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51. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 1
Petr S. Kusliy Петр Сергеевич Куслий
Is Science Epistemically Autonomous?: An Overview of Some Contemporary Discussions
Является ли наука эпистемически автономной?

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In this overview of recent works in philosophy of science, the discussions of the nature of scientific rationalism and epistemic normativity of science are presented as taking place between the two extremes: the radical anarchism of social constructivism that claims that science has no epistemic normativity of its own and complete isolationism, according to which the rationalist norms of science are totally immune to any influence of non-scientific context. The author explores the arguments of the conception of social empiricism, according to which irrationality in the actions of individual scientists as well as in their motivation need not entail irrationality of science as a social enterprise because the factor of consensus plays a role in forming the picture of the world that ends up being accepted by the scientific community. The feminist attack on the traditional ethos of scientist is discussed. It is shown that feminist criticism revealed the hidden biases in what seemed to be a bias-free scientific worldview. However, some counterarguments against egalitarian principles of organization of science are also mentioned. Rudner’s hypothesis according to which the comparison of different pieces of evidence on the scale of credibility is always ethically biased is discussed and its influence on the contemporary philosophy of science is explored. Finally, the author presents some recent arguments that suggest that contextual influence on science can be legitimate and illegitimate.
52. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 1
Anton K. Kulikov Антон Кириллович Куликов
Leibniz and Bourdieu: the Real Definition in Socioanalysis
Лейбниц и Бурдьё

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P. Bourdieu borrows a number of ideas and conceptions of G. V. Leibniz and uses them in his theory of the social space in systematic fashion. The Leibnizean theories of the relation physical space, of the real definition, of the pre-established harmony become the interrelated reflective means of empirical sociology. This article attempts to interpret epistemic significance of the fact that the conceptions of Leibniz have appeared to be fruitful in sociology of Bourdieu. Sociological real definition defines a social fact not only by its distinctive features but first of all by its genesis, not in its static “what” but in historic “why”. In this perspective the real definition expresses the subject of sociological study and its method in the same time. And it is not the beginning of scientific research but its complicated result, to construct the real definition of a social fact means already to explain it. The real definition of the social space is neither direct reflection of social structures nor such purely formal operations of indirect mathematic construction of the social space which could be jettisoned after achievement of the result. The construction of the real definition is included in its result. The objectivity of this definition consists not in achieving the reality of “the things themselves” but in expressing genesis of purely transcendent, not accessible to simple reflection social relations in gradual construction of a system of purely immanent, sensual signs, in numeric dependencies and terms.
case-studies – science studies
53. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 1
Tatiana D. Sokolova Татьяна Дмитриевна Соколова
Historical Epistemology in France: to the History of the Discipline’s Formation
Историческая эпистемология во Франции

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As an independent philosophical discipline, historical epistemology had been forming in the French Academy from the early 20 century and to its middle developed to the point where it left behind other types of epistemologies, which succeeded to take revenge only in the late 1980s. However, historians and sociologists often consider French historical epistemology as a “marginal” discipline, compared to other areas of philosophical research. The focus of the study is the formation of the French version of historical epistemology as a philosophical discipline in the historical perspective, which includes not only recognized Maîtres of this direction, but also secondary figures associated with the development of this trend of philosophical thought. In the article we will try to demonstrate that historical epistemology, at least genetically, belongs to the general trend in the development of the philosophy of science, formed from the XIX century, and may well claim to be considered a “normal” version of epistemology and/or philosophy of science.
54. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 1
Vladislav E. Terekhovich Владислав Эрикович Терехович
Three Approaches to the Issue of Quantum Reality and the Second Quantum Revolution
Три подхода к проблеме квантовой реальности и вторая квантовая революция

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The framework of a simple opposition realism – anti-realism is not enough to analyze the views on the reality of unobservable objects of quantum theory. First, it is necessary to distinguish between realism in relation to the theory and realism in relation to the theory’s objects. Secondly, realism in relation to classical objects can be combined, both with realism and with anti-realism in relation to quantum objects. Third, the concept of “existence” and “to exist objectively” can have different meanings. To take into account these factors, the article describes three approaches: classical realism, quantum anti-realism, and quantum realism. I show that the debate around quantum reality has intensified in recent decades due to a series of new quantum experiments. The current stage of the debate is caused by the second quantum revolution relating to the transfer and processing of quantum information. Classical realism and old versions of quantum anti-realism have become insufficiently effective to explain the results of a series of experiments. Proponents of quantum realism, in turn, refer to the possibility of using the wave function to manipulate quantum objects before their measurement. In conclusion, I assume that not only theoretical discussions but also experiments and new technologies can have a major impact on the seemingly purely philosophical debate about reality.
interdisciplinary studies
55. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 1
Elisabeth A. Lloyd, Naomi Oreskes Элизабет Ллойд
Climate Change Attribution: When Does it Make Sense to Add Methods?
Обоснование климатических изменений

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A specific form of research question, for instance, “What is the probability of a certain class of weather events, given global climate change, relative to a world without?” could be answered with the use of FAR or RR (Fraction of Attributable Risk or Risk Ratio) as the most common approaches to discover and ascribe extreme weather events. Kevin Trenberth et al. (2015) and Theodore Shepherd (2016) have expressed doubts in their latest works whether it is the most appropriate explanatory tool or the way of public outreach concerning climate events and extremes. As an alternative, these researchers focus on complementary questions, for example, “How much did climate change affect the severity of a given storm?” advocating a “storyline” approach. New methods and new research questions are neither foreign, nor controversial from the standpoint of history and philosophy of science, especially those, related to public interest. Nevertheless, the new proposal has got a tepid reception from the majority of professionals of the given field. They argued that this approach can cause weakening of standards and neglecting of scientific method. The following paper attempts to find the roots of the supposed controversy. We claim inefficiency of uncompromising approach to D&A in absolute sense and assert that errors of a particular type may have a different level of concern in society, depending on the variety of contexts. Therefore, context defines the risk of over-estimation vs. under-estimation of harm.
56. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 1
Sergey N. Korsakov Сергей Николаевич Корсаков
B.M. Hessen: The Materialist Dialectic in the Struggle with the Ideological Rite
Б. М. Гессен: материалистическая диалектика в борьбе с идеологическим камланием

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Archival publication of a number of previously unknown texts of the outstanding Soviet philosopher and historian of science, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences Boris Mikhailovich Hessen follows this introduction. B. M. Hessen belonged to the philosophical school of academician A. M. Deborin. Deborin school actively developed philosophical and methodological problems of advanced areas of natural science: quantum mechanics, the theory of relativity and genetics. The Deborin school provided ideological protection of these Sciences in the conditions of Stalinism. In this struggle many representatives of this philosophical school were destroyed. Deborin, Hessen and their colleagues developed the most important philosophical and methodological problems that arose in connection with the development of modern natural science. These include, first, the problem of quality irreducibility of higher forms of motion of matter to the lower ones. This problem is discussed in abstracts of the Hessen at the First all-Union Congress of physicists in Odessa in 1930. Secondly, the problem of objective chance. She dedicated the Hessen report on the scientific session of the Institute of philosophy, dedicated to the anniversary of Lenin’s book “Materialism and empiriocriticism”.
57. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 1
Boris M. Hessen Б.М. Гессен
Materialistic Dialectics and Modern Physics: Abstracts at the I all-Union Congress of Physicists in Odessa on August 19, 1930
Материалистическая диалектика и современная физика

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The report of B. M. Hessen at the I All-Union Congress of physicists. The Congress was held in Odessa from 19 to 24 August 1930. At the plenary meeting B. M. Hessen, made a report on methodological issues of quantum physics, the relationship of physics and philosophy. Mechanistic materialism in his time came to replace the scholastic physics. But he could not solve the problems of development and specificity of forms of movement. B. M. Hessen believed that the development of the basic concepts of natural science (matter, space and time, motion, wave and particle, pattern and randomness) coincides with the approach of dialectical materialism.
58. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 1
Boris M. Hessen Б.М. Гессен
Speech at the Scientific Session of the Institute of Philosophy, Dedicated to the 25th Anniversary of Lenin's Birth “Materialism and Empiriocriticism” June 22, 1934
Выступление на научной сессии Института философии, посвящённой 25-летию выхода в свет труда В.И. Ленина «Материализм и эмпириокритицизм». 22 июня 1934 г

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The report of B. M. Hessen at the at the scientific session at the Institute of philosophy in 1934, dedicated to the 25th anniversary of the publication of Lenin’s «Materialism and empiriocriticism». He said that statistical regularity appears already in classical physics, when it comes to kinetic theory, thermodynamics. But traditionally thinking physicists did not consider the statistical method full, believed, that statistical a near certainty can be to withdraw from dynamic. In quantum theory, it turned out that the dynamic laws are not applicable, because in principle you cannot set the status parameters of a single bodies. Simply discard causality is too simple and one-sided solution for physics. This is so just as philosophers seek out idealism in the works of modern physicists. The category of causality in need of rethinking.
book reviews
59. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 1
Natalya N. Pogozhina Наталья Николаевна Погожина
N. Luhmann’s Theory of Systems in the Application to the Analysis of Scientific Communication
Системная теория Н. Лумана в приложении к анализу научной коммуникации

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This article represents the review of the Russian translation of N. Lumann’s work which was published under the title «Truth, knowledge, science as a system». In article N. Lumann’s approach to consideration of science as one of the communicative systems of society performing function on development of knowledge is reconstructed. Within this approach we consider in a separate way the the truthconditional perspective which is expressed by means of terms of language of the theory symbolically the generalized of media of communications. Special attention is paid to the potential of the reconstructed theory in the analysis of modern scientific community and to the relation of scientific system to other communicative systems (its differentiation from them and the possibility of interaction).
60. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 56 > Issue: 1
Alexander M. Dorozhkin, Svetlana V. Shibarshina Александр Михайлович Дорожкин
Transformations in Epistemology: Problems and Prospects
Трансформация эпистемологии: проблемы и перспективы

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This paper is a reflection on number of statements and ideas presented in the monograph by Academician Vladislav A. Lektorsky “Humanity and Culture. Selected Papers”. The authors suggest their interpretations on his ideas regarding the characteristics of classical and non-classical epistemology, as well as the further development of epistemology in the light of its enrichment with the humanitarian and “citizen” component.