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Displaying: 61-80 of 95 documents


61. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Lawrence J. Lad, Jill Rothenbueler, Sakthi Mahenthiran Rethinking Regulatory Responsibilities in a Global Economy: Integrating Lessons from Internet Self-Regulation and Professional Attestation
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This paper focuses on the emerging role of industry and professional self-regulation as a vital mechanism in the regulatory mosaic needed for the global economy. It extends previous discussions of industry and professional self-regulation by Gupta and Lad (1983), Lad (1992), and Garvin (1983), to include concepts from systems and organization design (Kridel, 1995), and governance (Williamson, 1997) and applies them to regulatory issues emerging in Internet commerce and accounting standards.
62. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Bernhard Mark-Ungericht Newly emerging action groups and TNCs: Strategies, conflicts, interactions and potentials for organizational learning
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In this article I am concerned with new forms of civil society movements and how they interact with companies working internationally. In particular I analyze strategies of the participating players and try to develop some suggestions how organizational learning within complex and conflict-ridden environments could be made possible.
63. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Ann B. Matasar, Joseph N. Heiney Big Banks/Small Customers: The Impact of Riegle-Neal on the Banking Relationship
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Riegle-Neal altered the landscape of American banking by eliminating the prohibitions against interstate banking and branching and paving the way for the consolidation of the American banking system, it has created fewer, stronger banks which service their customers with no significant change in costs through an expanded branching network. Additionally the number of employees, salaries, and net income increased. The pessimism of those who opposed banking reform and the elimination of geographic restrictions on American banks appears unfounded.
64. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
M. J. H. Oomens, F. A. J. van den Bosch Managing and Organizing for Strategic Issues: an Analysis of European Multinationals' Practice
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This paper focuses on the way in which organizational and managerial processes influence the management of strategic issues within European-based multinational companies. Based on a literature review and case studies, an integrated managerial framework is developed showing the explanatory factors of proactive and reactive strategies in issue management.
65. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Teresa J. Rothausen, Charles M. Gray Psychological and Economic Perspectives on Work-Family and Potential Implications for Public and Organizational Policy
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The increased labor force participation rate of women has caused a shift in the social fabric of the United States and other industrialized countries. In response, there has been an explosion of work-family related research in psychology in the past several years. At the same time, economists have developed models for understanding the family and the work-family interface. Social costs of the way the work-family interface is managed in the United States have been identified in the psychological literature, but not incorporated into the economics models. This paper seeks to bridge that gap and discusses locus of responsibility for the work-family interface and policy implications thereof.
66. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Douglas A. Schuler, Karen E. Schnietz Hustled? U.S. Foreign Trade Missions, Corporate Political Contributions and Changes in Firm Value
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The Clinton Administration's activist foreign trade mission program has received much attention. Commerce Secretary Ron Brown was applauded for helping American firms break into often difficult-to-enter emerging markets. Since the number of firms seeking to participate regularly outstrips the supply of seats on missions, firms appear to agree that they provide economic benefit. However, there have also been widespread allegations that firms are chosen for participation based on political contributions. This paper finds that, although the firms chosen to participate on trade missions made significantly larger political contributions than firms not chosen for participation, they experienced no increase in shareholder value.
67. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Graeme Starr, Bill Kerley New Approaches to Public Consultation on Policy and Regulation in Australia
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This paper represents a preliminary report on ongoing case studies of public consultation in Australia, where significant changes in the political environment have impacted on the regulatory process. The cases reported here suggest that the common arguments for increased public consultation should not be accepted uncritically. In technical areas of policy, however, there are experiments with new approaches to effective regulation involving dimensions of consultation that merit further study and suggest a need for training of players in the consultative processes.
68. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Stelios Zyglidopoulos From Buffering to Bridging: An Investigation into the Brent Spar Controversy
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Managers fxing reputational crises can follow a buffering or a bridging approach. However, despite the importance of this decision, the reasons behind such a choice have not been adequately studied. This paper draws on die Brent Spar controversy to investigate the reasons behind Shell’s initial decision to buffer, and the reasons behind its subsequent change of mind into a bridging position.
69. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Shawn Berman, Heather Elms Visionary Companies and Their Stakeholders: Do Shareholders Share the Vision?
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This paper reviews and evaluates the current literature on visionary companies by empirically examining the behavior of shareholders in these companies. Given the articulated interest of these companies in long-term performance, shareholders in visionary companies should demonstrate lower rates of share turnover than shareholders in non-visionary companies. Results indicate instead that shareholders in visionary and non-visionary companies do not demonstrate significantly different rates of share turnover. These results suggest that shareholders in visionary companies do not share the vision, and thus question the ultimate effectiveness of these visions.
70. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Steven N. Brenner Integrating Mitchell, Agle and Wood’s Stakeholder Identification Approach With Brenner and Cochran’s Stakeholder Theory of the Firm: New Insights and Understanding
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Mitchell, Agle and Wood’s (MAW) recent AMR paper, “Toward a Theory of Stakeholder Identification and Salience: Defining the Principle of Who and What Really Counts,” provides a valuable lens through which to consider many stakeholder theory contributions. The criteria MAW use to sort potential stakeholders into more or less salient categories and the logical rationale behind those criteria illuminate the meaning of the four Stakeholder Theory of the Firm propositions in Brenner and Cochran (1991) and the extended set of six such propositions in Brenner (1995).
71. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Margaret Cording Compensation in the Financial Services Industry: A Modest Narrative on Conflicting Stakeholder Interests
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This paper uses a true example to explore how one firm adjudicated between conflicting stakeholder demands. Four normative theories of stakeholder management are examined to determine if the firm acted morally. In prescribing approaches for stakeholder adjudication, three of the four theories suggest the use of shared norms and values. Unpacking the example in these terms leads us to the counter-intuitive conclusion that breaking an implicit contract with employees in order to meet shareholder expectations is in fact morally acceptable within the culture of the financial services industry.
72. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Jerry Glover, Cheryl Van Deusen, Gordon Jones Issues in Organizational Change: Cultural Dilemmas, Stakeholders, and the Tyranny of the OR
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Traditional ways of organizing and managing have been challenged in the past two decades. Intense global competition, diversity, and environmental pressures are just a few of these challenges. Leaders are searching for new ways of doing things so that their respective organizations can respond and, in many cases, survive. To further complicate matters, few organizations are homogeneous. Instead, most contemporary organizations are collections of groups of diverse stakeholders, each with their own cultural orientations and values. Cultural dilemmas, “seemingly opposing” values of stakeholders in organizational settings, provide a valuable means for operationalizing and measuring the concept of culture in change initiatives.
73. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Jennifer J. Griffin Tracing Stakeholder Terminology: Convergence or Divergence?
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The increased focus on stakeholders and stakeholder research has ostensibly resulted in a ‘Tower of Babel” effect, where “there are many different disciplinary voices, talking in different languages to different issues and audiences” (Shrivastava, 1993: 33) about a seemingly similar topic: stakeholders. This study content analyzes recent stakeholder research to identify areas of convergence and divergence. We develop an organizing framework of stakeholder research focused on: structural, relational, and outcome components. Implications for future research are discussed.
74. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens, Frans A. J. Van den Bosch, Cees B. M. Van Riel Building Mutually Enforcing Relationships: Managing Diverging Interests Through Stakeholder Integration
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This paper focuses on the phenomenon of stakeholder integration. It provides a theoretical exploration of the concept, incorporating the dimensions of trust and collaboration, followed by a typology of benefits. The paper finishes with some concluding propositions.
75. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Michael Johnson-Cramer Stakeholder and Institutional Theories of Organization: Toward an Integrated Perspective
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This paper outlines an institutional approach to understanding stakeholder relationships. Despite profoundly different underlying assumptions, institutional theory offers a well-developed framework on which to base future stakeholder research. This paper sketches the central elements of such a framework then applies its insights to two important topics: stakeholder salience and corporation-stakeholder influence strategies.
76. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Fabrizio M. Pini, Alessandro G. Montel Barking Up the Wrong Tree: The Role of Final Customer in Fair Trade Retailing in Italy
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The issue of fair trade is extremely timely as it is shown by recent agreements on labour and trade conditions. Alter an introduction on fair trade principles and evolution in Europe and Italy, this paper depicts a model to interpret the role of social causes (with a particular reference to fair trade) as a competive tool for both not-for-profit organizations (NPOs) and enterprises. Secondly, the results of a qualitative survey on marketing strategies and performance of CTM-Mag (the Italian largest fair trade products importer and distributor) is presented. Finally, the strategic issues facing CTM-Mag future developments are depicted.
77. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Tara J. Radin Stakeholder theory and the Law
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Careful examination of specific legislation contributes significantly to our understanding and development of stakeholders, stakeholder relationships, and stakeholder theory. Incorporating legislative analysis contributes to the development of a more robust stakeholder theory.
78. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Stefan W. Schuppisser How research on social movement organizations can improve stakeholder management practice
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This paper criticizes the generic nature of many contributions to the stakeholder management literature. Although they may satisfy academic goals of developing stakeholder theory, these works neglect the needs of stakeholder management practitioners, as they do not help them to understand the operating logic of particular stakeholders, such as, for instance, non-market stakeholders. The paper refers to social movement theory as a background theory in order to develop propositions about associations between characteristics of social movement organizations and generic stakeholder attributes as proposed by Mitchell, Agle and Wood (1997). The goal of the paper is to draw attention on social movement theory in order to improve the practice of stakeholder management.
79. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Sanjay Sharma Sustainability Thinking and Practice: The Mediating Role of Stakeholder Salience in Institutional Isomorphism
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This article integrates perspectives from institutional theory and stakeholder salience theory to argue that the isomorphic intensity of institutional pressuresfor sustainability will be mediated by the salience of the stakeholder groups representing/channeling these forces for individual companies. A preliminary test of this framework is conducted using exploratory data on sustainability thinking and practices in the Canadian forest products industry.
80. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1999
Alan E. Singer Transforming Managers (And Their) Mental Models: The Case of Hyper-Competition vs. Stakeholder-Theory
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The question of choice, or "preferences" for conceptual models is placed within existing meta-modeling discourses that, to date, have not been fully assimilated into the business and society literature. Particular attention is paid to the - conceptual model of hyper-competition and to the stakeholder model of the firm. The models, with many others, are recast here as psychological triggers that can initiate a process of synergistic design, as well as an internal search, or a process of self-referral whereby an entity can become truly competitive.