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41. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15 > Issue: Special Issue
Angelo P. Bisignano Reflexivity in Teaching Responsible Management Outside of the Classroom: Lessons from Ancient Greek Theatre
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This paper discusses how the design of service-learning projects can foster students’ reflexivity in learning responsible management. The paper builds on the existing debate on the nature of reflexivity. It proposes to focus on the relationship between students and the structure of responsible management teaching as defined by the curriculum, the learning outcomes, and the expectations of Business Schools. The paper adopts Archer’s morphogenetic conceptual approach to explore analytically this agency-structure relationship in service-learning projects. Drawing on parallels with ancient Greek theatre, the paper investigates how this relationship can morph via praxis and dialogue and affect reflexivity. The paper reflects on the empirical evidence from two service-learning projects. Each was run twice: once using a traditional class-based method and once using the Aristotelian approach to Greek Theatre. The two versions considered different configurations of the dimensions of time, space and action as well as of the role of the teacher in the student’s reflexive process. Empirical evidence highlights how students are more likely to take control of their own learning by enacting praxis in service-learning projects that are compressed in time, space, and course of action. Moreover, the reflexive journey changes when the teacher acts as a dialogical interlocutor as opposed to be a mere instructor in the project. The paper introduces implications for Business Schools in terms of teachers’ training in preparation for responsible management teaching. It also discusses the design for effective service-learning projects and collaboration with external agencies.
education research articles
42. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
Holly H. Chiu, Dov Fischer Implementing Assurance of Learning: Developing an Ethics Assessment Program for a School of Business
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Assurance of Learning (AoL) is a critical component of AACSB accreditation because students need to demonstrate skills acquired in the programs they enroll in. The purpose of this paper is to describe how a business school developed its ethics assessment program to fulfill the requirement of AoL when seeking AACSB accreditation. Three learning goals were identified based on the literature, assessment rubrics were created based on learning goals, and a Harvard Business Case was used as the assessment tool. The result of the first round of summative assessments showed that almost all students at least met the standard of these three learning goals. To close the loop, an ethics module and a one-hour video were added to a junior-level course. In the second round of summative assessment, we added a marginal level of competency to the rubric. We conclude with a plan for future student learning and assessment.
43. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15 > Issue: Special Issue
John M. Tichenor What Is Corporate Social Responsibility?: Using Experience-Based Learning to Help Students Answer the Question
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This article describes an ongoing experience-based learning class project designed to help undergraduate students understand corporate social responsibility. The community-based experiential learning project engages students with local businesses to help the students understand what it means for a firm to be socially responsible. The goal of the experiential exercise is for students to intensely and thoughtfully consider the question, “What is the purpose of business?”
education research articles
44. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
Noha El-Bassiouny, Ehab K. A. Mohamed, Mohamed A. K. Basuony, Salma Kolkailah An Exploratory Study of Ethics, CSR, and Sustainability in the Management Education of Top Universities in the Arab Region
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This research aims at exploring the status of integrating Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in higher management education in the Arab region. The universities in the Arab region have lately emphasized internationalization in their educational policies, aiming at improving their regional and global presence, as a major part of their national reforms. Such transformations will never take hold if education systems are not reformed to foster citizenship, ethics, and social responsibility. Therefore, the study adopted qualitative content analysis of the top 40 business schools that are ranked based on the Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) University Rankings in the Arab Region in 2016, as well as schools acting as signatories of the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME). To analyze the integration of ESD at all educational levels, the relevant literature commonly emphasized upon the adoption of Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Sustainability (ECSRS). Hence, the content analysis involved critical identification of pre-selected keywords under the ECSRS theme throughout the sampled universities’ online content and “Sharing Information on Progress” reports, in light of institutional, curricular, and instrumental levels, expanding the work of Setó-Pamies and Papaoikomomou (2016). The results revealed that ECSRS is outlined in the sampled universities’ strategies mainly through their mission statements. ECSRS is incorporated to a great extent in the curriculum of undergraduate and postgraduate programs in the form of obligatory and elective courses. Yet, student extracurricular activities did not receive equivalent devotion. As for ECSRS research, over half of sampled universities had dedicated research centers mainly focusing on environmental sustainability, in addition to issuing sporadic publications on various ECSRS topics. Integrating ECSRS in university outreach is still considered marginalized.
45. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15 > Issue: Special Issue
Cécile Ezvan, Patricia Langohr, Cécile Renouard, Aurélien Colson Final Ends at the Forefront: Lessons from a Pedagogical Experience at ESSEC Business School
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This paper provides a conception and qualitative analysis of a recent innovative pedagogical experience, a two-week program called “Understand and Change the World”, which is designed to help business schools generate an impetus towards change within students, faculty, and administrators and more generally to the institution’s systemic sustainable capability. We argue that harnessing the ends rather than the means is the key to meeting sustainability challenges within business schools. The conceptual basis of our program provides broad avenues for business school pedagogy. The pedagogy relies on students’ sense of meaning and practical wisdom to raise empathy, awareness of the common good, and the fundamental relevance of such empathy and awareness for the business world. This implies taking a step back from the traditional instrumental approach to business education and, more broadly, to careers and business.
46. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15 > Issue: Special Issue
Burcin Hatipoglu Going Beyond the Classroom in Education for Sustainability: Partnering with Non-Governmental Organizations and Private Sector in a Project Management Course
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This case study presents an alternative educational methodology in a sustainability-based course for tourism management projects. The course is designed to overcome some of the difficulties of teaching responsible management in the classroom setting. By extending learning beyond the classroom and partnering with stakeholders, the course aims to integrate practical knowledge and skills development in students. The case details the learner-centred approach used in classroom teaching, faculty-led and student-led field studies. Adopting a systems approach, results are evaluated for the multiple stakeholders of the course. This educational methodology will be helpful to curriculum developers and educators who wish to integrate collaborative learning experiences or place-based education into their courses or curriculum. Lessons learned during the planning and implementation of the course will lead further research in developing similar courses in responsible management.
education research articles
47. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
María J. Mendez, David A. Vollrath, Lowell Ritter I and We: Does Identity Explain Undergraduates’ Ethical Intentions?
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Concerns about business ethics have led many business schools to integrate ethics into the curriculum, with mixed results (May, Luth, & Schwoerer 2014, Wang & Calvano 2015, Waples, Antes, Murphy, Connelly & Mumford 2009). This paper seeks to improve our understanding of business students’ ethics by looking into their identity, a cognitive lens by which students see themselves and interpret their environment (Triandis 1989) and that can be relatively malleable to priming and socializing processes (Vignoles, Schwartz, & Luyckx 2011, Ybarra & Trafimow 1998). Results show that undergraduate students with higher individual and lower collective identities report lower intentions to behave ethically. Moreover, our results show that a business education has the power to influence students’ ethical intentions by altering their individual and collective identities. Our results suggest that business schools should consider the effects of their curriculum and pedagogies on the development of individual and collective identities to educate more ethical business students.
48. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15 > Issue: Special Issue
Tommy Borglund, Magnus Frostenson, Sven Helin Understanding Responsible Management Education from the Inside: A Case Study of a Case Study in an Insurance and Savings Company
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Despite some two decades of research on Responsible Management Education (RME) relatively little is known about RME within business. In particular, different variants of RME in business have not been studied enough to give us a thorough understanding of the nature, role and function of RME in business. To provide some remedy, this article studies RME from an internal business perspective. Through action research, it shows how a specific form of RME, building on the Shared Value (SV) concept, is shaped, developed and manifested within the life-insurance and savings company Skandia. Furthermore, it develops a model for a holistic understanding of RME in business, taking into account RME actors, concepts, methods, and use. Apart from being an empirical illustration from within business of how RME becomes a tool for strategy, identity and innovation, and constructing a model for understanding RME, the article also highlights SV as the conceptual basis for RME.
education research articles
49. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
Lawrence P. Kalbers, Arthur Gross-Schaefer The Role of Ethical Decision-Making Frameworks in Education and Practice for Professional Accountants
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In the aftermath of the accounting scandals of the early 2000s, the accounting profession experienced increased legislation and rules regulating ethical behavior of professional accountants and accounting firms. This paper considers ethics education for professional accountants (particularly Certified Public Accountants (CPAs)) and concludes that there is a need for a broader, principles-based approach to continuing professional ethics (CPE) in the United States. This conclusion is supported by the recent trend toward principles-based global ethics standards and a review of the current professional standards and CPE requirements for ethics education for CPAs. We present tools, such as listing core values, creation of a personal mission statement, and the utilization of a comprehensive ethical decision-making framework, that can be incorporated into ethics CPE courses for CPAs, ethics education in academic programs, and ethical decisions in practice. We also present results from a survey about ethical dilemmas distributed to a sample of CPAs taking CPE ethics courses. Consistent with our expectations, we find that for ethical dilemmas in which professional standards more clearly apply and the facts were less ambiguous, the CPAs in the sample responded with higher average levels of ethicality and more agreement than for ethical dilemmas when professional standards were not as applicable and facts were more ambiguous. Finally, the paper demonstrates how a comprehensive ethical decision-making framework may be applied to ethical dilemmas, particularly those that cannot be satisfactorily resolved using a rulesbased approach and makes recommendations for future research.
50. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
Tara J. Shawver, William F. Miller Assessing the Impact of the Giving Voice to Values Program in Accounting Ethics Education
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This paper assesses the impact of the Giving Voice to Values (GVV) program. The GVV program takes a very different approach to ethics education and shifts the focus from the traditional why actions are unethical to how one can effectively resolve ethical conflict. The GVV program encourages reflection on potential actions and reactions through practice with voicing one’s values. We chose to implement this program in an advanced financial accounting course and encouraged our students to voice their values through scripted role-plays. After implementing this program and empirically assessing the impact of the ethics intervention, we find that students are more likely to speak up and confront unethical actions by voicing their values to internal management, the CFO, and company hotlines after completing the module. While not a primary focus of the study, the intervention also appears to have increased the students’ ability to recognize and increase their sensitivity to ethical issues.
51. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
David M. Hunt, Scott K. Radford Teaching Business Ethics: How to Use Experience-Based Projects to Achieve Higher-Order Learning Outcomes
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This study examines ethics-related learning outcomes that emerged from an experience-based project in a personal selling and sales management course. Using qualitative research methods, we classified students’ experiences according to domains of ethical issues associated with personal selling and according to conceptualizations of learning identified in the education literature. Patterns we observed in our data suggest that the experience-based project encouraged learners to employ higher-order thinking about business ethics. Higher order problem-solving about ethical issues helps ensure that lessons students learn about ethical decision making carry forward to their professional careers. Based on our findings, we recommend ways instructors can formulate ethics-related learning objectives, develop learning assessments that measure ethics-related learning outcomes, and design teaching and learning activities that help ensure students learn ethical concepts in a way that will carry forward to their careers.
teaching articles
52. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
Jadranka Skorin-Kapov, Martin Benson Teaching Business Ethics Through Narrative Film
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We address the question: what can experience of narrative film bring to a business student? The medium of narrative film allows discussions of ethical issues, as well as discussions of film as a product in terms of its artistic creativity versus its business goal and its marketing of an underlying ideological position. Hence, we look at films from philosophical (ethical), aesthetic (artistic), and business perspectives. We describe the effort and the outcome of delivering a new course in the business undergraduate program at the College of Business at Stony Brook University in New York, USA. The course was entitled Ethics: Critical Thinking through Film and it was designed to address various business and societal problems through narrative films. A diverse set of films allowed us to discuss questions about problems facing contemporary society, as well as ethical issues arising in business, including workforce ethics, greediness, bribery, whistle-blowing, and fraud.
53. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
Matthias Uhl, Christoph Lütge Teaching Business Ethics with Experiments
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Teaching experiments are valuable when it comes to sensitizing students for business ethics that addresses the behavior of agents in modern societies. Many students are coined by the often predominantly individualistic ethical reasoning that they are accustomed to from their living environments. In our classes, we confront them with the volatility of their own ethical behavior by the use of experiments that ideally work with real incentives. We believe experiments to be a powerful tool not only to illustrate theoretical concepts, but also to make students experience the compulsion of economic incentives first-hand. This may lead to the insight that one is more prone to the contingencies of the situation than expected. Experiments may make students question their own behavior and re-evaluate the implementability of their moral ideals - as consumers, citizens and managers.
54. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
Peggy L. Hedges Using Debate to Understand How Unethical Decisions Can Be Made by Ethical Organizations
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Debate can be a useful way to engage students with topics and stimulate discussion on what might appear to be a seemingly straightforward concept. This article describes a modified debate activity in which groups of six students debate preassigned topics in front of their classmates. The activity is designed to help students better understand how personal ethics and decision making can be influenced and challenged by various policies, procedures, and stakeholders. This article provides lesson planning suggestions, student handouts, and marking rubrics. This activity can be incorporated into any undergraduate or graduate level course that has content dealing with ethical decision making.
55. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
Laura Corazza, Maurizio Cisi, Simone Domenico Scagnelli Creation of Shared Value in Action: The Case of a Living Lab Using Transformative Learning
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How does Creating Shared Value (CSV) differ from Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)? How can universities teach CSV to students? The aim of this study is to present the case of the Shared Value Living Lab (SVLL) recently carried out at the University of Torino (UniTo), a large Italian public university. Specifically, the paper analyzes CSV related arguments such as building ecosystems and collective impact, and by questioning the role of experiential learning in adult education. The transformative learning theory of Mezirow (2000) assists the discussion and interpretation of the results derived from this research from an intrinsic perspective, as the researchers “interacted” with the participants. The risks and opportunities of teaching CSV concepts are presented side by side with the strengths and weaknesses of innovative learning tools that have already been adopted by universities and business schools. The study contributes to the current literature by showing how students can reframe the problem of CSV, escaping from ordinary meaning schemes. The interaction between the researchers, the students, and the local actors is atypical of a generalist public university. It is also a good example of a triple helix collaboration that can be implemented in other areas of education research.
56. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
Carlo Carrascoso Teaching Catholic Stakeholder Thinking Using the Open-Ended Case Method
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Today’s managers face a competitive and globalized marketplace, with a multitude of stakeholders demanding their time and attention. The fast pace of this environment can overwhelm them and may interfere with their desire for meaningful work and an integration of their personal and professional values. This paper addresses this challenge by combining stakeholder theory and Catholic Social Tradition to form Catholic Stakeholder Thinking. Possessing values that are shared by managers of diverse faiths and beliefs, it explains how key Catholic social tenets and the resulting normative obligations inform managerial responsibilities to stakeholders. Catholic Stakeholder Thinking is taught and reinforced through the open-ended case method, an approach which encourages managers to critically examine the complexities of an issue. This determines whether their decisions promote integral human development and the common good in solidarity with the poor. The open-ended case method approach anchored in Catholic Stakeholder thinking sharpens managers’ skills and may contribute to personal development. Because of its shared focus on integral human development and the common good in solidarity with the poor, it can be used by managers of good will who hold different (or no) religious affiliations.
57. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
Jason Brennan The Ethics Project: Teaching Business Ethics Through Student-Created Entrepreneurial Action
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This paper describes the “Ethics Project”, a semester-long entrepreneurial activity in which students must make real-life decisions and then reflect upon their decisions. The Ethics Project asks students to think of something good to do, something that adds value to the world, and then do it. Along the way, they must navigate problems of opportunity cost or feasibility versus desirability, must anticipate and overcome strategic and ethical obstacles, and must ensure they add value, taking into account their costs. Rather than role-playing through case studies, students live through real-life case studies which result from their own choices. When properly administered, the Ethics Project trains student to be principled leaders who integrate ethical principles into strategic decision-making, and who can discover and overcome their own moral limitations.
case studies (with accompanying teaching notes)
58. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
Jeffrey A. Mello Safe Home, Inc. - A Case Exercise in Business Ethics
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The paper presents an experiential exercise in which students, both individually and in teams, evaluate a cost-saving proposal to close two domestic assembly facilities and open a maquiladora facility in Mexico. Students are presented with strong statements in support of and against the proposal from a number of varied stakeholders and asked to make a decision on the proposal. Subsequent to this decision, students are asked to reconsider their decision in light of some potential personal consequences this decision might have for them and their family. The exercise facilitates a discussion of stakeholder analysis from the perspective of normative stakeholder theory as well as how ethical decisions might be affected by personal considerations.
59. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
Susan Stos Utilitarianism, Deontology and Virtue Ethics: Teaching Ethical Philosophy by Means of a Case Study
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The concepts behind three of the principal normative ethical theories (utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics) are evident in a real-life scenario. This case study involves videotapes recorded from inside Grootvlei Prison, Bloemfontein, South Africa in 2002. Prisoners captured sensational footage of warders selling alcohol, drugs, loaded firearms and juveniles for sex to inmates. It was footage every journalist would want to broadcast and it was for sale to the highest bidder. The country’s three flagship current affairs programs, broadcast on three different channels, were each approached to buy the footage. Each of the television channels operates under different business models: one is the public broadcaster; another a free-to-air private channel; the third is a pay channel and part of a multinational listed company. Upon analysis it is clear that each executive producer/company espoused different ethical philosophies, yet each decision was ultimately ethical. The reasoning and philosophies of three ethical theories are highlighted in business decision-making, commercial judgments as well as journalistic choices.
60. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 15
Jasper Bosma, Johan Bouwer, Rob van Ginneken Managing Public Dismay and Saving the Image of the Four Seasons Bali: The Case of the Karma Cleansing Ceremony
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This case describes an ethical dilemma faced by the Four Seasons Resort Bali at Sayan in September 2015. The resort had hosted a ceremony which appeared to be, on pictures posted on social media, the wedding of a homosexual couple. A local uproar ensued, and several stakeholders, including the local government, considered the event an outrage – same-sex marriage being illegal in the country – and the sales executive faced criminal charges of blasphemy, as the use of Hindu symbols was considered offensive. The case should make students reflect on the nature of several moral dilemmas that emerged in this specific hospitality context, and ask themselves questions like “who is responsible for the dismay?, has the dilemma been solved adequately? and, more generally, how should international companies deal with such matters?”