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61. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 2
Памятка для авторов
Памятка для авторов

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editorial
62. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Ilya T. Kasavin Илья Теодорович Касавин
Migration: an interdisciplinary concept and its epistemological dimensions
Миграция: междисциплинарное понятие и его эпистемологические измерения

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The article tends to clarify the possibilities of philosophical interpretation of migration concept in terms of its meanings in the sciences. The concept of migration appears as an empirical generalization and as a metaphor in different disciplines. In the first case, one dwells upon moving of the real living agents in space, in the second one it deals with the dynamics of quasi-agents (cells, programs, ideas). In order to clarify the conceptual status of migration, the author undertakes its contextualization in the process of anthropogenesis. Hence the archetypical character of migration is displayed as ontological framework of key developments of the emergence of the humans and as catalyst of socio-cultural development in general (E. Cassirer). The paper clarifies the possibility of identifying the structure of migration as a journey and adventure (A.N. Whitehead) in the form of uneven development and recurrence of the original event. The paradox of its legitimation is formulated. Philosopher’s “vnenahodimost” (M.M. Bakhtin), the ambivalence of philosophy (T.I. Oiserman) is the discovery of the philosopher as a stalker between the worlds.
panel discussion
63. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Amanda Machin, Nico Stehr Аманда Мэчин
On the power of scientific knowledge: Interview with Nico Stehr
О власти научного знания

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64. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Ilya T. Kasavin Илья Теодорович Касавин
Disciplinary classifications and normative regulation of science
Дисциплинарные классификации и нормативное регулирование науки

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The author considers some essential problems of philosophical considerations of disciplinary classifications in sciences with the reference to some Russian science classification systems. He de­velops the working definition of science and some criteria which make it possible to understand the principles of these classifi­cations. He also observes some modern Russian approaches to the problem of disciplinary classification (in particular, Bonifatiy M. Kedrov’s approach). The author emphasizes some special as­pects of classifications in cognitive science, computer science, and biology.
65. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Tatiana D. Sokolova Татьяна Дмитриевна Соколова
Computer Science: features of Russian classification
Computer Science: особенности отечественного классифицирования

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The article deals with Russian scientific classifications (GRNTI, VAK) of computer science in comparison with Western scien­tific classifications Fields of Science and Technology (FOS) and Universal Decimal Classification (UDS). The author analyzes the basics and principles of these classifications, identifies their strong and weak points as well as their influence on the devel­opment of computer sciences. She also provides some recom­mendations on adjustments of Russian scientific classifications aiming to make them more flexible and adaptive to the faster scientific and technological development and interdisciplinary cooperation.
66. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Olga E. Stoliarova Ольга Евгеньевна Столярова
Philosophical approaches to classifications of sciences: biology
Философские подходы к классификациям наук: биология

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This paper analyzes the phenomenon of classification of sciences as a subject of philosophical investigations. What is going on at the object- and the meta- levels of classifications of sciences? What is the structure of the meta-level of scientific classifications? The paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of philosophical approaches to the construction and analysis of scientific classifica­tions. Social epistemology and historical epistemology have shown to be the most effective in analyzing both scientific classifications and classifications of sciences. The paper discusses substantive, methodological, cultural, and historical criteria of scientific classi­fications as they are applied to contemporary biology. Some of the contemporary problems of scientific classifications are considered through the reading of biological disciplinary classifications. It is shown that the classification disciplines in biology is organized ac­cording to the ontological, epistemological and social frameworks.
67. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Evgeniy V. Maslanov Евгений Валерьевич Масланов
Engineering: aspects of the object field construction
Технические науки: особенности конструирования предметного поля

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The article examines the representation of technical sciences in the various classifications of sciences. The classification of the sciences oriented to different models of design field technical knowledge. The GRNTI classifier is trying to streamline the technical sciences on the basis of their correlation with the branches of the economy. In the VAK classifier “technical sciences” are presented not only as related to the creation of “artificial”, “technical” objects, but also as a result of interaction between representatives of various scientific disciplines, different influence groups. Technical sciences are de­signed, in particular, under the influence of scientific policy.
68. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Alexandra A. Argamakova Александра Александровна Аргамакова
Socio – technical disciplines in scientific classifications
Место социотехнических дисциплин в классификаторах научных направлений

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This paper is the reply within the journal discussion on the clas­sifications of sciences. It analyses how well Russian key classifi­cations of scientific disciplines represent socio-technical fields of studies. Author formulates recommendations about principles for such classifications and makes concrete suggestions for changes. Practically oriented analysis is followed after preliminary consider­ations, concerning the nature of philosophy, its practical goals and social power of social epistemology.
epistemology and cognition
69. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Yulia V. Shaposhnikova, Lada V. Shipovalova Юлия Владимировна Шапошникова
The demarcation problem in the history of science, or what historical epistemology has to say about cultural identification
Проблема демаркации в истории науки, или что может сказать историческая эпистемология о культурной идентификации

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This article discusses mechanisms of demarcation in science, as a case of establishing identity – one of the topical problems of contemporary cultural studies. Evidently, the quality of cultural interaction depends on the status of the other in relation to one’s identity. Contemporary cultural studies distinguish two types of this interaction: exclusion, i.e. suppression of the other as a condi­tion for the formation of one’s identity; and inclusion, a retrieval of the excluded, leading to the transformation of one’s identity. This article claims that the historical epistemology, as a special ap­proach to the history of science, has elaborated a number of strat­egies regulating the relationship of science and non-science in the form of an attitude of present science towards its past. The article examines four of these strategies – three of them construct the identity of science through establishing boundaries and by exclud­ing the other; the fourth presupposes acknowledging the other and endowing it with actuality. The last strategy demonstrates the dialogue between science and its other in action and, more importantly, identifies the necessary condition for the successful interaction – the destruction of a homogeneous scientific identity and allowance of self-identification to continue with­out end. Consequently, study­ing the types of interaction between scientific and non-scientific views in the field of historical epistemology allows one to conceptualize the gen­eral procedure of establishing cultural identification.
70. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Sofia V. Pirozhkova Софья Владиславовна Пирожкова
The principle of participation and contemporary mechanisms of producing knowledge in science
Принцип участия и современные механизмы производства знаний в науке

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The article deals with the problem of how production of scientific knowledge transforms nowadays. It is shown that current situation puts forward problem of integration different types of knowledge (not only scientific) – both for producing general meanings, and scientific knowledge. This problem is reflected in several conceptions in the philosophy of science: postacademic science, technoscience, transdisciplinarity. The author pays attention to an idea to be found in these conceptions and some current basic and applied studies; she calls it “the principle of participation”. A few embodiments of this principle are brought out, its conceptual core is revealed, epistemological questions this principle generates in respect to scientific knowledge are defined and some of them are considered in the article: what is a mechanism for aggregating dispersed knowledge? what is the difference between dispersed knowledge and dispersed information? who is the agent of such forms of production of knowledge as Delphi, scientific crowdsourcing, civic science and foresight? Several strategies of knowledge production in modern science (both academic and postacademic) are revealed, two versions of the principle of participation are proposed.
language and mind
71. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Konstantin G. Frolov Константин Геннадьевич Фролов
Metaphysics of correspondence: some approaches to the classical theory of truth
Метафизика соответствия: некоторые подходы к корреспондентной теории истины

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The article examines main competing conceptions of the cor­respondence theory of truth. First, the author investigates pos­sible candidates for the role of truth-bearers. Among those he examines following entities: instances of sentences as concrete sequences of symbols (sounds or letters), which should satisfy wide scope of requirements, such as to be grammatical, mean­ingful, affirmative and so on; abstract propositions, which are ex­pressed by concrete sentences; utterances (either explicit or in lingua mentalis); beliefs of agents as their special mental states. Then he turns to the study of possible candidates for the role of truth-makers, i.e. of those entities to which truth-bearers should correspond to be true. He observes states of affairs, situations, facts and mereological sums of individuals. Then he shows that a notion of correspondence is a functional relationship of interpre­tation of linguistic expressions, where certain fragment of real­ity is taken as a model, i.e. as a finite set of elements on which some functions and relations can be operationally defined. He shows how in some simple cases such interpretation function can be built in operationalist’s manner. After that, he considers some natural objections to this approach, which point that he has no direct cognitive access to the actual world, so it is not possible to take its fragments as a model for any theory. Such objections lead us to the coherentist’s approach, but he shows that the question about origin and status of so-called “specified set” implicitly either leads to infinite regress or requires certain correspondence on some level of investigation and reasoning. Finally, the authore presents some reflections on the meaning of correspondence approach for scientific realism and all other versions of realistic philosophy and metaphysics.
vista
72. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Petr S. Kusliy, Ekaterina V. Vostrikova Сергеевич Куслий Петр
Money for science: social-economical problems of funding scientific research
Деньги на науку

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The paper presents a survey of issues that are being currently studied as part of the research project called “Science and eco­nomics”. By discussing a number of leading articles the authors illustrate the main directions in which the research of the issues of financing science proceeds today. Among these directions are the consequences of the growing impact of private and corpo­rate financing of science. Some negative trends associated with this impact are exposed, such as manipulation of research re­sults and others. Another aspect is the ethos of a scientist that undergoes various transformations when pragmatic factors en­ter into the mix of criteria according to which the professional status of a scientist is determined.Two important organizational aspects of the contemporary institution of science are also criti­cally discussed. They are the system of research grants and the process of peer-review. Each of the aspects reveals its shortcom­ings which are argued to be inevitable consequences of the im­pact of economics on science. The authors argue that contempo­rary investigations of science and economics reveal the influence that the economic organization of a society has on the scientific results produced by those who are responsible for them inside that society.
73. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Nikolai S. Rozov Николай Сергеевич Розов
Epistemic authority: the error of ‘liberal protection’and the value alternative
Эпистемический авторитет: ошибка в «либеральной защите» и ценностная альтернатива

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The article includes a critique of the arguments by Linda Zagzebski who tries to derive following to moral and religious authorities from the principles of recognition of the state and from epistemic authority. The author shows that the automatic transition from recognition of somebody’s descriptive judgments to recognition of imperatives emanating from the same author­ity is not correct. He shows the way for a valid transition from recognition of epistemic authority of science to recognition of moral and religious authorities. He also claims that there is no justification for subjecting their instructions concerning all liv­ing arrangement. As an alternative, he suggests the principle of value consciousness according to which every modern indi­vidual (that usually enters a variety of communities with differ­ent values) freely accepts values to follow. At the same time the “thin layer” of universal values retains and nobody can violate them. The author argues that philosophy differs both from the sphere of science and the spheres of morality and religion, be­cause philosophy is always looking for its own reasons. That is why philosophy is the best antidote against any attempt to bring the liberal principles under the subordination to moral and reli­gious authorities, who, among other things, can be anti-liberal and anti-human.
case-studies – science studies
74. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Ottmar Ette Оттмар Этте
Alexander von Humboldt: nomadic thinking and living science
Александр фон Гумбольдт

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The long-term scientific interests of Alexander von Humboldt ranged from anthropology and ancient American studies to geology and geography, climatology and cultural theory, physics and plant geography to language history, volcanology and zoology. As a scientist, he crossed different disciplines and explored new paths of knowledge. Humboldt developed a transdisciplinary and, in the widest sense, nomadic knowledge as a traveller through the sciences. Like a nomad, he did not seek to possess or destroy a territory (of knowledge): no wonder that he became the co-founder of an ecological and geo-ecological thinking. Humboldt wrote and published his works in German as well as in French. In his American Travel Diaries, which returned to Berlin in November 2013, and which are still awaiting their scientific analysis, Humboldt constantly changes between German and French, but also between Latin and Spanish. The author of the Kosmos couldn’t be used for nationalist purposes. Thus, Alexander von Humboldt can be understood as a nomad of science in constant movement, and in this sense as a world citizen. This first theorist of globalization shifted between the words, between the sciences, between the worlds. For him, the greatest possible mobility was not only a scientific program, but also the program of a life – his life. Humboldt wasn’t concerned with any specialization that would lead to a fragmented dialogue with other specialists. He was concerned with a nomadic knowledge, which, thanks to his extensive network of correspondents, always delivered the opportunity to argue from different disciplinary standpoints at the same time. His thinking doesn’t know the limits of interdisciplinary or “disciplined” research oppressing us today, but it rather took aim at the creation of a new world, in which mankind would be able to live together on a planetary scale in freedom and peace.
75. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Oleg Bernaz, Marc Maesschalck Марк Масскальк
Subjectivity and normativity in the early Soviet Russian structuralism
Субъективность и нормативность: ранний советский структурализм

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In this paper, our analysis lays on two different levels. Firstly, we dis­cuss the central concepts of the early Russian structuralism within an epistemological framework focusing on the way in which linguistic knowledge is structured. In order to achieve this goal, we mobilize the concept of episteme developed by Michel Foucault in his works The Order of Things (1966) and The Archaeology of Knowledge (1969). This Foucauldian approach leads us to highlight a new epis­teme which is different from those that Foucault described in the Order of Things. Secondly, we analyze the political and social impli­cations of this epistemological approach in the context of European and (post)colonial history. We highlight the material “action” of the linguistic knowledge under discussion. This second dimension of our approach is important insofar it represents a critic of the idea accord­ing to which the theoretical knowledge is separated from praxis. Our hypothesis is that the language constitutes a marker of particular so­cial interests, which are overdetermined by power relations.
76. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Sergei Yu. Shevchenko Сергей Юрьевич Шевченко
Citizen science: are people distinguishable from bacteria?
Народная наука: отличимы ли люди от бактерий?

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Technoscientific ethos has specific features in the fields of public expectation of new technologies and their human-oriented char­acter. Today technoscientific ethos can be recognized as a norm in life sciences. The ability to modulate life processes is basic cri­terion of successful theory or approach. But citizen science has in many respects opposite values and there is a significant line of values deliberation that crosses the borders of academic institu­tions. From the one hand, methodological standardization sim­plifies delegation of concrete research practices. But from the other hand we can observe the shift in emphasis from factual and methodological dimension of science towards consideration social role of science and its axiology. The discussions of Merton’s nor­mativity starts again, and citizen participation in this deliberative process is a key issue for description of citizen science in terms of distributed knowledge and collective agent of cognition. In the ar­ticle these problems are considered on an example of solving one of the central problems of modern life sciences – the disclosure of the spatial structure of protein molecules.
interdisciplinary studies
77. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Konstantin I. Belousov, Dmitriy A. Baranov, Elena A. Erofeeva Константин Игоревич Белоусов
Thematic and paradigm models of the concept system of science: (a case study of advanced research in Russian linguistics)
Тематическая и парадигмальная модели концептосферы науки

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The article describes two approaches to modeling the concept system of science – the thematic and paradigm ones. The re­search represents a case study of the two corpuses of abstracts: abstracts of projects supported by the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences of the Russian Federal Property Fund in lin­guistics, as well abstracts of articles by authors (and their co-au­thors) who have received multiple support from this foundation. Thematic modeling was carried out within the frameworks of two approaches: сcorpus based approach (modeling the system of concepts as a holistic entity of term fields network), and single text approach (singling out compositions of term fields steadily present in the texts of projects which can be treated as separate branches of linguistics). The method of semantic graph modeling realized in the “Semograph” Information system (corpus based approach) and the K-means clustering method (single text based approach) were applied. Arrays of keywords (those that occurred in the abstracts of projects supported by the Foundation) grouped into term fields served as operational units. Paradigmatic model­ing was based on the analysis of network interaction of research­ers (created on the basis of the information on joint publications). After the hypergraph of researchers (2,108 state points) had been created, it was divided into subgraphs (network communities) by means of the modularity method (analogue of cluster analysis). Each cluster can be considered as a model of a scientific commu­nity that actualize a certain scientific paradigm; a set of clusters represents a model of the concept system of a certain subject domain from the point of view of representation and interrela­tion of several paradigms. The synthesis of thematic and paradig­matic models appears to be the direction for future research that involves modeling the concept system of science. The considered models can be applied as an effective means of monitoring, fore­casting and managing scientific research, i.e. as an instrument of state and/or department policy.
archive
78. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Alexander Yu. Antonovski Александр Юрьевич Антоновский
Social philosophy of science: German version. Friedrich Schleiermacher on the reformation of German university and the role of faculty of philosophy
Социальная философии науки

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The author discusses the concept of social philosophy of sci­ence by Friedrich Shleiermacher. He argues that the purpose of Schleiermacher’s project was to transform the old-fashioned structure of German university as Middle Ages guilds into a mod­ern corporation that fits the political conditions of modernity and the needs of Prussian state. This project was closely connected with the Prussian foreign policy ambitions – i.e., widespread­ing the German Geist in the cultural, educational and scientific spheres. The key point of this project was the idea of the herme­neutic circle. The author claims that Schleiermacher worked with­in the borders of externalism, while Kant preferred the internalist point of view in his “The Conflicts of the Faculties”.
79. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Friedrich Schleiermacher Фридрих Шлейермахер
Сhapters from «Gelegentliche Gedanken über Universitäten in deutschem Sinn Nebst einem Anhang über eine neu zu errichtende»
Из сочинения «Нечаянные мысли о духе немецких университетов»

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These are some chapters from the book by Friedrich Schleiermacher, the important representative of German romanticism, protestant theological thinker, and one of the founders of the contemporary philosophical hermeneutics. The book «Some Casual Notes about the Spirit of German Universities» was written in the special historical epoch of formation of the «Confederation of the Rhine». The con­solidation question of German states was becoming acute which had acquired (except from the politi­cal one) also a cultural dimension of the language unity. The new forms of state organization required the reformation of the scientific and educational institutions. It posed the problem of the autonomy degree of Academies and Universities in Germany. One had to elaborate media of establishing such an autonomy. It assumed a more concrete form of the problem concerning relations between Academies and Universities at one side, and their responses to the needs of the state administration and the state construction (informational control over society) at the other side.
book reviews
80. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Sergei P. Schavelev Сергей Павлович Щавелёв
Science in vivo
Наука in vivo

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This is a review of the book by Leo S. Klein “The Tortures of Science: A Scientist and Power, a Scientist and Money, a Scientist and Morals” (Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozreniye, 2017. 576 pp). The review presents the book’s structure and the key topics; marks some controversial points and conclusions made by the author. The review is dedicated to the recent 90th anniversary of Professor Leo S. Klein.