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Displaying: 61-80 of 98 documents


61. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Brian K. Burton The Application of Code's Epistemic and Moral Models to Management Theory
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The ideas of Code (1991) concerning one version of feminist epistemology and moral theory are related to management theory. In particular, managerial decision making is understood as involving dialogue and recognition of the subjective nature of knowledge. The main focus is on a friendship model as grounding the decisionmaking process underlying the stakeholder theory of strategic management.
62. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
James Weber Assessing the Influence of the Moral Issue and its Intensity Upon Managerial Decision Making
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Business ethics research typically emphasize the influence of personal and organizational forces upon ethical decision making. While accepting these forces as important, Collins (1989) and Jones (1991) Buggest that the moral issue and its intensity may also influence the individuals’ resolution of an ethical dilemma. Utilizing a sample of 259 managers and a modified Moral Judgment Interview survey, this research reports that the type of harm and the magnitude of the consequences of a moral issue influence the moral reasoning criteria evoked to resolve the dilemmas, as predicted by Collins and Jones. This finding has significant theoretical, empirical, and practical impla.cato.ona, as discussed in the paper.
63. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Kirsten Poulsen Personal Information, Ethics and the Human Resource Manager: The Case of HIV/AIDS
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The collection of HIV/AIDS status about employees is a dramatic example of personal information and is used in this discussion of ethics and the Human Resource Manager. Specifically, privacy, confidentiality, the right to know and informed consent are examined. It is argued that a comprehensive HIV/AIDS policy would overcome the need for organisations to collect such information, and suggested that Human Resource Managers place more importance on ethics when making decisions.
64. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
David Clowney Ethical Perspectives on Employee Involvement Programs
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This paper considers ethical issues raised by El programs from three different viwpoints. From all three perspectives El programs are shown to be capable of ethically positive or negative uses. The conditions most likely to foster ethically positive and avoid ethically negative uses of El are the presence of structures which level unbalanced power relations in the workplace, and allow the interested parties to gain mutual benefits. In nearly all cases this means strong unions.
65. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
James C. Wimbush An Examination of Supervisory Influence on Subordinates’ Ethical Behavior
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Despite the compelling evidence that supervisors greatly influence the ethical behavior of their subordinates, there is recent research which suggests that the influence may not be as substantial as past studies have shown. The nature and extent of supervisory influence on the ethical behavior of subordinates, and its implications for practice and research are examined.
66. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Robert A. McDonald, Sara A. Morris Refining Brady's (1990) Utilitarian/Formalist Aptitude Scale
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We designed two studies in an effort to improve the psychometric properties of the Brady (1990) utilitanan/formalist aptitude scale. Study 1 required the development of construct definitions for utilitarianism and formalism; classification of items; and assessment of content validity. Study 2 involved scale development through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses; reliability assessment; and construct validation through evaluation of the convergent and discriminant validity. Results indicate that, whereas we can improve upon the psychometric properties of Brady's original scale, considerable additional work needs to be done.
67. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Elizabeth W. Michael, Grant T. Savage On the Road to Jerusalem: Exploring the Ethical Ground for Stakeholder Management
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Stakeholder management models provide a systematic way of analyzina and satisfying the stakes of a wide variety of individuals and groups. Yet the stakeholder model has come under criticism recently for its failure to incorporate a means for weighing and balancing competing interests in a manner consistent with both ethics and profit. Specific criticisms are addressed through the examination of various ethical principles and an assessment of their individual and collective congruence with stakeholder approaches, as well as the formulation of a typology to identify those issues most likely to contain ethical components. Two ethical screenino models are offered to facilitate organizational and managerial decisions involving stakeholder claims. The implications for stakeholder theory are then discussed.
68. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Timothy W. Edlund, Van Sriram Perceptions of Business Practices: The Minority View
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Ethical perceptions of business practices obtained from a sample composed largely of African American students are reported, in a pilot study. Relationships with demographic data are explored. No difference in perceptions were found related to religious group membership.
69. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
M. Bergeron, L. Bertrand, J. Leclerc Ownership Structure: A Preindicator of Risk Exposure of Financial Institution
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Based on the positive agency theory, one can assume that risk characteristics will differ according to ownership structure.Since human capital risk is harder to diversify than financial asset risk, it should account for the differences in risk preferences between stockholders and managers. Over the 1986-1991 period, it appears that for Canadian financial institutions, ownership structure does have an impact in selecting their degree of risk exposure: institutions under stockholder control are riskier than institutions under manager control.
70. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Leo V. Ryan Corporate Environmental Policy
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Corporate environmental responsibility is a part of a wider movement redefining the relationship between business and society. What are the trends in corporate environmental policy in the U.K.? This presentation stresses the role of professional associations in influencing "sustainable development" policies by UK firms and reports several studies of British firms admired for their environmental ethics.
71. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Kelly C. Strong Circulation Economies and Ecology Management: The Need for New Business Paradigms in Education, Practice, and Research
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Presently, environmental concern is at highest level since the decade of sixties. The renewed emphasis environmental issues, as evidenced by the new German circulation economy law, the popularity of Earth Day, the United Nation's Rio Conference on the environment, and a growth in corporate recycling and waste reduction programs, represents an increasing awareness of the unaccounted costs of waste within modern industrial societies. In response to this awareness of waste, many organizations are attempting to reduce their waste stream and reexamining traditional marketing and management practices. During this period of corporate and social reexamination, business educators, researchers, and advisors should also search for new paradigms of organizational management for use in classrooms, boardrooms and research programs. A paradigm of ecology management might be a useful starting point.
72. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Bryan W. Husted Free Trade, National Sovereignty, and the Environment: A Transaction-Cost Approach to Trans-Border Pollution and Environmental Regulation
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The paper proposes a heuristic model relating the comparative costs of market/government regulation to regulatory complexity and matches appropriate responses in a discriminating way. The model is then applied to problems of transborder environmental pollution.
73. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Mark Starik, Gordon Rands, Minna Halme, Gary Throop, Brian Chambers New Environmental Paradigms
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74. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Minna Halme Environmental Issues in Managerial Decision-Making: A Paradigm Shift in a Packaging Company
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The magnitude of environmental problems has expanded considerably over the past several decades, from pollution and solid waste issues to deforestation, soil erosion and other forms of natural resource depletion and degradation, to global concerns such as climate change and the thinning of the ozone layer. A growing number of studies suggest that there is a need for a new economic paradigm in which environmental issues have a more important role than they have at present. Not only governmental actions but also the individual acts of countless decision makers in the industrial sector will in large pan determine whether or not society is capable of taking effective action on environmental matters. This paper focuses on a paradigm shift in one organization, a Finnish packaging firm.
75. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Gary M. Throop Hev. buddy! C'n youse paradigm?
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The continuing deterioration of the biophysical environment constitutes an anomaly for the dominant paradigm in the management disciplines, and in particular strategic management theory. Managers in organizations are being forced to deal with phenomena that their present world models do not address. This requires the development of a new paradigm for organizations in their environment, including new fundamental assumptions, concepts, and models of how the world works.
76. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Mark Starik Is the Environment an Organizational Stakeholder? Naturally!
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The concept of "stakeholder" has become so widely accepted and used by both academics and practitioners in recent years that it can be perceived as an emerging management paradigm or worldview. However, most definitions of the concept include only human entities as organizational stakeholders. This paper advances the argument that the non-human natural environment and its components should be integrated into the stakeholder management concept. Such integration would provide a more holistic approach to stakeholder management, potentially benefitting both nature and organizations.
77. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Brian R. Chambers A Green Management Paradigm: Integrating Social, Business, and Bio-Physical Environments
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Green paradigms of management are building in their level of articulation. Environmental management, to be established as a discernible discipline, requires the development of analytic tools to evaluate organizational processes against their long term impact on ecosystems and human communities. This paper addresses the challenge of sustainable development from facets of technology, transnational organization, organizational learning, partnerships, and building competitive advantage.
78. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Carol Carlson The Ethical Concerns of the ANWR Decision: An American Legacy
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An analysis is made of the arguments of factions opposing exploration and development of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge using four lines of ethical reasoning. Positive externalities are delineated which appear to outweigh negative externalities. Arguments of preservationists are countered with facts showing evidence of compromise from industry. Where compromise between the opposing interest groups has been advocated and employed, collaboration, rather than compromise, is encouraged.
79. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Robert L. Swinth Sustain Ability as Strategy: Development Projects in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
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In this paper the relationship between angler hours and catch per hour in Yellowstone Lake over 40 plus years is examined in the context of management decision making. Both the former, an indication of economic development and the latter, an indication of environmental quality, seem on average to remain with acceptable levels even though one might expect them to be in conflict. The forces that might explain this co-existence are explored.
80. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society: 1993
Juha Näsi, Salme Näsi The Environmental Question as a Strategic Element in the Finnish Forest Sector: The impact of "the green phenomenon" on the business recipe of an entire business sector
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The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development and role of environmental issues in the context of the management of one sector - the forest sector- in Finland. As a result of this research project we are able to give an affirmative answer to the auestion: "Is it possible that the pressures exerted by the stakeholders have been so strong that environmental questions can today be considered to be strategic issues in the management thinking of an entire sector?"