that the relation was from the tribe's realization of the principle of time operation of Heaven which had been accumulated for a long time as the culture of agricultural settlement, the conceptual characteristics in the Dongyi culture, and it can be found that the cultural characteristics are in connection with Yi philosophy which considers the principle of time operation in Tiantao as the fundamental ground. It also can be detected that they have connection with the original meaning ofseveral concepts in Yixue (易學) and the culture which emphasize the bottom line of the nature of time. This study focused on questioning issues of these findings as a preliminary research in order to prepare for the formal works which will scrutinize the details of circumstances. In brief, the fact that the fundamental issue of Yi philosophy which is the source of Chinese philosophy lies in the nature of time in the operation of Tiantao should be demonstrated, and the matter that the root was from the Dongyi family who had lived in the north-eastern area in the ancient period and had raised the culture which stressed the principle of time operation as the agricultural settlement culture, and moved to the central area of old China should be unveiled through the trace, which, in the future, might be able to enlighten roots of thoughts in Chinese philosophy in the right course, and make them realize that the work process which is being operated in the north-eastern part would be of no use in the after all.