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articles in english
41. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Yury Yarmak The Ideas of John Amos Comenius and the Political Intellectin the Modern System of Education
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The paper dwells on Comenius’ ideas regarding pedagogy in terms of modern educational issues that are included in political context. It is to be mentioned that the topicality corresponds to Comenius’ approach to uncovering the role of the state in education and upbringing and science. Comenius stated the importance of developing the ability to think independently and intellect shaping in education. Finally, we have attempted to show that a special role is attributed to practice-oriented intellect and political intellect in particular.
articles in french
42. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Anca Simona Hagiu État de réveil et lucidité philosophique: Une perspective non conventionnelle sur l’éducation
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La filiation des reves exprime le lien entre les choses et les evenements, phenomenes qui derivent les uns des autres durant le reve. La filiation durant la veille fait appel a une classe de relations dont l’analyse met en evidence des notions composees, telles que l’assimilation et l’accommodation durant la veille, qui rapportent les adaptations biologiques. L’assimilation active peut expliquer le passage de l’habitude a l’acte intelligent, abstraction reflechissante, en tant que mecanisme cognitif d’acces a la pensee operatoire. Le phenomene du reve lucide se produit lorsque ceux qui revent deviennent conscients qu’ils se trouvent dans un reve. Ceux qui revent lucidemment peuvent modifier consciemment le contenu de leur reve. Ainsi, est-il possible que pendant qu’il reve lucidemment, celui qui reve “veuille” purement et simplement modifier son reve. C’est la que l’Ego intervient dans la filiation des reves. L’education nouvelle refuse le privilege du contenu dans l’acte de l’education et rejette l’autoritarisme de l’adulte, ayant pour but: d’evidencier et d’utiliser les centres d’interet en tant que tels; d’eviter la competition en tant que but en soi, et de stimuler la cooperation entre les partenaires d’ecole/FACULTE; de stimuler la decouverte de connaissances et d’eviter les expositions dogmatiques.
43. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Ludmila Nikitich Paideia Greque e son importance
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Le texte traite du programme d’éducation grecque paideia de la période classique, comme un programme d’un homme intègre, qui est devenu possible suite à l’évolution de la philosophie grecque du cosmocentrisme vers l’anthropocentrisme et grâce à l’existence en Grèce d’un appareil conceptuel développé
articles in spanish
44. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Angela De Sosa Vaz La filosofía actualidad y tradición a la luz de El Alcibíades: Reivindicar la necesidad de filosofar en la educación actual
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El presente artículo pretende hacer reflexionar a cerca de la importancia de de la filosofía en la educación, que ha sido desde tiempos anteriores a Sócrates motivo de ocupación de todo aquél que estuviera comprometido con la formación de los ciudadanos de la polis. Proponemos acercarnos al Alcibíades, pues en éste Diálogo Sócrates nos propone la tarea de tomar conciencia, de considerar el sentido y el valor de la actitud reflexiva a la que invita la ‘Máxima de Delfos’, conócete a ti mismo; y a la vez construir la propia identidad personal a la luz de ella y del cuidado de sí. Invitamos a quien siga ese camino, podrá encontrar el sentido de su obrar y hacer que valga la pena para sí y para los demás. Que no es otra cosa que lo que buscaría el político, el Bien público. Finalizando creemos que si esta actitud reflexiva penetrara en el discurso académico desde el hacer, se lograría la revaloración del conocimiento, del conocerse y el cuidarse de sí; la falta de sentido de los aprendizajes daría paso a una educación reflexivo y verdadero.
45. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Andrea Díaz Genis Por qué Filosofía de la Educación y desde qué perspectiva
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En la última parte de la obra de M. Foucault, a partir de su Hermenéutica del Sujeto y los demás seminarios que surgen a partir de éste (El gobierno de sí y de los otros I y II), aparece una posible lectura de la filosofía como ejercicio espiritual y arte de existencia. Esta lectura está basada en la influencia, entre otros, del especialista en pensamiento antiguo Pierre Hadot. La filosofía deja de ser pensada teniendo su foco solamente, aunque no excluyentemente, en la creación de conceptos, saberes, o sistema de ideas o pensamientos, y a partir de un ejercicio puramente racional. Desde esta perspectiva, en el corazón mismo de la filosofía antigua, encontramos la perspectiva educativa, o formativa del género humano. Todo esto nos llevará a definir una filosofía de la educación más abarcadora que entenderá a la filosofía como pedagogía del género humano, que si bien no se descarta su veta teórica y conceptual, entiende que filosofía y educación se identifican teniendo como foco problematizador la vida misma.
46. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Glaucia Figueiredo Pedagogy and Humanities: scientific models in check
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The ‘birth’ of human sciences in the XIX century generates an endless polemic about their epistemological status. One of Michel Foucault’s main efforts is to show how this problem takes shape through time, nourished by the efforts of Philosophy of Representation. However, Latin America goes through a similar impasse regarding the establishment of an epistemology of Pedagogy. On the one hand, we find those who claim that it is possible for Pedagogy to reach a scientific status, and on the other hand, those who disagree and consider the transformation of Pedagogy into science to be a problematic issue. This discussion is of paramount importance and deserves special attention, as it implies taking up again the debates related to the contemporary views on science, current epistemological outlines and last but not least our own notion of knowledge. In this context, the work hereafter intends to identify hegemonic trends in the discourse about the already mentioned problematic, analyzing to what extent they pose a considerable handicap or even impede the expression of Pedagogy as a singular and legitimate form of knowledge.
47. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Lourdes García Barrientos Aportes de la filosofía a una educación del cuidado de sí
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El objetivo de este trabajo es problematizar la educación en la actualidad, sus limitaciones y sus posibilidades para formar un sujeto que se ocupe de sí mismo, que cuide de sí. Lo que está en juego es su posibilidad de ser, de vivir una vida de verdad que implique no sólo un discurso sino un modo de vida que sea coherente con él. Creemos que para ello es necesario una paideia, una educación como ejercicio constante, pues hay algo que es necesario aprender e incorporar. En la Antigüedad era la filosofía que cumplía este rol pedagógico de práctica de sí y ejercicio de cuidado, pero cabría preguntarse, como sucede en el Laques, ¿quién se ocupa de los jóvenes hoy? Podríamos pensar que la educación se ocupa de ellos, pero probablemente no en el mismo sentido que encontramos en la Antigüedad, pues para ello necesitaríamos concebir a la educación no como una mera transmisión de contenidos, clara herencia sofista, sino como una educación para el buen vivir, lo cual no puede ser algo prescriptivo, ya que es algo que cada uno debe crear, construir.
articles in russian
48. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
E. Автандилян На пути к новой парадигме в образовании: (сравнительный анализ тринитарно – информационной модели мира постнеклассической методологии и индуизма)
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In the not so distant past, people considered synthesis of Eastern knowledge and Western methodological cognition models as impossible, to say nothing of combining the “rational” and the “irrational”, regarded by the science as utopian. However, we see today these ideas being drastically transformed by modern trends, hypotheses and data supplied by science. We have attempted to compare the systems of two different vectors – Eastern and West-ern knowledge, the latter referring to the innovative ‘Trinitarian information model of post-non-classical methodology’ (by Valery S. Meskov), the former referring to Vedanta knowledge, with its origins in the culture of India. We have made an effort to identify what these two traditionally opposed systems have in common. The connections uncovered can lead to further investigation into the achievements of Eastern and Western worlds with a view to building a new paradigm of scientific knowledge. Today we witness the spiritual com-ponent becoming more critical in education and upbringing. In all times man’s culture and moral have been regarded as extremely important from the point of view of both science and religion. Education is to be changed starting from its core part – methodology. We believe that post-non-classical methodology can offer workable solutions to the problems in the field. Also, the ancient Eastern knowledge, including Hinduism might turn out really effective.
49. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Сергей Николаевич Бычков Образование и философия
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Educational problems require philosophical justification, whenever traditional approaches are proved inadequate. This is what actually happens in the process of building the information society. The significant efforts to develop technical skills in science and remember a large amount of data in humanities, learned earlier in school, are not today justified from the point of view of modern education. The computers have released people from the necessity to operate not only with numbers, but also with mathematical symbols. The Internet gives access to any bit of information almost instantly, whereas a few decades ago visiting a library to obtain the required information was necessary. A person has a unique opportunity to close on one’s self the creative process of making new ideas and project the «individual» and «common» fu-tures. The globalization of education sets forward several fundamental philo-sophical problems: the historicity of human being vs. the universality of truth, the scientific results and methods to reach them as a means of the individual’s development. It depends on different decisions, in which direction the vector of global pedagogical community efforts will be directed in the question of setting-up education, so that it could meet the era’s challenges.
50. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Tatiana Filanovskaya Культурно-историческая концепция российского художественного образования
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The article deals with the cultural-historical conception of Rus-sian art education. Based on analysis of three hundred years of history of art education, the author concludes that the dynamics of education is evolutionary wave nature. Identify trends and patterns of development of the education system, are called external and internal factors and mechanisms to promote the dynamics of value senses, content, technology of art education in historical time. The dynamics model of the graduate, depends on the change of eras.
51. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Victor Kondratyev Цели и ценности современного образования
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Relation of the goals and values in controllable social processes is an example of the interaction of opposites, the essence of these processes. The goals of the educational institution are determined by its administration which is guided by economic interests. The educational process is carried out by teachers who focus their activities on the value of their field of study. Even when teachers are engaged in making management decisions the decisive role generally has the administration. Only in the definition of the mission of educational institutions the administration is forced to consider the value of education. The mission of educational institution is the synthesis product of management purposes and educational values. The contradiction between the goals and values of education increases during the period of changes in socio-economic policy. Both the U.S. and EU in the late XX – beginning of XXI century are forced to adjust their economic policies. Reduction in state funding of universities is a characteristic feature of the developed countries economies. A similar situation is found in Russia. Significant reduction in the number of universities is a consequence of not only the ineffectiveness of their activities, as the government claims, but also the state’s economic policy. Improvement of economic and legal autonomy of universities is a condition for the improvement of education.
52. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Лилия Фёдоровна Матронина Управление образования в обществе знаний
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We live in the era of formation of the knowledge society, the key factor in the development of which is the growth of scientific knowledge. The increase in the intellectual content of labour causes transformations of the educational system and its structure as a whole, with the aim of improving education quality. The question of education management becomes acute and in fact manifests itself as a question of management of quality in education. Its features are defined by our understanding of the concept of quality and quality in education, in particular. The introduction of Total Quality Management (TQM) in educational establishments in many countries of the world favoured the development of management engineering, the basis of which is a functional-quantitative (operational) quality definition: quality is manufactured by such production or rendering of such services, the measured characteristics of which meet the specific technical requirements having some numerical value. The consequence of this approach was the predominance of typical simplified standards in the global educational space, suppression of ethno-cultural educational traditions, norms, and values. Insofar as education is an integral process comprising both teaching and upbringing, it is necessary to develop new holistic models of education management for the knowledge society, in which the social and cultural contexts will not be replaced by engineer-technological ones.
53. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Oksana Nesterova Классическая логика в системе современного образовательного процесса
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Практика преподавания логики позволяет выделить комплекс проблем, связанных с определением ее возможностей и границ в рамках развития науки в целом. Вопрос обоснования логики - это вопрос о природе логического. Какой наукой она является теоретической или эмпирической, имеет ли она собственный базис? Можно ли оценивать законы мышления как абсолютно объективные или необходимо включение субъекта познавательной деятельности в обоснование логических систем? Классическое понимание проблемы правильности и истинности сегодня также является недостаточным. Современная познавательная ситуация требует разработки и преподавания логики не только как теории рассуждений, а прежде всего как основы познавательных сеток, которые позволяют человеку конструировать новые теоретические модели мира. Такое понимание места и роли классической логики в системе современного знания позволяет установить связь между собственными проблемами логики и теми вопросами, которые представляют особый интерес для современной науки.
54. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Шадрина Виктория Образование как путь к свободе
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Modern society is in deep crisis, especially noticeable on the background of globalization. Overcoming this situation is possible by developing and improving the system of education. Only education allows the individual to acquire a constructive experience of creative and intellectual life, to reflect on the important issues of life and on this basis to make hiw/her own, free choice of further life. Today, education is not the only institution of knowledge transfer from one generation to another, but it also helps people find freedom of thought, spirit, and actions. Freedom in education is not only the principles of the organization of the educational process, but refers to the ways and means achieve it. A rich inner world of a man is formed in the spirit of freedom, striving for continuous creative assimilation of reality. However, significant drawbacks of liberal education include lack of control over graduates as they are hard to manipulate and they have developed a sense of self-worth. All of the above conclusions are supported by a specific research, and life stories of graduates of schools of free-liberal education. These schools and educational systems still have not received wide acceptance because of its existing unique, deeply personal significance, but the author is convinced of the future of these schools.
55. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Marina Shestakova Humanities in Education: From Paideia to manipulation of consciousness
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Humanities do not meet the scientific standards of natural sciences. Following Aristotle who distinguished theoretical and practical science, we can consider humanities as techne or fronesis, but not as episteme. Humanities reveal their practical quality in close connection with education. We agree with Gadamer saying that the scientific nature of humanities was formed in the process of education. The interaction of humanities, education and politics was expressed in the ancient Paideia, European humanistic and Enlightenment traditions of education, which focused on improvement of human nature. In the 19-20 centuries this concept was destroyed, and it transformed the idea of education. Teaching is actually separated from the process of formation of the subject. M.Foucault returns to the ancient idea of Paideia („Hermeneutics of the subject“). Knowledge is more and more turning into information, and education - into ideological manipulation of consciousness. Today humanities actually lose their role of the basis for general education, allotted to them by the Humboldt University concept and in Hegel’s pedagogy. The educational reform in Russia is following this general trend. Education is divided into two levels: general elitist education and narrowly specialized education. General education is increasingly turning into management studies using the humanities as auxiliary. Narrow vocational education is doing with a minimum of humanities. This is demonstrated by the cuts in school history and literature education programs. The lack of classical humanitarian education opens a wide scope for ideological manipulation of consciousness.
56. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Marina Yaskevich Конкурсы молодежных инновационных проектов как факторы развития инновационной культуры современного российского общества
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Creation and use of innovation based on advanced scientific knowledge is the basis of Russia‘s economic strategy for the next few years. The purpose of innovative development cannot be achieved without the cre-ation of an innovative culture in a society which provides and allows for the susceptibility of people to new ideas, and the ability to support and use them in the most varied spheres of life. The world experience shows that the de-velopment of the innovation economy is impossible without the active coope-ration of universities and business. It is in the University environment which provides priority for the development of scientific-research activities both in the field of fundamental and applied science unconventional ideas and projects can be born. In connection with this the most important task of the modern University is the training of highly qualified and competent specialists in the innovation sphere. The positive trend of recent years in Russia is to unite the efforts of universities, business and the state for the creation of effective public mechanisms for the selection and support of talented, capable of innovative activity, youth. In connection to this, of great social importance is to have competitions of youth innovation projects, which are carried out at different levels - at the level of the individual University, region, country.
57. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Мавлуда Ёкубова Перспективы развития образования в условиях информатизации и глобализации
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Before the individual today is the necessary task to comprehend and estimate, first, the globalization process, secondly, to create a way to relate to the events social change. The school student or the student of higher edu-cation institution, thus, should expand the horizon of consciousness to global scales. Comprehension of global processes is possible only on the basis of a clear vision of the ideas relevant to policy, economy, ecology, where different types of spiritual and intellectual activity is embodied. From this follows that humanitarian education should include all sphere of knowledge: from signs, terms, symbols and concepts to ideas, doctrines and theories. Philosophy not alone, but in unity with science art and religion, is capable to accomplish this task. However philosophy development in conditions of extending informa-tion space, in which abundance of information causes a fragmentariness of consciousness and complicates the process of self-identification of the per-sonality, can lead to loss of the reflective quality of philosophical knowledge.
articles in greek
58. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Μαρία Βενετή Φύση, μάθηση και ανάμνηση στην πλατωνική φιλοσοφία της παιδείας
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Η μεταφυσική της ψυχής και της ιδέας αποτελούν για τον Πλάτωνα κύρια οντολογική και γνωσιοθεωρητική προϋπόθεση της παιδείας. Η ψυχή νοείται από τον Πλάτωνα ως οντότητα φέρουσα τα γνωρίσματα της ανθρώπινης φύσης. Η ψυχή κατά τη διάρκεια της εγκόσμιας ύπαρξής της αναπτύσσεται δυναμικά στο πεδίο της μαθησιακής διαδικασίας με συγκεκριμένο γνωστικό σκοπό, δηλαδή την ολοκλήρωσή της. Αυτή επιτυγχάνεται στους πρώιμους διαλόγους διά της αναμνήσεως, μιας μεθόδου που ο Πλάτων συμπληρώνει αργότερα με τις έννοιες της αγωγής και της εκπαίδευσης. Η έννοια της μάθησης, αν και δεν είναι σαφώς οριοθετημένη στο πλατωνικό έργο, μπορεί να νοηθεί εν γένει ως συμπληρωματική της φύσης, με την έννοια ότι η επιλογή της κατάλληλης φύσης είναι προϋπόθεση για κάθε μάθηση, αλλά και ως κριτήριο επιτυχίας της εκπαιδευτικής προσπάθειας. Με την υιοθέτηση μιας τέτοιας οντολογικής και γνωσιοθεωρητικής προϋπόθεσης ο Πλάτων επιχειρεί να συνδέσει το παιδευτικό φαινόμενο με τη μεταφυσική. Παράλληλα ακολουθεί τη μεθοδολογία ενός εμπειρικού ορθολογιστή σε ό,τι αφορά τη στοιχειοθέτηση των κανόνων της μάθησης. Η εμπειριοκρατική μεθοδολογία οδηγεί τον Πλάτωνα να διατυπώσει διαχρονικές πρακτικές προτάσεις αναφορικά με ορισμένες παιδαγωγικές αρχές, όπως είναι η διακριτική καθοδήγηση του παιδιού από το δάσκαλο, η ανάπτυξη της αυτενέργειας κατά τη μάθηση, η ενεργοποίηση των εγγενών προδιαθέσεων των μαθητών κατά τη διδασκαλία και ορισμένες άλλες απόψεις, που μπορούν ίσως να συνοψισθούν στο ότι η μάθηση και η εκπαίδευση πρέπει να δημιουργούν ελεύθερους και «ζητητικούς» ανθρώπους.
59. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Παναγιώτης Καρακατσάνης, Λέλα Γώγου Η αυτονομία ως αγωγική συνιστώσα της κοινωνικοποίησης
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Η έννοια της αυτονομίας διαμορφώνεται και καθιερώνεται από τον Ι. Kant ως η συγκρότηση και εκδήλωση μιας θεσμίζουσας και αυτοθεσμίζουσας ακηδεμόνευτης ανθρώπινης βούλησης, επηρεάζοντας καθοριστικά τον πολιτικοκοινωνικό στοχασμό ως τις μέρες μας. Σήμερα ο στοχασμός αυτός εμφανίζεται να σχετίζει την έννοια της αυτονομίας με την έννοια της κοινωνικοποίησης, δηλαδή την ενσωμάτωση. του υποκειμένου σε μια προκαθορισμένης μορφής λειτουργία, κινητικότητας και δράσης στην καταναλωτική κοινωνία, στο πλαίσιο της οποίας –όπως εμφανίζεται τουλάχιστον στην εκπαίδευση– η πρόσκτηση της αυτονομίας από το άτομο καθίσταται φενάκη. Η αυτονομία, που μόνο στο πλαίσιο ενός δημοκρατικού πολιτεύματος μπορεί να εμπεδωθεί και να λειτουργήσει, είναι δυνατόν να προκύψει μόνο μέσα από έναν ριζικό δημοκρατικό μετασχηματισμό της υπάρχουσας κοινωνίας, γεγονός που θα απαιτούσε συγχρόνως και ένα νέο θεσμικό πλαίσιο καθώς και έναν νέο, διαφορετικό, πολιτικό σχεδιασμό.
60. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Παναγιώτης Διδάχος, Σωτήρης Λυκουργιώτης Εκπαίδευση και ενδοσχολική βία: βασικές έννοιες στη φιλοσοφία του T. W. Adorno
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O T. W. Adorno αρχίζει το δοκίμιο ‘Education after Auschwitz’ με τη φράση: «Η πρωταρχική απαίτηση από την παιδεία είναι το Άουσβιτς να μην επαναληφθεί», ανάγοντας έτσι το ζήτημα μιας παιδείας προσανατολισμένης στην αποτροπή του ολέθρου, σε μια νέα ηθική προσταγή, σε ένα ιδανικό που αφορά το σύνολο. Αυτή η παρατήρηση αποκτά σήμερα ιδιαίτερο ενδιαφέρον, καθώς το φαινόμενο της ενδοσχολικής βίας δεν έχει ως τις μέρες μας εκλείψει. Τα όλο και συχνότερα φαινόμενα βίας σε σχολεία των ΗΠΑ, της Λατινικής Αμερικής και της Αφρικής, αλλά και η αυξανόμενη βία σε σχολεία της Ελλάδας και των βαλκανικών χωρών υπό το βάρος της σημερινής πολυεπίπεδης κρίσης καθιστούν επίκαιρη μια αναψηλάφηση των βασικών εννοιών, τις οποίες εισήγαγε το έργο του T. W. Adorno για την εκπαίδευση. Στη σύντομη αυτή ανακοίνωση θα παρουσιάσουμε επτά βασικά σημεία πάνω στις έννοιες που ανέδειξε το έργο του φιλοσόφου, συζητώντας αυτές υπό το φως των σύγχρονων εμπειρικών δεδομένων και των φιλοσοφικών παρατηρήσεων. Οι μορφές ορθολογικότητας που αντιπαρατίθενται στην εκπαίδευση, η διττή μορφή της εκπαιδευτικής ιεραρχίας, η έννοια της τυποποίησης και της πραγμοποίησης, ο μηχανισμός της μνησικακίας καθώς και ο κριτικός αναστοχασμός, ως θεωρητική θεμελίωση ενός συνολικού εκπαιδευτικού επαναπροσανατολισμού, αναλύονται υπό το βάρος των σημερινών ερωτημάτων.