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articles in english
21. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Mark Vasilyevich Zhelnov Rethinking Death as Ontological Basis of Authority in the XXI Century
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articles in russian
22. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Anatoly N. Arlychev Проблема материального начала мира в философии и науке
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The author of the paper ascertains that in the treatment of material beginning of the world two opposed methods of approach had grown up: qualitative and quantitative ones. The first can be traced back to Miletus school. The other goes to Pythagorean philosophy. The qualitative treatment (Aristotelian one in the main) predominated from the fourth century B.C. to early XVII A.D. But from the second part of the XVII age and right up to our days the quantitative approach plays prevalent role not in philosophy only, but also in exact natural sciences. The author supposes that these two approaches don’t exclude, but compensate each other, and no one of them should dominate. Both methods can resolve own epistemological tasks. Unfortunately, from I.Newton, quantitative approach has prevailed in natural sciences. Ignoring qualitative method, scientists (especially of nowodays) try to resolve the epistemological problems of cognition natural phenomena with its help. As a result arbitrary formal mathematical theories come into existence. Such conceptions create only semblance of resolution theproblem. Among them the author reckons for example the Large Burst theory, based on the model of enlarging universe and also the theory of planetary model of atom.In the paper author refers to his own scholarly works, where he proposes by the way alternative conception evolution of universe.
23. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Метлов В.И. Онтология, Гносеология, Историзм
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The idea of evolution introducing a temporal parameter in the characteristics of the objects of nearly all the branches of the contemporary scientific researches and by this way involving them in a historical movement is confronted with a necessity of the correct definition of the thing submitted to evolutionary process combining substantial and dynamical aspects. In the searches of a solution of this problem one can not count on the history of society, all the more so as in this domain the problem of characteristic of its object is of the same acuteness as in the others domains. In fact, we are facing now a sort of crisis of the idea of the historicism reduced finally to the crisis of the thingness (M. Heidegger), and its expression is quite identical both in the natural and the social sciences. Difficulties of the more general order which are at the basis of that crisis can be described as the difficulties of a conceptualization of the totality and the movement. On the most general level they are presented as two kinds of metaphysics – the metaphysics of substance and the metaphysics of becoming (A.N. Whitehead). G.W.F. Hegel can be mentioned as one who indicated the general way to eliminate (sublate) the difficulties: the forming the concepts capable to support the contradictions, to sublate (aufheben) the antinomies. In the evolutionary biology this kind of solution is given by the notion of species enriched by the results of the genetics (Chetverikov S.S.), in social sciences - by the socio-economical formation (K. Marx).
24. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Gennady Mezentsev Природа кризисных явлений в основаниях современной философии и пути их преодоления
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This article is devoted to the crisis of the modern philosophy caused by the generally accepted approach towards the ontology issues of existence and the ways to solve these problems. Before Kant’s theory the fundamental principle of the universe organization in the ontology was the determination of the existence as the number of objects that were independent from the subject and explored as they were. Kant showed then that the subject deals only with the images of its own conscience. The existence became not the thing-initself, but the thing, that opens to the human mind. But this experience gave no answer to the question about the differences between the immanent perceptions of conscience and the universe itself. This article reveals that the transition from the understandingof things as independent existing objects toward the understanding of their subjective origin as objects themselves demands more radical conclusions. These conclusions consist of that fact that the ontology should concentrate more exploring existence as the unformed organic whole and not to forget about its general problems and presentations about the conscience. Currently we can get nonverbal knowledge about the existence itself and take steps of getting verbal one. Separation of the existence as the unformed organic whole from the presentations of conscience prevents from mistake of determining the things created by the subject in the process of universe perception as its attributes (the plurality of interpretations turns into the ontology pluralism).
25. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Невелев Анатолий Борисович Бытие человека: единство предметности и энергийности
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Культура, представляя собой систематически воспроизводимую форму отношения человека и мира, делает их предметными. Поскольку человек ‐ захваченное миром, желающее существо, постольку и энергия (деятельная способность) его желания также предметна. Предметность иэнергийность бытия человека в их взаимодействии определяют качество его персональной идентичности. Четыре слоя предметного бытия человека задают соответствующее строение его персональной идентичности.
26. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Nadezda Rodnova Онтологическое Изучение Этнокультурных Противоречий
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Noting that among the changes wrought by globalization is a constantly accelerated influx of new knowledge and information. The majority of this information remains poorly analyzed, is not clearly understood, and is often unused. The author believes that, apparently, mankind is entering a new epoch of inevitability ofthinking by essences, instead of particulars, i.e. to an epoch of ontological thinking. In work, proceeding from a possibility of synthetic judgements a priori, the author considers ethnocultural contradictions with the help of a technique of ontological knowledge, i.e. aprioristic synthesis. Ethnocultural relations are considered by the author as a component of the general global process of various mutual relations in their historical development. Using a method of ontologic synthesis, the author synthesizes three essences: ● morals, as essence of accumulation of experience; ● the natural right, as essence of comprehension of experience; ● the legal right, as essence of application of experience. Morals is only the precondition for the growth of human mentality; firstly, from morals up to the natural right, and then to constitutional, legal and other laws. Interethnic contradictions arise not on the basis of ethnocultural, religious and confessional distinctions, but on absence of a legislative foundation for harmonization of interstate and international life. With a view of sustainable development, the main strategic priorities of modern activities should be the development of scientifically proved laws and the effective monitoring system of their performance.
27. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Alexander Vasilyev Phenomenology of the Body: To the Statement of the Question
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28. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Pavel Veklenko Ситуация как бытие конкретное
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The paper «Situation as concrete entity» dedicated to ontological opposition of abstract being and concrete being. Main idea of this paper – situation as concrete being was rejected, ignored by philosophic and religious systems for thousands of years, because situation was associated with false being, being of things (Plato), life distress, illusion (Hinduism, Buddhism). But culture of XX century includes «reanimation» of situation as concrete being by existentialphilosophy and modern art, and now we can speak about new approach to problem of human being, practice and cognition – situative method. This approach has high humanitarian potential and wide perspectives of development.
29. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Марк Васильевич Желнов Переосмысливание Смерти как онтологической основы Власти в ХХI веке
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Профессор кафедры Философии для естественных факультетов Философского факультета Московского Государственного Университета им. М.В.Ломоносова, Россия 1. Представления о субъективном характере Власти «этого человека» «теперь-и-здесь», а тем более властных структурГосударства, являются Иллюзиями. К концу ХХ века, при стремлении «схватить» растворённое в субъективном объективное (и наоборот), возникает потребность переосмыслить Субъективно-Объективный характер «онтологической основы Власти», и, соответственно, понимание онтологичности Смерти как Объективно-Субъективного процесса, а также различное понимание сути и роли диапазона «от Рождения-Жизни к Смерти» для «этого человека» «теперь-и-здесь». 2. В XXI веке складывается ситуация, когда оказывается возможным как бы возврат кисторически предшествующему ходу мысли: «от Смерти к Жизни-Рождению». "Смерть как Жизнь", а не "Жизнь как Смерть". 3. В пределах противостояния идеологии христианства и радикального исламизма, в ХХI веке, возникла потребность в переосмысливании соотношения «Власти как онтологической основы Смерти» и «Смерти как онтологической основы Власти». В частности, о возможном как бы «превалировании», надостаточно больших этапов времени, одной из сторон или их относительной «паритетности».4. В рамках исламских конфессий появились течения, которые культивируют понимание Смерти как онтологической основы Власти» как бы «в перевернутом виде». Сознательно идущие на массовуюсмерть террористы, видят в ней средство позволяющее, в соответствии с предполагаемыми идеалами, подтолкнуть общество к установлению иной власти. Более резко проявилась исходная двойственность фанатической фаталистичности авраамических религиозных конфессий, особенно ислама. 5. На сегодняшний день лишь в теории Смерть могла бы перестать быть онтологической основой власти, если господствующейстала бы другая онтологическая основа Власти – «чисто духовная Идея». Мир прежней Власти в той или иной степени оказался бы против неё бессилен. XXI век даёт примеры соответствующих «больших флуктуаций», но изменить «онто» он не в состоянии. Источником глобальных изменений и катастроф является «этот человек» «теперь-и-здесь» как специфическая "искусственная природа", изменить искусственность которой нельзя, не уничтожив самого человека. XXI век требует переосмысление реальных интенций действий людей, оказавшихся "вывернутыми наизнанку", а также существенно преобразующихся «предмета Философии» и собственно «Философствования».
articles in chinese
30. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
DongKai Li 本体就是矛盾对立统一体
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From the very beginning of Philosophy. The Onto was just the target object of human’s thinking. Aristotle ever demonstrated that the Onto is a pure format being. (本体是纯 形式体) Then, what is this Onto? What is this pure format being? I present an answer in my this paper. If an object could exist independently, then, I call it “ZHUTI”(主体); If a “ZHUTI” could be felt , then, I call it “SHITI”(实体), such as the stone, the tree; If a “ZHUTI” could not be felt , then, I call it “XUTI”(虚体), such as the law ,the rule in the nature.“SHITI” or “XUTI” is the special being of the Onto. Refers to the Onto, its attribute is the common attribute of all the “ZHUTI”. Weknow the movement is the common attribute of all the “ZHUTI”. Then, we could say the movement is also the attribute of the Onto. From where the movement come? Besides from external, the movement come from the contradiction inside the “zhuti”, for a pair of contradiction units within a same “zhuti” could produce the force for the movement. The Onto move of course by its inside force. So, in the Onto there should be a pair of contradiction units which produce the force. Nothing could dominate the Onto. So, the pair of contradiction units in the Onto should be not another “zhuti”, but the Onto itself. This means the pair ofcontradiction units in the Onto is the Onto itself. So, the Onto is just that uniform contradiction being. It is there independently, but can not felt, so, it is “XUTI”. In the word of Aristotle, it is the pure format being(纯形式体)。The uniform contradiction being is the Onto. The Onto is the uniform contradiction being. Any “zhuti” is a kind of special uniform contradiction being body. Human, is also a kind of special uniform contradiction being body. Then, what is the uniform contradiction being body in human? This is another topic for further study. As per above answer of the Onto, we could get the way to find out what is the uniform contradiction being body in human, after we find out this answer, then, we could find out all the knowledge about the human being. These study, in fact, is already just the study ofOntology and Cognition. Here are several key words and the define in this paper: “ZHUTI” (主体) “SHITI” (实体) “XUTI” (虚体)*** “BENTI” (本体)
31. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
DongKai Li 本体论在古中国和古希腊分别是怎样开始的
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From the beginning of human, human’s thinking about the nature object begun refers to the root basis of everything, the people in all the parts of the world , from the far far old time, begun their thinking. In old Greece, there are theory or understanding about the Onto produced by many famous person with big name such as THALES, ANAKSIMANDROS, PUTHAGORAS, HERAKLEITOS. By Herakleitos, the understanding of the onto in Greece got a very good step. While in China, almost at the same age as Herakleitos, China’s understanding about the onto, was standing at almost equivalent level with that in Greece. In China, this theory is called “Yin-Yang, Wu Hang”. “Yin-Yang” means the contrast mentioned by Herakleitos, the movement of the “Wu Hang" means the logic mentioned by Herakleitos. So, by time of Herakleitos, (about 5th. Century B.C.) Greece and China got almost same understanding level about the Onto. but, they are also different. China’s is the way of describe, imagery, while the greece’s is the explain and demonstrate by thinking, by logic. The way of imagery go around without development, but the way of logic could go on for the development. So, in China, theory of Onto stay at the imagery explain, in Greece and Europe latter, theory of Onto continue develop, gave birth to the Cognition, Science.
32. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Cheng Long On Ontology Being a Philosophy Tendency
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This paper tries to show that ontology is one of the important tendencies in the future philosophy. The author thinks that ontology as the basic spirit makes philosophy be different from other subjects. Ontology originates from people’s examination to essence of the world. However, ancient long-term argument couldn’t get any clear conclusion. So philosophers gradually understand that ontology is connected with epistemology. If we want to make a good explanation to ontology, we must return to check ourselves cognition. And the epistemology turns into the main stream of the philosophy Since Descartes. But this doesn’t mean ontology being disappeared. It only tends from the stage to background. In fact, the discussion of the linguistic philosophy still belongs to epistemology. As a whole, we can say philosophy really goes though one negative development. According to dialectic, negation of negation is a universal law. The philosophy has to undergo another inevasible reform and return to ontology again. Many contemporary philosophers have regarded this and begin to do it effectively.
33. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Yizhou Miao 事物本质的新认识
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Essence is an interesting and deep concept of the ontology. This paper argues that the essence of object is composed of three connected and different parts. The first is the feature of noumenon contained in the object, such as the mathematical content of the quality and structure of object. By revealing the content, man is able to know some fundamental features of object, and then easily find the orient of the object in the physical world. The second is the inner nature of object, especially the cardinal nature. It, keeping with the traditional cognition, indicates that thought probes deeply into the inner nature of object, and then knows allkinds of mechanisms and functions. The third refers to the relationship between one thing and another. By comprehending the relationship on macro‐ and whole stand, man can recognize the core mechanism of things. Based on above processes, metaphysically the whole knowledge on the essence of object has been finished. In addition the dialectical relations between universality and individuality, absolute idea and relativity are in need of comprehending in practice referring to the essence of things.
34. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Xuegong Yang 马克思哲学与存在论问题
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This paper begins with a discussion of the translations of the term “ontology” in Chinese language, and argues that its translation as “bentilun”(in Chinese PinYinorthography) can be supported by ample evidence from the history of doctrine and the tradition of Chinese culture. Therefore, It is necessary to keep this translation on condition that one distinguish strictly “ontology” as a branch of philosophy from “bentilun” as a special morphology of philosophical theory. Examining the history of metaphysics, this thesis draws a clear line of demarcation between “traditional ontology” and “modern ontology”, and reveals themain characteristics of traditional ontology. It holds that although the reformation of Marx’s Philosophy was realized through criticizing traditional ontology, his Philosophy did not abolish the concept of ontology as a branch of the discipline. The ontology of Marx’s philosophy is a theory that considers natural being, social being and human being as a unity. This theory emphasizes understanding the meaning of being from the perspective of a pattern. The main idea of ontology of Marx’s philosophy is that of a practical outlook and practical model of thinking. First, the concept of ontology and its translations would be reviewed. As regards itsderivation, we could find that Ontologie in German and in French both came from the word of Ontologia in Latin, which originated from the Greek. In the literal meaning of Greek,this word means the “logos” of “on”. In Greek, “on” corresponds to “being” in English. As to its signification, according to Heidegger, “on” has a twofold meaning that can signify both “being in general” and “the ground of being”. The former is close to essence while the latter to origin. From the angle ofhistory, Goclenius was the first one who used the term “Ontologia” in philosophy in 17th century. Since then this word was used and developed by subsequent philosophers. Although this term appeared in 17th century, yet its correlative questions had been studied from ancient Greece. The sticking point here is to pay attention to the demarcation between subject and theory. As a branch subject or as a universal noun, “Ontology” is counted in the historical tradition of western philosophy. Here all the problems discussed are public, but the concrete solutions and viewpoints are different. The former corresponds to the level of subject and the latter to the level of theory. These two levels must not be confused or substituted from one and other. That is, different ideas, schools and opinions could bebrought under the same problem. So it could be said that traditional ontology and modern ontology are two branches. Of course these two branches are very different in dealing with the problem of Ontology. This difference could be illustrated as following: (1) What to be→beings→substance —traditional ontology; (2) How to be→the mode of being→relation—modern ontology. Obviously both begin with the problem of being and end with Ontology, while their approaches are very different. The essential characteristic of traditional ontology is to seek the eternal substance, pursue the transcendent nature, establish the base of knowledge, and take the absolute truth as the ultimate telos. Traditional ontology ended with the critique of modern philosophy, Marxmade the crucial critique of traditional ontology in his remarks on Hegel’s philosophy. His critique of Hegel’s speculative method is actually the critique of traditional ontology although Marx himself never used the term of ontology explicitly in his new philosophy. Being in Marx’s philosophy is the real world of real beings. Concretely speaking, it is sensible world, objective world or human world that is integrated on the base of human praxis. The keystones here are natural being, social being and human being. There are some important similarities between Marx’s ontological approach and Heidegger’s ontology, that is, to understand the meaning of being through the mode and relation of being. In any case, the standpoint and thinking mode of praxis characterize the ontology of Marx’s philosophy.
35. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Haidng Yu 多重否定中的整体生成论
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There is no absolute essence in world (esp. it refers to the cosmos of modern hunman beings) The origin of world is also indefinite, which existing everying is possible. When it comes to our modern humancosmos material and spirit of place not two have a cent, constituted the basic antinomy of this world. Material and spirit can’t be separated with each other. In the layer after layer negation of whole have delicate born. Material and spirit are different he essence of the material is an objective system, the essence of the spirit is freely objective; The system is The system is a collection of the unity of opposites of materials the freedom is opposite to he appearance of system. The dialectics is a theory which can be applied to explain everything in the world. However, we should consider itself dialectly, and evolve a multiple and stereoscopic but not flexible philopsophical theory.
36. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Abraham HZ Zhang 真气哲学
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The peper like tone flowed through thoughts of Taoist, Confucian, Heidegger, Nietzsche, Spinoza, Goethe, Hegel, Marx, Rousseau, Sun Yat‐Sen, Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Kant, etc.. Not for pursuing a philosophy to combine cultures between Chinese and Western, but for return to the shared Spring of the Truetone. What is the Truetone? <Holy Bible> says: “God is Spirit.” The spirit of Hebraic is ruagh that means the Truetone of Tao, so it can be also translated as “God is the Truetone.” All things are controlled by both the invisible Truetone and conceittone with different purpose. The Truetone is for the Grace of life, but the conceittone is for destruction. The Truetone made the Spring, the Spring made the Word. The Trinity of the Truetone, Spring, and Word, makes all things. The characteristic of Chinese is invisible tone, the characteristic of Western philosophy is visible word. The paper trys to allow all beings to be released from the conceittone and return to the Grace of Jesus because He is the Spring of the Truetone, and then all persons can get the full graces in different cultures given by the Truetone.
37. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Li Zhi Ontological Ground of Fetish of Money
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Today, money takes an important role in our life, which is accompanied by a special mental phenomenon, i.e., fetish of money. Generally, this phenomenon occurs in modern society characterized by the money economy system. And this paper tries to give a systematic argument of fetish of money in order to uncover the ontological ground of it. It will be clarified in three parts. First, the reason why money and fetish of money are historically inevitable in history will be listed out and analyzed, through the discussion about the separation of individuality from sociality. Second, the ontological ground of fetish of money will be demonstratedbased on the argument of individual freedom in the way which history is considered identical with logic. This part will involve the analyses of the relationship between money and positive individual freedom, of the relationship between fetish of money and abstract individual freedom, and of mysteriousness of money and religiousness of fetish of money. Finally, there is an attempt to answer the question whether it is possible to overcome fetish of money.
articles in korean
38. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Yong Dock Kim 신의 존재, 실존 그리고 실재에 대하여
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There are three results in this study. First, redefinition of "Being". I've classified and redefined the concept of "being" into "Being", "Existence", "Reality" which have been used confusingly. And the definition of God has been also renewed. So we came to understand what "a triangle exists", "a sharp pencil exists", "the God exists" mean. Also I proved that the mean of "I will be who I will be" which is the name of God in Bible equals to the mean of almightiness. Second, trinitarianism. I proved that the essence of God does not belong to the "the world of idea" which the essence of triangle belongs to and also to the "the physical world" which the essence of sharp pencil belongs to. This is the same to physical rules like "E=mc²". And I refer to the world which includes "the God" and"physical rules" as "the world of causes". In this way, a view of world suggested in this study is not dualism but trinitarianism. Third, the new cosmological argument. I've suggested "the new cosmological argument" using modern science's imperfection which inferred from "Werner Karl Heisenberg's uncertainty principle". The conclusion of this proof is that a man who recognizes the reality of "physical rules" should recognize the reality of "God". In other word a rational man who believes causality should recognize the reality of "The cause which is cause of every causes but don't need any cause" "the God".
39. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Bokyoung Son, Yeonoh Son The Principle of Human Essence
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Even though many people have been looking for the origin of human beings, we still don’t know how human beings came into existence. So far, there are two major theories to explain human beings’ starting point – creationism and the theory of evolution. These theories are so abstract that it is hard to accept either one.This essay presents a new theory which explains how human beings and all beings come into existence and carries implications bearing on human conduct. The theory is called “The Principle of Human Essence,” and it was first proposed by Hungduk Bokyoung Son. He points out everything in the world was created by human beings, for nothing can be mentioned or described without them. Then he asks what the human being is, and defines it as a living thing which thinksand speaks. Next, he tries to determine where human consciousness came from, and shows that language is the source of consciousness. Finally, he explains that language can exist only where it is formed between at least two people, and that consciousness is the ability to discern words. Through his unique concept, summed up in the maxim “Words and Earth are simultaneous existence,” Hungduk shows that two living things become human beings through communication, that mind and body exist simultaneously, and that human beings and space exist at the same time. If words are the origin of thoughts, and none of us can possess language without communication with other people, it follows that no one can be a human being by himself or herself. For this reason, Hungduk claimseach person is the cause of each other’s being, so people exist as mutual causations at the same time. I think that, through his metaphysical principle, he offers clear reasons why we must trust each other, solve conflicts between people, and make a world where people live well together, so I hope to introduce his philosophy to other philosophers around the world.