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book reviews
41. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 3
Valentin A. Bazhanov, Elena V. Kudryashova Валентин Александрович Бажанов
Marxism and Philosophy of Science
Марксизм и философия науки

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This is a review of the book: Sheehan H. Marxism and the Philosophy of Science. A Critical History. The First Hundred Years. (L.: Verso, 2017. XII. 450 p.). The keynote of the book serves the conviction that Marxism is a sort of “super-theory” that can explain not only any social and political life, but also profound philosophy of science, including natural science. Science is presented in the book as a form of social practice. The main idea of the Marxist philosophy of science is the status of the theory of dialectical materialism. The author shows that Marxist ideas could be considered as the origins of many disciplines: the sociology of science, the history of science, the history of technology; they had a noticeable effect on non-Marxist thought as well. However, Stalinism and Lysenkoism significantly decelerated the development of the Marxist philosophy of science.
editorial
42. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Irina A. Gerasimova Ирина Алексеевна Герасимова
Engineering knowledge in the technogenic civilization
Инженерное знание в техногенной цивилизации

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The author argues that the radical technological transformations contribute to the raise of new epistemological questions. The XXI century technologies could be described as a large-scale socio-technical system. The author claims that the engineering knowledge in the technogenic civilization combines science and technology, technology and industry, techno-science and art, economics, society and culture. At the same time engineers and technologists while doing their experimental research face with risks and uncertainty. The author argues that the rise of new global risks as well as the changes in the societal system make especially relevant the problems of resource saving, efficiency, ecological and technological safety. The author insists that the humanities could contribute to the settlement of these problems. She explains why the transdisciplinary approaches which aim at the cooperation of scientists and philosophers should be considered as the most prospective form of scientific research. This mode of research make it possible to combine fundamental issues with practical actions.
panel discussion
43. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Raisa E. Barash, Alexander Yu. Antonovski Раиса Эдуардовна Бараш
Radical Science: Are the scientists capable of social protest?
Радикальная наука

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The authors identify several types of the new forms of protestmovement that are discusses within the problems of autonomy ofscientific system and the protection of the interests of scientists. They argue that the this type of communication shows how it is possible to combine both cognitive and normative attitude of science. The authors show the mechanisms of the reproduction of this communication and argue that it gradually turns into communicative macro system. The authors conclude that the protest movement in science could be considered as a practical resolution of the Merton – Popper paradox, which presumes the incompatibility of both cognitive attitude (impartial observation) and normative dimension (value production) of science.
44. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Alexandra A. Argamakova Александра Александровна Аргамакова
Paradoxes of scientific ethos
Парадоксы научного этоса

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R.K. Merton’s idea of scientific ethos describes the norms and values, which regulate the cognitive practices of scientists. According to it, science has the special status and plays the role of referee in society and culture. Nevertheless, such view of science provokes the paradoxes and contradictions, connected with the basic principles of the conception and the application of science to practice. In the article, this theme will be analyzed at some extent, and the possible decisions of paradoxes around the scientific ethos will be outlined briefly.
45. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Alina O. Kostina Алина Олеговна Костина
Civil activism, mediation and expertise in scientific environment
Гражданский активизм, институт посредничества и экспертизы в научной среде

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Civil activism in the field of science is one of the most crucial issues and the key factor of autonomy of science. Herewith, the position of universities and other scientific institutions is vulnerable and hinges upon state and private financing. Science finds itself between two unattractive and doubtful prospects of developing in either bureaucratic or corporate (in the business sense) way, which leads to the abridgement of basic academic freedoms. Setting the problem of professional expertise and mediation is highly important for the definition of borders and consolidation of the position of science.
46. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Olga E. Stoliarova Ольга Евгеньевна Столярова
Scientific activism and the idea of performativity
Научный активизм и идея перформативности

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The author analyzes the paradoxes of scientific activism from the standpoint of the concept of performativity. The author shows that the contradiction between the disinterested knowledge of the world and the interested action in society is generated by the traditional understanding of knowledge as a justified belief. The author discusses the so called performative conception of science, which gains many adherents in STS and replaces the standard concept of science. It is shown that when studying science as practice, the paradoxes of scientific activism are revised, because the rigid boundary between knowledge and action, science and values is removed.
47. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Liana A. Tukhvatulina Лиана Анваровна Тухватулина
Merton-Popper’s paradox and the substantive rationality of science
Парадокс Мертона-Поппера в свете «материализации» рациональности в науке

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The author discusses the meaning of the paradox, which rises as a result of the controversy between the principles of scientific ethos (R. Merton) and fallibilism (K. Popper). She argues that the justification of the moral authority of science should not depend on this paradox. The author uses Max Weber’s concept of substantive rationality to consider the idea of social legitimation of science. She argues for understanding expertise as a special mode of scientific knowledge which aims at justifying the authority of science in the society.
48. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Alexander Yu. Antonovski Александр Юрьевич Антоновский
On the Critique of Protest. Reply to critics
О критике протеста. Ответ оппонентам

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epistemology and cognition
49. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Steve Fuller Стив Фуллер
The dialectic of politics and science from a post-truth standpoint
Диалектика политики и науки с точки зрения пост-правды

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This chapter takes off from Max Weber’s famous lectures on poli­tics and science as ‘vocations’ to explore the concept of ‘modal power’, that is, the power to determine what is possible. Politics and science are complementarily concerned with modal power, in ways that go to the heart of Michael Dummett’s influential metaphysical characterisation of the antirealism/realism distinc­tion, which the chapter pursues across several philosophical fields, including logic, epistemology, jurisprudence and finally historiog­raphy. The chapter adopts a ‘post-truth’ perspective in the sense that modal power is treated from an ‘antirealist’ standpoint, in which ‘the name of the game’ is to expand one’s own sphere of possible action while constraining that of the opponent. That world of constrained possibilities is the ‘actual’ world, whose rela­tionship to other possible worlds fluctuates over time in ways that resemble quantum effects but are most clearly captured by ‘revi­sionist’ historiography. The chapter ends with a discussion of the contrasting attitudes to such historiography in politics and science.
50. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Vladimir N. Porus Владимир Натанович Порус
Contextualism in philosophy of science
Контекстуализм в философии науки

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The author discusses the possibility of spreading of the contextualism principles into the field of philosophy of science. He argues that, while discovering science in all of its aspects (viz. cultural, institutional, economic, communicative, etc.), philosophy of science identifies the relevant contexts for justifying the genesis, development, and reproduction of knowledge. Meanwhile, there is a complex interaction between philosophical and scientific analysis of these contexts. The author claims this process gives raise for a conflict which comes from the contextualization of science and the philosophical analysis of these contexts. The author shows that the resolution of these conflict could open new prospects for the modern philosophy of science.