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language and mind
51. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Elena V. Zolotukhina-Abolina Елена Всеволодовна Золотухина-Аболина
"The other side of language": the problem of the relationship between continuity and discreteness
«Изнанка языка»

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This paper deals with the problem of continuity and discreteness of human consciousness. The author starts with the analysis of the “linguistic turn” in the philosophy of the 20th century when language was for the first time regarded as an autonomous essence. While stressing the illegitimacy of overestimating of linguistic discreteness, the author identifies three types of concepts, which help to understand differently the connection between continuum and discreteness. These are “the level concepts”, where the semantic and sensitive dimensions of the language are highlighted; “the concepts of complementarity”, which show that the discreteness is always accompanied by continuum (“non-verbal moments of communication”, etc.), and “the concepts of reference”, where the nonverbal and hidden cultural codes of language are explicated (viz. theories of symbols, linguo pragmatics, etc.).
52. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Vladimir V. Seliverstov Владимир Валерьевич Селивёрстов
Meinong, Wittgenstein and Austrian Philosophy
Майнонг, Витгенштейн и австрийская философия

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This article considers the problem of defining the concept of “Austrian philosophy” in the context of the possible influence of Austrian philosophy of the XIX century on the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein. From Haller&Neurath’s point of view the Austrian philosophical tradition can be represented as a single chain of mutual influences. In particular, we can trace continuity, find common features in the philosophy of the Brentano school and philosophy of the Vienna Circle. But here is the question. Should Ludwig Wittgenstein also be included in this tradition? By responding to this question, we can better understand the boundaries of this tradition. But in case we include Wittgenstein in this tradition, then he will be in one tradition with Alexius Meinong, who is often called Wittgenstein’s opponent in logic, semantics and philosophical psychology. Therefore, our task is to find out whether these theories are really so different. May be we can find common features or signs of the influence of one theory on another. The main clue in this case is the concept of “Sachverhalt” or “state of affairs”, which Wittgenstein used in “Tractatus” and which is quite comparable in meaning with the Meinong’s concept of “objektiv”.
53. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Natalia V. Grishechkina, Sofia V. Tikhonova Наталья Васильевна Гришечкина
Civil expertise of scientific knowledge in the digital era
Гражданская экспертиза и научное знание в цифровую эпоху

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Modern dialogue of society and science proceeds in the conditions of social media distribution and the convergence of scientific knowledge. This processes change system of mass information and communication channels between scientific actors, leaders of public opinion and organizers of public initiatives. The conflict between an elite normativity of a scientific discourse and an egalitarian normativity of a public discourse takes the new forms. Authors show how in large quantities extending practice of civil expertise, based on civil journalism (a blogosphere and social networks), interrupt into procedures of scientific examination. Active inclusion of civil experts became an attribute of transdisciplinary science. The main feature of this type of science is operational decision making in the conditions of uncertainty. However transition of transdisciplinary science to a phase of the technoscience defines convergence borders of the formal and informal knowledge. Technoscience takes root into the vital world as a magic “black box” for the inhabitant. Authors believe that the transdialogue formed by transdisciplinary scientific experts and deprofessionalized leaders of civil journalism is complicated by deficiency of epistemological competence of civil experts. One of the problem is inclusion the electronic media practices in production and the social circulation of scientific knowledge. Using rather known, but not yet entered in the field of philosophical scientific research examples of direct influence of civil experts on processes which in a former communication order were intra scientific, authors realised a research of the new aspects of modern science expanding a traditional subject of philosophy of science and technology.
case-studies – science studies
54. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Ivan A. Karpenko Иван Александрович Карпенко
Physical theories in the context of multiverse
Физические теории в контексте мультивселенной

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The article analyzes the problem of physical theory nature and its criteria in the context of several concepts of modern physics. Such physical concepts allow multiple possible universes (the last usually happens to be a random consequence of the theory). Since the study requires several universe models, which basic principles (physical laws) can vary, the two theories have become the objects of analysis: the first, which includes the concept of eternal inflation, the second – the string cosmology (the string landscape). Both theories allow for a large variation of physical laws (no matter, whether these are fundamentally different physical laws or different versions of the same basic principles). The amount of dark energy (cosmological constant) has been selected as a physical law parameter, changing its value in possible universes.The analysis of the physical theories, which allow a multiplicity of universes, has shown that the standard requirements for the theory, which connect its veracity with the criteria of observability and the need for validation of our universe basic principles, are not entirely consistent. Theoretical physics is moving towards the formulization of models that become a real (in some cases, apparently irresistible) challenge for experimental verification. The article proves that such verification probably can not be required in several physical theories, since, in particular, the postulation of this kind of connection between theory and reality is no more than a manifestation of anthropocentrism. However, the theory can trace more general grounds that lie beyond the scope of human observation.
55. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Sergei M. Levin Сергей Михайлович Левин
Free will, science and causes of behavior
Свобода воли, наука и причины поведения

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Some scientists and philosophers, based on scientific discoveries and empirical evidence, argue that free will does not exist. Some authors defend the opposite opinion. The universality of their reasoning unites opponents. They seek to correlate scientific knowledge with the entire sum of human actions and, consequently justify the existence of freedom of will or its absence. In the paper, I propose to narrow the focus of the issue to the study of the degree of freedom of individual actions or certain classes of actions. For this, I introduce the epistemic criterion, according to it, recognition of the action as not free requires knowledge of the causes of the action for which the agent is not responsible. I analyse two groups of cases: those where scientific knowledge reveals hidden causes of behavior and those where the causes remain unknown. Actions from the second group still constitute an essential part of our behavior. The amount of knowledge about the causes of actions will increase over time, but this knowledge will never be comprehensive.
interdisciplinary studies
56. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Natalia A. Osminskaya Наталия Александровна Осминская
Historical roots of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s universal science
Исторические корни проекта универсальной науки Г.В. Лейбница

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This paper analyses different retrospective links between the scientia generalis by Leibniz and the three key traditions of the Renaissance and Early Modern Europe – the philosophical, the rhetorical and the encyclopaedic one. The issue demonstrates the insufficient charachter of the two influential interpretations of the idea of scientia generalis by Leibniz – as a project of elaborating a a method of mathematical calculations for non-mathematical subjects (L. Couturat, J. Mittelstraß, V. Peckhaus etc.) and as a project of an encyclopaedic synthesis combining ideas of the Lull’s Ars magna and humanistic rhetoric by M. Nizolius with the philosophical-theological encyclopaedism of J. Alsted and B. Keckermann (P. Rossi, W. Schmidt-Biggemann, T. Leinkauf etc.). The author presents the thesis that the formation of Leibniz’s idea of scientia generalis as well as some other concepts of the universal science in 17th century philosophy are the result of rethinking and expanding of the concept of the “first philosophy” delivered by Aristotle in his “Metaphysics”.
57. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Tatiana D. Sokolova Татьяна Дмитриевна Соколова
William Whewell’s philosophy of science and Immanuel Kant’s apriorism
Философия науки Уильяма Хьюэлла и априоризм Иммануила Канта

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The article is the introduction to the Russian translation of the preface and Book I of William Whewell’s classic work “Novum Organon Renovatum”. In his theory for the philosophy of science, Whewell of­fers a conception, which radically differs from a positivist or an inductivist models of science – the most influential doctrines of his time. Presupposing that the scientific activity is impossible without acceptance of a metaphysical doctrine, Whewell goes against the contemporary tendencies in phi­losophy. Nevertheless, eclecticism of his views on certain issues does not allow us to classify him as a representative of any particular philosophical “camp”. In the article, the author analyzes the “a priori” component in the system of the philosophy of science by William Whewell and the influence of Im­manuel Kant’s conception of a priori on it.
58. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
William Whewell Хьюэлл Уильям
Novum Organon Renovatum: Preface, Book I. Aphorisms concerning ideas
Novum Organon Renovatum

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The text is the Russian translation of W. Whewell’s work “Novum Organon Renovatum” (Preface and Book I Aphorisms concerning ideas), which is the third edition of the second volume of his major work “The philosophy of the Inductive Sciences founded upon their History”. In the text, W. Whewell proposes his theory of scientific method and classification of the necessary scientific ideas as a basis, from where every particular scientific discipline derives. By adopting the structure of the notorious Francis Bacon’s “Novum Organon”, Whewell reverses the order of scientific genesis, opposing himself to inductivism – the most influential philosophical theory of his time.
book reviews
59. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Igor G. Gasparov Игорь Гарибович Гаспаров
Panpsychism in the search of a self-definition
Панпсихизм в поисках самоопределения

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This is a review of the book by Brüntrup & Jaskolla (eds.) “Panpsychism: Contemporary Perspectives” (Oxford University Press, 2017). The author provides a detailed overview and critical analysis of a recent volume which is dedicated to different aspects of contemporary panpsychism. Among its authors are prominent experts in analytic philosophy of mind such as David Chalmers, Galen Strawson, Gregg Rosenberg. A distinguished feature of this volume is that it presents not only well-known positions in philosophy of mind such as physicalism or dualism, but also such exotic for the contemporary debate stances as idealism or cosmopsychism.
60. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Tatiana G. Leshkevich Татьяна Геннадьевна Лешкевич
"Consciousness creates reality": Is there a way out of the verbal labyrinth?
«Сознание, творящее реальность»

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The article provides an analysis of the book by E. V. Zolotukhina-Abolina, substantiating the dominance of the constitutive potential of consciousness. Firstly, it is the selectivity of attention involved in shaping reality. Secondly, the focus is shifted to human reality, conjugating authenticity and fiction found in self-descriptions, describing motivations of the other, “vision of the past”. Thirdly, difficulties of understanding the consciousness as subjective reality are discussed. Fourth, the problems of the philosophical language, the differences between academic and non-academic discourses come into view. The idea of “selectivity of attention” as the source of shaping reality is discussed with reference to works by D. Kaneman, U. Naisser, I. Hoffman, J. Kelly, V. Nalimov, S. Grof and also K. Uilber and H. Ferrer. While considering the nature of consciousness, the natural-scientific and humanitarian paradigms are complemented by esoteric.