Displaying: 1-20 of 69 documents

0.298 sec

1. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Lihua Liu 马克思主义价值观上的误区
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
Marxist value standpoint taking the value of working classes as more important and higher than universal human value has already been proved wrong by the antihuman practice led by the standpoint in the 20th century. Though the disastrous historical reality was definitely beyond or not the expectation of Marxism founders, the practice is logically necessary result of the unavoidable historical limitation and theory mistake of Marxism. In their early years, both Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels held the criterion of the universal human value such as freedom, democracy, equality and fraternity. However, decided or required by the spacetime concrete circumstance, they had to concretize the ideal of ‘human liberation’ into the aim of ‘the liberation of proletariat’. According to such the three principles: social existence decides social consciousness, there is no common human nature in a society in which people belong to the different classes, and productive forces is the final motive power and cause of social development, historical materialism demonstrates the supreme position of the value of working classes. These arguments are not persuasive in theory. Marxism itself has to take the universal human value as moral criterion against capitalism. Historical materialism has the problem of inherent reductionism in its epistemic methodology. Also, Marxism commits the obvious simple mistake to negate generality with specialty in expounding no common human nature existing in a class society. And The Marxism founders were rational arrogance when building their theory system. These are epistemology and psychology factors to form the prejudiced value standpoint. This reflection on the mistake of Marxist value standpoint expects to reach such a common consensus: to accept consciously and further improve and perfect the universal human values that mark the maturity level of today’s human spirit as human’s qualification.
2. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Mao-tang Dai “死”的三重哲学解读: 从苏格拉底之死说起 ―读《柏拉图全集》“申辩篇”、“ 斐多篇”有感
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
The paper has seriously explored the triple meanings of death in western philosophy by taking the instance of Socrates’ death. Comparing to God, the westernphilosophy emphasizes that death is necessary. Comparing to the materials, the western philosophy emphasizes that death is happy. Comparing to the man, the western philosophy emphasizes that death is independent.
3. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Li-jing Wang, Xin Xie 论积极的中庸——进取互利
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
Active reciprocity is a process of human harmonious development, which is based on reciprocity. Reciprocity is the result of trichotomy and the expression of golden mean; Active reciprocity is the expression of active golden mean, which discards the passive part of reciprocity. Active reciprocity is a form of rational collectivism which, generally speaking, has two rules for individual communication behavior, namely mutually benefiting and mutually tolerating. It also has three rules for individual behavior, namely benefiting the others without harming oneself, benefiting both oneself and others, benefiting oneself without harming others. It has, through norms, incorporated values and ideas such as fairness, reason, democracy, philanthropism, freedom, harmony, as well as right, responsibility, respect, tolerance, trust, sustainable development. However, it has to be pointed out that active reciprocity should oriented towards altruism, with the minimum requirement of doing no harm to others. Otherwise it will result in moral relativism.
4. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Zihu Liu 生命起源的理论模型和生命力延伸理论
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
This paper adopted a constructive thinking model which is highly abstract and summary to investigate the life phenomena. It is more inclined to avoid detailednonessentials to grasp macroscopic outline trend, which is like: clearly see the direction of mountain range only by climbing to a height and looking forward; the more you enter into the braches and knots of trees, the more difficult to distinguish the general picture of the forest. Adopting this macroscopical mode of thought, it will be easier to break away from the limitation of life body to grasp the inherent essence and common property of life. Any life is like a “running machine” and the running and living life state is the essential property of life. This life state isn’t windy; instead, it is a state of life material system and a state which could makematerial synthesis and energy transfer to keep automatic circulation and linkage running. When this state is established, life is formed. When this state is destroyed, life will be perished, when this state is restored, life could relive. It is the task of chemist and biologist to clarify precise material structure. From the property and characteristics of the life state, we could unearth the common connection and profound value meaning of movement development of objective world. It is Philosopher’s task to make it as the doctrine to guide the development of life world. On the basis of this life state, this paper put forth a theoretical model of life origin, so as to find answer of life origin theoretically. It opened passage between physical world and life world and made the life generated inmaterial system under specific condition to become an inevitable law. It will indicate orientation and a way out for the practical activity of exploring life origin. Meantime, this essay also found the vitality, which created life and push life to continuously run and develop, in addition, it created a significant theory of vitality extension. By means of life body, it downwardly connected with natural science law and upwardly connected with truth and doctrine of human society through life activity. It organically connected with material world, life world, human society and human spirit, offering an explanation to the world. It makes beautiful and simple world weltbild, which is like a developing and rising monument: A stele of weltbild.
5. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Jian Hu “平等”视角下的人权、民权与国权 ——孙中山的“三民主义”之价值
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
Sun Yat-sen’s superior position in modern Chinese history is represented in the movement of the modernization of China with him as a representative went from the stage of ‘imitation’ to the stage of ‘creativity’. He put forward, China, as a country engaging in modernization late, could draw on Western experience and lessons, run (“突驾”) from capitalism directly into socialism, and realize ‘accomplishing both the political revolution and the social revolution at one stroke’. He designed the modernization program of ‘accomplishing both at one stroke’ as the Three People's Principles (Nationalism, Democracy and the People's Livelihood); each separately connects with Human rights, civil rights and national sovereignty pursued by modern Chinese and the essence of them develops around the value of equality approved by socialist thoughts of the day. According to Sun’s thinking: 1. People’s livelihood is the root of the Three People'sPrinciples, which involves most primary human rights --- right of survival because the value of human’s seeking survival necessarily directs to ‘equality and helping each other’, which is the law of the evolution of humanity. So the justice of socialism lies in ‘Leveling out the differences between the rich and the poor’, which can be realized with many ‘artificial’ elements such as nation and morality, etc. What must be done by People’s livelihood in contemporary China are ‘equalizing landownership’, ‘regulating capital’ and ‘developing industry’. 2. Democracy is the request of ‘civil rights’ in the sense of modern democracy. In the special national situation of China, it presents itself as the specific political framework ‘balancing people’s civil rights with elite administration’. 3. The essence of nationalism lies in constructing modern Chinese national country to save the nation from crises. Sun Yat-sen pointed out: First, the foundation on which Chinese nations build up their country is totally different from that of the West. So the country must take ‘collectivism’ as its value direction. Secondly, the ethos of the Chinese nation is different from that of the West. Chinese national country must take ‘morality first’ as the direction of value. Sun’s point of view is unique and single-eyed but contains unavoidable historical limits.
6. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
DongKai Li 民主是为了保护人权
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
Freedom is natural, Human rights come from nature, human strive for happiness, in a civilization society, how to protect human right? how to help people strive for happiness? The answer is the democracy. Democracy is not simply a kind of political system, but the essence way to protect human right, the best way to help people get the happiness. So, the democracy political system, is used to protect people’s human rights, protect equality. To assist people get happiness, it is not only the political game frame rules. So, the way to judge a country’s political system democracy or not, is to see if that system could protect peoples’s human rights, if it could assist people’s working for happiness in economy and political, if it goes in the direction of human’s civilization. To judge democracy is not by the shape, but the essence inside. So, in different place /country, probably the democracy shape is not the same, but the democracy value, the democracy essence could be the same. Only the democracy political system is the only correct political system in civilization time. The root basis theory of my democracy come from my new ontology and cognition, as following : New ontology: The Onto is the uniform contradiction being. The essence of people: The uniform contrast body within people’s body, is “ ego and nonego.“ New Cognition: Cognition course moves by the force from the contrast between the Ego and Nonego within an exist being live body. “EGO” + “Nonego” →→ Force to move(N times) →→Feeling(N times) →→ Idea(N numbers) + thinking(N times) →→Knowledge (N numbers) ≈ Object →→ =Object
7. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
Zhen-Rong Gan The Political Pluralistic Conception of Human Right
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
There is a discrepancy between human rights theories and the contemporarily international human rights practice. The discrepancy is not only generated by theexpectable distance between the ideal and the real world, but also generated by the consequence which the orthodox conception of human rights theories cannot proper account for the role of human rights in the contemporarily international relations. Furthermore, the orthodox conception cannot be compatible with political pluralism; for it often justify the ground of human rights with human dignity and presuppose the independence and the autonomy of persons. I propose that the orthodox conception fails to supply two good reasons for dispelling the doubt on the western cultural imperialism---one is human rights may beaccepted by the different cultures and moral codes with the method of overlapping consensus; the other is the orthodox conception does not prefer to liberal values. Instead of the orthodox conception, I suggest that we have to justify the ground of human rights according to the political pluralistic conception if we hope human rights can be universalized in the world. The political pluralistic conception will not only avoid the doubt on the western cultural imperialism, but alsoconsist with the role of human rights in the contemporarily international relations.
8. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 11
DongKai Li 人权就是天赋的
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
In order to meet the demand from ego, “I” move.”I” need the freedom to move, the purpose of my move is for my (ego) demand to support my living. And, only “I” know my this living demand, others, who are not in my body, so they do not know. So, in order to make “I” live, “I” must have the right and freedom to move/act/work. Without that right and freedom, “I” can not move, then, can not meet the demand from my “ego”, namely, can not live. So, after “I” was born, thefreedom and right for my living should be there with “me” by way of nature. Human rights just means that basic freedom and right for living gifted by nature when a people was born. Although, of course, very probably somebody seems has no freedom and right for himself, however, he does has his freedom and right which was gifted by the nature, even though his freedom and right was limited by others. If the human right is not gifted by nature, but given by somebody else, then, there will produce two question, one is from where, these “somebody else” who ever “gave” the right and freedom to other people, get their human right? another is , “I” was born by way of nature, if at same time, “I” has not human right, that means I was not able to move to meet my demand from my body , in this way, “I” will die, even though “I” still live, but my demand in my body was sometime or partly satisfied by somebody else, this means, “I” am not independent! But, after born, “I” am independent, an independent being in the world. How to demonstrate that “I” am independent by nature? This is a question. Only this question be resolved, then, human right get root logical basis. The way to confirm if a being independent or not, is to see if this being has a uniform contrast body inside this being. auniform contrast body could produce power itself, with this power, an independent being could exist by itself. To realize the uniform contrast body inside a being, we must find out the root uniform contrast body in the nature, namely, THE ONTO. After we find out the Onto, then, we know any uniform contrast body inside a being, is only a kind of specific uniform contrast body. For example, people, human being, inside a people, what is the uniform contrast body? Following is theanswer: MY New ontology: The Onto is the uniform contradiction being. The essence of people: The uniform contrast body within people’s body, is “ego and nonego. “New Cognition: Cognition course moves by the force from the contrast between the Ego and None go within an exist being live body. Following is the Cognition move course way: “EGO”+“Nonego”→→Force to move(N times)→→Feeling(N times)→→Idea(N numbers) + thinking(N times)→→Knowledge (N numbers) ≈ Object →→ =Object WITH ABOVE DEMONSTRATE WAY, we could be clear a human being, “I” was an independent being in the nature. So,human being must has the freedom and right for to be there as a living being.
9. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 13
Fang-Wen Yuan “The Strict Deduction System Is Impossible to Derive the Contradiction” And the Proof
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
Based on the strict definitions of concepts, such as deduction, the deduction rule and the deduction system, the form axiom, the substantive axiom, this article clearly shows the essence of the deductive reasoning, namely “Related attribute and the related restriction relations, which are conveyed in what the main concept of the deduction refers to, must be contained in those conveyed in what the premise proposition refers to”。Then puts forward the theorem “contradiction can not be derived from the strict deduction system”, and gives the proofs.
10. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Guilin Shen 信息在宇宙中的作用
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
Information has usually been defined as one of the properties of substance and a reflection of the substance world. A new perspective is introduced in this paper concerning the nature of information and its role in the cosmos. The five characteristics of information are discussed in the first part of this paper. While the passivity allows information to be transferred, copied, recorded, and displayed, the other four characteristics of information (i.e. initiative, independent, expressive, and holographic) make it the fundamental element of the cosmos, which generates the cosmos, life, consciousness and human culture. Based on the findings of physics and astrophysics, this view is explored more by defining information as a pattern of orders throughout the cosmos, with series of parameters, functions and programs. It is argued that, the cosmos is the existence of process instead of things; the information is reality itself instead of a property of substance; and the substance is one of the forms in which information expresses itself during its evolution. An original framework named “Information Order N” (N is any integer between 0 and 7) is described in the second part of this paper. This scale of information evolution starts from initial information, which is an intrinsic pattern that inhered from maternal universes. The seven orders after that are dimension and superstring, substance and energy, life, consciousness, system of the earth (with a combination of eco-system and human culture), system of the Milky Way Galaxy, system of the cosmos. This “Information Order N” scale unifies substance,life, consciousness, human culture, and everything in the cosmos into one system of information evolution. In another word, the cosmos is information itself.
11. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Liu Lihua 论“哲学铁三角”及当今哲学丢了什么?
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
As a reference frame for reflection on the past and future of philosophy, this paper offers a ‘Iron triangle of Philosophy’ category. Philosophy is defined as “A study of seeking or displaying Tao by a reasonable way ”. Though Chinese philosophy and Western philosophy are very different and highly supplementary in expression, structure, element and building way, as the studies of seeking or displaying Tao, both possess inherently unified ontology, axiology and epistemology, that is ‘Iron triangle of Philosophy’. These three legs mutually support and its structure of three legs is not from philosophers’ designing subjectively but decided by the essential needs of human life or human being nature. The ‘Iron triangle of Philosophy’ functions as the nuclear core or the soul of human spirit culture. Since the later half of 19th century, the main stream of Western philosophy has lost the most of the three legs, therefore could not enter the core or soul level ofthe culture and has been fringed in the culture. Also Chinese philosophy, since 1840, has slowly lost its broadly comprehensive ontology, its axiology with the universal ethics held by the ontology, and its epistemology or methodology of knowing that pursue harmony and suitability. It is not enough only to simply recover the old format for “regaining” what philosophy lost, we need to engage very difficultly rebuilding work for this.
12. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Daoerjixiribu Borjgin A Revolution of Philosophy: Bionomy - A Kind of New World Doctrine
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
"I" will is the percondition of knowing, while "I" is identical lift of both substance and spirit. Life will reveals itself from chaos. knowing belongs to life cross-referenced an in fact, it is a indication theory of will rather than a pure theory of knowing. "I" is a narrow sense of life, but it also should indicate a broad sense of life. Word is a life creature life is the only absolute one. The showing of one thing is before existence. (Existence is a character of life rather than a certainessence transcending a life). Life spirit reflects the life of the life world. - Thought is life. Existence is experience, while the existence of experience is "human" - human is the product of experience of animals "human" is a personal from, and human doctrine is personal doctrine. A country is second person andgovernment officers are persons of great bulk. Power theory distories the world, while existence theory distories the life. Showing is the form of life and it is a duty - to show life, to show the life word, this is duty theory. It is compulsory struggle that can thoroughly guarantee the relative power. We human should set up a world country - a world life organization, to shake of counter action in a country. A country democracy is a false democracy, while back democracy is real world democracy. Life exists in a impulse way. This is the real final arrangement of life impulse. As soon as society get in to the life orbit the most ideal basicorganization for human is sex organization "Philosophy", in fact, it is life science, a broad sense of life science. (theory of life)
13. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
He Lai “形而上学批判”与“形上维度的拯救” - 论马克思哲学与形而上学关系的两个基本向度
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
The critique to metaphysics has become one of the most important topics of contemporary philosophy. Marx’s philosophy has a special standing-point on this topic. On the one hand, Marx announces the end of metaphysics when metaphysics means a thinking-mode and philosophical form. But on the other hand, Marx tries to rescue the philosophical spirit behind metaphysics, namely the spirit of critique, the spirit of freedom and the spirit of transcendence. In the philosophical history, Marx establishes a unique way to criticize metaphysics, we can call it “the social and historical critique of metaphysics”, through this approach, Marx tries to discard the dogmatic side of metaphysics and save its active elements at the same time. This special standing-point of Marx on metaphysics makes him differ from classical metaphysicians and contemporary deconstructionist.
14. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 15
Ming Wong 阴阳理论 一个熵定律的形而上学
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
For the life system, the being behind physics being is a being of unequilibrium thermodynamics system with high negative entropy. The western science, the western philosophy includes the rationalism, and non-rationalism, the post modernism can't be complete to describe this metaphysics being. But the yin and yang theories is complete to describe this at the right moment and more. The yin and yang theories is the metaphysics of the life system, is the metaphysics of the being with negative entropy.
15. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Cheng gong Tian 哲 学 的 追 求 — 三条公设的提出
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
“Entire philosophy, especially the basic important point of contemporary philosophy, is the connected point between logic and existence.” The top, basic and key point is logic and existence or spirit and matter. How to understand this point becomes the important symbol of different development stages and different philosophy schools, one’s essence of world outlook as well. Philosophy, which belongs to thinking field, pertains to “software system”, is the platform for scientific research of other subjects. Formula One, the universe is rooted in matter, united in spirit; Formula Two, the universe is potential energy. Formula Three, the universe is function. Modernization is digital! Digital philosophy! Digital spirit world!
16. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Hee-sung Kim 主观唯物主义哲学何以可能?
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
1. The definition of subjective materialism: Subjective materialism is not a simple definition, it is a new system of both the conception of the world and the methodology. The definition and the comprehension of the subjective materialism can be much many, but I can definite it with a simple definition after I have grasped it’s core guiding principle: actually, the subjective materialism is a system of both the conception of the world and the methodology which create and illumination the equation material (information)=idea (information) in a materialistic way. 2. The background and condition of subjective materialism come into being: The human society has developed in a information age, but the materialist philosophy still stay in the 19th century of industrial society, which has not fully reflected the spirits of our times and is more difficult to lead the development trend of world philosophy. Materialist philosophy needs to develop. 3. The theory sources of subjective materialism: First of all, subjective materialism is the result of the development of western philosophy, including the modern western philosophy theory. Second, subjective materialism is also undoubtedly a result of development of Marxist philosophy. Third, the subjective materialism is also the result of ancient oriental philosophy. If the subjective materialism must be a definition of western philosophy, then the thinking of “Rune” must be the product of oriental philosophy. 4. Meanings of the new philosophy: Subjective materialism philosophy must be different from modern west philosophy and postmodern philosophy. And it’s essential meaning is rebuild the philosophy and put the metaphysics in our view once again. So, both the conception of the world and the methodology of “Rune” structure are the completely subversion to all the monism philosophy, and are the completely new structure system of philosophy ontology.
17. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
XiPing Feng 马 克 思 哲 学 是 劳 动 哲 学 ─对当代中国哲学主流的反思
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
The labor philosophy is a concept formatting by reflection on practical philosophy in contemporary China and a regression from the understanding of Marx’s philosophy foundation to Marx text. That Marx’s philosophy is explained to be practical philosophy by Italian Labriola, Gramsi and Yugoslavia practice school in 20 century produced great effect on research filed of Marx’s philosophy. Practical philosophy has been rising in the study of Marx’s philosophy in China mainland since more than 20 years ago, it is the mainstream discourse in philosophical circles of modern China mainland. In the study course of contemporary China practice philosophy, it general falls into four theoretical patterns: practice epistemology, practice ontology, communicative practical theory and practice materialism and they once promote the study of Chinese Marx’s philosophy effectively. Practice is the key category of Marx’s philosophy. But practice category presents gradually the trend of totalization in the study course of practice philosophy, That the practice form being presented diachronically such as material production labor, the activities of dealing with social relations and science experiment etc. is coordinated synchronically makes the historicity of practice be masked, thus the characteristic of Marx’s philosophy is weakened and the rationality problem of practice philosophy appears slowly: the practice category being totalized has not been a origin category of Marx’s philosophy. The basic connotation of practice in Marx’s philosophy is material production labor. Just on the base of labor category, Marx exploited existence theory in existentialism; Only let labor category be logic starting point can we clarify the basic characteristic of Marx’s philosophy in existentialism dimension. The paper refers to the concept of labor philosophy in order to emphasize that the labor category is the origin of Marx’s philosophy and the breakthrough of his philosophy revolution. With the logical development of labor category, we can give a new explanation on the system, contemporariness and cosmopolitism of Marx’s philosophy in order to reach a new realm of the study of Marx’s philosophy.
18. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 16
Jiaming Chen 现代性问题对哲学的挑战
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
The challenges, resulting from modernity’s secularized results, to philosophy mainly present as the following three aspects. First, whether philosophy also undergoes a similar secularizing process? Whether metaphysics should be abandoned, and enters into a “post-philosophy age”? In such a transformingprocess, how philosophy can find a right position for itself? Second, the challenge from the issue of monistic /pluralistic in modernity studying is the most central one. In order to answer the issue philosophically, it needs us to reconsider deeply the concepts of “one and multiple”, “universal and particular” as well as theirrelations. This indicates not only that philosophy has to do explanations, but also that philosophy has to offer grounds for explanations. Thirdly, is philosophy of language able to become a paradigm for cognition? Can it have universality when the philosophical paradigm, abstracted from reflections on language,applies to explain things? Although the results of “linguistic turn” in 20th century enrich our understanding of language, but if philosophy wants to provide new grounds for knowledge, society and culture, then it ought to go out the circle of philosophy of language, and to find its new base.
19. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
Abraham HZ Zhang 真气哲学
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
The peper like tone flowed through thoughts of Taoist, Confucian, Heidegger, Nietzsche, Spinoza, Goethe, Hegel, Marx, Rousseau, Sun Yat‐Sen, Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Kant, etc.. Not for pursuing a philosophy to combine cultures between Chinese and Western, but for return to the shared Spring of the Truetone. What is the Truetone? <Holy Bible> says: “God is Spirit.” The spirit of Hebraic is ruagh that means the Truetone of Tao, so it can be also translated as “God is the Truetone.” All things are controlled by both the invisible Truetone and conceittone with different purpose. The Truetone is for the Grace of life, but the conceittone is for destruction. The Truetone made the Spring, the Spring made the Word. The Trinity of the Truetone, Spring, and Word, makes all things. The characteristic of Chinese is invisible tone, the characteristic of Western philosophy is visible word. The paper trys to allow all beings to be released from the conceittone and return to the Grace of Jesus because He is the Spring of the Truetone, and then all persons can get the full graces in different cultures given by the Truetone.
20. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 17
DongKai Li 本体就是矛盾对立统一体
abstract | view |  rights & permissions
From the very beginning of Philosophy. The Onto was just the target object of human’s thinking. Aristotle ever demonstrated that the Onto is a pure format being. (本体是纯 形式体) Then, what is this Onto? What is this pure format being? I present an answer in my this paper. If an object could exist independently, then, I call it “ZHUTI”(主体); If a “ZHUTI” could be felt , then, I call it “SHITI”(实体), such as the stone, the tree; If a “ZHUTI” could not be felt , then, I call it “XUTI”(虚体), such as the law ,the rule in the nature.“SHITI” or “XUTI” is the special being of the Onto. Refers to the Onto, its attribute is the common attribute of all the “ZHUTI”. Weknow the movement is the common attribute of all the “ZHUTI”. Then, we could say the movement is also the attribute of the Onto. From where the movement come? Besides from external, the movement come from the contradiction inside the “zhuti”, for a pair of contradiction units within a same “zhuti” could produce the force for the movement. The Onto move of course by its inside force. So, in the Onto there should be a pair of contradiction units which produce the force. Nothing could dominate the Onto. So, the pair of contradiction units in the Onto should be not another “zhuti”, but the Onto itself. This means the pair ofcontradiction units in the Onto is the Onto itself. So, the Onto is just that uniform contradiction being. It is there independently, but can not felt, so, it is “XUTI”. In the word of Aristotle, it is the pure format being(纯形式体)。The uniform contradiction being is the Onto. The Onto is the uniform contradiction being. Any “zhuti” is a kind of special uniform contradiction being body. Human, is also a kind of special uniform contradiction being body. Then, what is the uniform contradiction being body in human? This is another topic for further study. As per above answer of the Onto, we could get the way to find out what is the uniform contradiction being body in human, after we find out this answer, then, we could find out all the knowledge about the human being. These study, in fact, is already just the study ofOntology and Cognition. Here are several key words and the define in this paper: “ZHUTI” (主体) “SHITI” (实体) “XUTI” (虚体)*** “BENTI” (本体)