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Displaying: 21-36 of 36 documents


articles in english
21. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
William L. Wang A New Analysis on Metaphysics and Ontology
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By means of comparison between Lao Tzu’s theory of Tao in ancient China and the concept of metaphysics originated from ancient Greece, the author redefined the concept of “form” and therefore, elaborated the meaning of metaphysics from its Chinese translation. According to the author’s re-interpretation of Tao Te Ching, Lao Tzu had resolved the ontological questions in a different way with that of ancient Greek philosophers, and he had answered the question of “One and Many”. In the past, people had omitted the fact that there are actually two different “ones” in this question, and hence, metaphysics and ontology had been remained in a confused state. By giving an example in natural science, the author had illustrated clearly what is the metaphysical Tao, and then extendedthe idea to metaphysics of morals. As a conclusion, the author suggests that it is better to use a new term to replace the imperfectly defined “metaphysics”, for example, metaformology.
22. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Ming Wong Ying Yang Theory: A Metaphysics of Negative Entropy Being
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For the Life system, behind the physics being, there is a metaphysics being that poses a non-equilibrium thermodynamics system which consist high negative entropy. Western science, western philosophy, including Western rationalism, and the nonrational, post-modernism can not completely explain this being. Theyin and yang theory can clearly illustrate it. The Yin and Yang is the knowledge of metaphysics being of life, is the metaphysics theory under the law of negative entropy.
articles in german
23. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Natascha Gruber The Transformation of the Concept of the “Transcendental” in Anglo-American Analytic Philosophy
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My presentation deals with developments and transformations of the concept of the transcendental within Anglo-American analytical philosophy. According to Kant – the “founding father” of transcendental philosophy – the methodical domain of the transcendental is to denote and to expose the a priori epistemic structureof human mind and cognition (perception, experience, knowledge), as well as to provide a priori foundations for normative ethics. Analytical philosophy has adopted the term of the transcendental, mostly within sceptical argumentations or for sceptical refutations. What is the methodological function of the transcendental in these debates, in the context of philosophical scepticism? My contribution tries to show that the notion of the transcendental becomes concave in analytical contexts. It might be appropriate to refute scepticism, but in these analytical contexts it’s not possible to deduct epistemic structures (e.g. categories,epistemic schemes) of experience and knowledge or to bridge the gap to foundations in ethics – one of the core goals in Kantian transcendental philosophy. What is the importance in transcendental analysis and reflection or is this term obsolete all together nowadays? My paper tries to discuss and mediate between various positions and ideas.
articles in spanish
24. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Eduardo Bermudez Barrera El Babero Quine con la Navaja de Occam Afeitó la Barba de Platón
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The ontological question goes way back to Plato. In his Teetetus he already searched for the answer to question of “how is it possible that when a man stares at something he would not see anything anyway”. Quine is the author of a doctrine on ontology, “On what there is”. His work follows the path of medieval authors such as William of Ockham, who proposed the methodology that came to be known as Okcham's razor. The excessive proliferation of entities is known as “Plato's beard”. Quine, among others, has shaved Plato's beard searching for logical and scientific simplicity.
25. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Ana Carrasco Conde Carácter Inteligible: Kant, Schelling y la Libertad Metafísica en el Freiheitsschrift
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The Platonic myth in Book X of The Republic tells us how the choice of “destinies” is carried out by human souls about to be born. The revenant Er, in his particular nekia, returns to life to tell all he has seen and heard: that what life bring us is related to the good or bad choice of our future life trough a draw carried out under the eyes of Necessity and her three daughters: Lachesis, Clotho and Atropo, who weave the destiny of men (The Republic, Book X, 617e): Theintelligible character of this choice has the burden of a determinism ab origine without possibility of rewriting it, making our fate an inalterable journey. Kant could say the same in KrV, although it is true that the doctrine of the “intelligible character” only appears specifically in 1781, in the light of the Third Antinomies, in the“Dialectic” of the Critique of Pure Reason. Anyway, its long shadow appears in other texts (as in Religion Within Limits of Reason Alone of 1793)– that each one of voluntary acts of men: “it is predetermined, well before it occurs, in the empirical character of man” (KrV, A 553 / B 581) would suppose that this intelligiblecharacter would have to be understood together with the problem of freedom and decision. That threshold pointed out by Kant will be trespassed by Schelling, who will form a concept of freedom of a metaphysical character (libertas ex) which will send us to an origin, beyond all times, in which the de-cision, as ex-cision, restructures and sets in order our time. Cut or beginning, it is a wound without stitches which implies the proper opening of being into existence.
articles in russian
26. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
С. Л. Катречко Как возможна метафизика XXI века?
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The European metaphysics begins with opening by Parmenid a metaphysical reality of the Uniform in its difference from a physical reality of the Much. This sets its first border and defines the ontological modus of the metaphysics, developed in the Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Thinkers of New time occupy a reflectiveposition in the relation of antiquity’s asking “WHAT is the metaphysics?”. They interest no longer the fact of the presence of the metaphysics, but the bases of this fact — transcendental conditions of its possibility (resp. a question “How is metaphysics possible?”). If the Antiquity (Parmenid) considers metaphysics as the reality of an empirical subject, then Kant raises the question about the possibility of metaphysics as the activities of a transcendental subject. There is the second boundary of metaphysics, which transforms in its epistemological modus. The transcendental method becomes the criterion of the metaphysics: it makes possible to critic the metaphysics and to limit its claims. The new metaphysics (XXI c.) occupies the reflexive position to the epistemological modus of metaphysics. It attempts to reveal its basic “figure of silence”, i.e. the transcendental conditions of the transcendental subject. The bases of the transcendental subject are the natural capability of human reason to fall outside the boundaries of experience (metaphysica naturalis; Kant) and the language. The metaphysica naturalis can be correlated with Husserl’s intentionality, but its prototype is the Leibnitz’s monad. The question “How is homo metaphysics possible?” is determining for the anthropological modus of metaphysics of XXI century.
27. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Наталья Мартишина Метафизика Как Учение Об Истинном Бытии
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Classic of Russian philosophy Alexandr I. Vvedensky proposed a definition of metaphysics as a study of true reality contrary to apparent one. This definition seems to be useful in contemporary issues. It's an apt definition because it describes an ancient metaphysics as good as classical tradition and concerns allbranches of the philosophical knowledge. A number of philosophical subjects are connected with the difference of true and apparent reality as their foundation. For instance, Philosophical Anthropology differentiates between real and formal personal existence. Epistemology discusses a problem of a criterion of real existence and notes that any language does not contain such internal criterion. The Philosophy of science analyses a conventional reality created by people, and so does the Philosophy of art. Social and Political Philosophy due to understand a nature of special phenomena which have no substance but are real and objective. Finally, contemporary Philosophy of technology concentrates on the virtual reality as a special kind of existence. So, the problem of the distinction between true and apparent reality manifests itself in all philosophical disciplines, and this fact determines a major meaning of the metaphysics in the philosophy.
28. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
С.А. Нижников Преобразование метафизики в творчестве И. Канта и возможность веры
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The subject of author’s reflection is transformation of metaphysics in creativity of I. Kant and an opportunity of faith on the basis of new existential ontology. It begins from opportunity developing of new metaphysics in the works of Kant and then – Heidegger. There is a problem in understanding of metaphysics in Kant’s art. From author’s point of view Kant tried to create a new type of ontology as a real metaphysics that doesn’t destroy the faith if one understands it non-metaphysically. Even more – Kant’s and Heidegger’s new ontology can produce and have already produced a new type of faith understanding. This transcendental and aprioristic faith is the inner essence of different faiths, which objected in religions. Nowadays this faith must be opened and rethought,because it can helps to solve global spiritual problems of mankind. Only real (ontological) and humanistic knowledge can spiritually unite persons and peoples.
29. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Шулындина Анастасия В.С. Соловьев и его школа о Сиcтеме Единой Сферы Знания
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One of the most powerful tendencies of the World scientific thought development of XIX – the first half of XX century was analysing all sorts of knowledge, accumulated by mankind in the form of universal synthetic system combining science, religion and philosophy into the Universal Sphere of Knowledge that gives the humanity the possibility to achieve a new deeper level of understanding the reality. By the founder of the Classical Russian Systematic School of Philosophy (according to me – A.Sh.) V.S. Soloviev - for the first time in history - the Idea of the Universal Sphere of Knowledge which is depicted by the Greek term ΘεωΣοφιαwas descriptively defined. The followers of V.S. Soloviev’s school in the middle of XIX – the beginning of XX century worked out many aspects of the Concept of Ontological Synthesis of dispersed Spheres of knowledge, among which the Philosophy is an important and homogeneous part of synthesis of Science and Theology. This Spheres of Knowledge look different and it was aggravated in the course of historically developed separation of their methods, spheres ofexperience and types of thinking. Nevertheless to find the new ways to reach the new level of knowledge for the mankind they must be concentrated on the investigation of the Absolute Elements of the World : Truly-Existing [Λογος] (suprasystematic Element) in its real manifestation. The main (or the basic) method of knowledge is the inner experience of mystic origin. The findings of Russian Philosophers are confirmed by the studies of scientific methods which made it possible to achieve great staggering discoveries and inventions which will for a long time remain mysterious for the majority of human beings.
30. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Shelud’ko Grigoriy Vladimirovich Metaphysics of Classical and Nonclassical Kinds of Social Realities
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The metaphysics of a social reality assumes definition ontology various plans of its realization as sorts of attitude to kinds. The last ones represent phenomena of a social reality - as classical and nonclassical. The economy, morals, religion, the right concern to classical kinds of a social reality. Attributes of a sociality of the given kinds: activity, attitudes, forms of social consciousness. A nonclassical kinds given attributes yet "do not possess" to the full. Their metaphysics is defined through parity with classical kinds of society. The structure of a social reality is mobile that is why "updating" of the list of classical kinds of a social reality is not soproblematic that is why the urgency of an explication ontology and metaphysics of a sort of a reality social and numerous kinds is undoubtedly rather productive and duly.
31. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Vladimir A. Yakovlev Эвристический Потенциал Метафизики
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The new world outlook paradigm of creativity correlates with the fundamental principles of metaphysics and modern natural science. The essential programs of development of science have been formed in Antiquity as the metaphysical principles. For example – principle of continuity VS principle of discreteness of matter;movement as God’s first impulse VS movement as natural attribute of matter. In the field of metaphysics were elaborated the very impotent concepts of modern science – matter, movement, force, atom, corpuscle, energy and others (M. Wartofsky, J. Agassi). Nowadays philosophers and scientists discuss such metaphysical principles as so called antropic principle (S. Hawking, B. Carter); the deep expediency and harmony of physical laws (I. Rosental, Y. Linnick); the principle of synergy and self – organization of nature (I. Prigojin, H. Haken). All these principles may be united in the new metaphysical idea of informational matrix of Universe.
articles in chinese
32. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Daoerjixiribu Borjgin A Revolution of Philosophy: Bionomy - A Kind of New World Doctrine
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"I" will is the percondition of knowing, while "I" is identical lift of both substance and spirit. Life will reveals itself from chaos. knowing belongs to life cross-referenced an in fact, it is a indication theory of will rather than a pure theory of knowing. "I" is a narrow sense of life, but it also should indicate a broad sense of life. Word is a life creature life is the only absolute one. The showing of one thing is before existence. (Existence is a character of life rather than a certainessence transcending a life). Life spirit reflects the life of the life world. - Thought is life. Existence is experience, while the existence of experience is "human" - human is the product of experience of animals "human" is a personal from, and human doctrine is personal doctrine. A country is second person andgovernment officers are persons of great bulk. Power theory distories the world, while existence theory distories the life. Showing is the form of life and it is a duty - to show life, to show the life word, this is duty theory. It is compulsory struggle that can thoroughly guarantee the relative power. We human should set up a world country - a world life organization, to shake of counter action in a country. A country democracy is a false democracy, while back democracy is real world democracy. Life exists in a impulse way. This is the real final arrangement of life impulse. As soon as society get in to the life orbit the most ideal basicorganization for human is sex organization "Philosophy", in fact, it is life science, a broad sense of life science. (theory of life)
33. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
He Lai “形而上学批判”与“形上维度的拯救” - 论马克思哲学与形而上学关系的两个基本向度
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The critique to metaphysics has become one of the most important topics of contemporary philosophy. Marx’s philosophy has a special standing-point on this topic. On the one hand, Marx announces the end of metaphysics when metaphysics means a thinking-mode and philosophical form. But on the other hand, Marx tries to rescue the philosophical spirit behind metaphysics, namely the spirit of critique, the spirit of freedom and the spirit of transcendence. In the philosophical history, Marx establishes a unique way to criticize metaphysics, we can call it “the social and historical critique of metaphysics”, through this approach, Marx tries to discard the dogmatic side of metaphysics and save its active elements at the same time. This special standing-point of Marx on metaphysics makes him differ from classical metaphysicians and contemporary deconstructionist.
34. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Liu Lihua 论“哲学铁三角”及当今哲学丢了什么?
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As a reference frame for reflection on the past and future of philosophy, this paper offers a ‘Iron triangle of Philosophy’ category. Philosophy is defined as “A study of seeking or displaying Tao by a reasonable way ”. Though Chinese philosophy and Western philosophy are very different and highly supplementary in expression, structure, element and building way, as the studies of seeking or displaying Tao, both possess inherently unified ontology, axiology and epistemology, that is ‘Iron triangle of Philosophy’. These three legs mutually support and its structure of three legs is not from philosophers’ designing subjectively but decided by the essential needs of human life or human being nature. The ‘Iron triangle of Philosophy’ functions as the nuclear core or the soul of human spirit culture. Since the later half of 19th century, the main stream of Western philosophy has lost the most of the three legs, therefore could not enter the core or soul level ofthe culture and has been fringed in the culture. Also Chinese philosophy, since 1840, has slowly lost its broadly comprehensive ontology, its axiology with the universal ethics held by the ontology, and its epistemology or methodology of knowing that pursue harmony and suitability. It is not enough only to simply recover the old format for “regaining” what philosophy lost, we need to engage very difficultly rebuilding work for this.
35. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Guilin Shen 信息在宇宙中的作用
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Information has usually been defined as one of the properties of substance and a reflection of the substance world. A new perspective is introduced in this paper concerning the nature of information and its role in the cosmos. The five characteristics of information are discussed in the first part of this paper. While the passivity allows information to be transferred, copied, recorded, and displayed, the other four characteristics of information (i.e. initiative, independent, expressive, and holographic) make it the fundamental element of the cosmos, which generates the cosmos, life, consciousness and human culture. Based on the findings of physics and astrophysics, this view is explored more by defining information as a pattern of orders throughout the cosmos, with series of parameters, functions and programs. It is argued that, the cosmos is the existence of process instead of things; the information is reality itself instead of a property of substance; and the substance is one of the forms in which information expresses itself during its evolution. An original framework named “Information Order N” (N is any integer between 0 and 7) is described in the second part of this paper. This scale of information evolution starts from initial information, which is an intrinsic pattern that inhered from maternal universes. The seven orders after that are dimension and superstring, substance and energy, life, consciousness, system of the earth (with a combination of eco-system and human culture), system of the Milky Way Galaxy, system of the cosmos. This “Information Order N” scale unifies substance,life, consciousness, human culture, and everything in the cosmos into one system of information evolution. In another word, the cosmos is information itself.
36. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Ming Wong 阴阳理论 一个熵定律的形而上学
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For the life system, the being behind physics being is a being of unequilibrium thermodynamics system with high negative entropy. The western science, the western philosophy includes the rationalism, and non-rationalism, the post modernism can't be complete to describe this metaphysics being. But the yin and yang theories is complete to describe this at the right moment and more. The yin and yang theories is the metaphysics of the life system, is the metaphysics of the being with negative entropy.