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1. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Jingzhao Liu 当代哲学怎样成为“自由的学校”?
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联合国教科文组织在2005年发表的《跨部门哲学战略》中把哲学比喻为“自由的学校”。显然,这一比喻是基于哲学在当今时代的独特价值。本文旨在简要论证当代哲学怎样成为“自由的学校”:首先,时代的变革与深层次矛盾要求哲学做出积极回应;其次,哲学“自由的学校”应该体现为开放性、创造性和生活化三个向度; 第三,“ 自由的学校”意味着,哲学将不再是哲学家把玩的知识古董和教条,而应当是所有人均可从中获益的精神家园。
2. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 10
Cai Hou 哲学的伦理化与现代性的重塑
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当代哲学发展的一个重要趋向是哲学的伦理化,即哲学经过古代的宗教化和近代的科学化之后而进入道德和伦理之域。哲学发展的这一重要趋向给当代哲学提出的首要和根本任务是“合理的现代性” 的塑造和构建。它规定了当代哲学的最重要的使命和任务,也构成思考当代哲学发展的基本的立足点和视域。“现代性”的基本矛盾是科学性与价值性、民族性与时代性的矛盾。“合理的现代性”及其塑造应体现科学性与价值性、民族性与时代性的有机统一。所以,当代哲学应自觉地致力于解决科学性与价值性、民族性与时代性的矛盾,致力于人类价值观的重建以及引导人类需求方式和生存方式的改变。这是对当代哲学发展的重大挑战,同时也是当代哲学发展的重大契机。
3. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Jinglin Li On the Kingcraft Spirit of Confucianism
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The Confucian theory of kingcraft represented a spirit of “moral supremacy”. Confucius and Mencius distinguished “kingcraft” from “rule by force”, which not only emphasized their essential difference at the level of value, but also paid great attention to their relevancy and overlapping of the meaning of existence at the level of being beneficial to society and achievements. The Confucian put emphasis on “justice and humanity” as the highest principle in ethical community, instead of “profit”. Only with morality and justice as the ultimate purpose and the highest principle, can utilitarian successes be purified and can the value as a human being be realized, therefore, constituted the true connotation and internal elements of “kingcraft”. Confucian kingcraft theory can be summarized as: a kind of morality-based principle of the unity of morality-utility. With regard to the principles of international relations, the Confucian kingcraft theory put particular emphasis on the internal unity of the way of heaven, god’s will, benevolent heart, the public opinion, people’s emotions and feelings, and highlighted the transcendental meaning of the principle of moral supremacy. Nowadays, the kingcraft spirit is still of great significance theoretically and practically.
4. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Shaoming Chen Between Benevolence and Righteousness
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The notion of benevolence-righteousness (ren-yi 仁义) un-doubtedly constitutes the core of Mencius’s theory concerning the goodness of human nature, it also holds the key to the entire Confucian ethics. Despite the fact that we normally give Confucius credit for his discussion over the concept of benevolence (ren 仁), it is Mencius who creates the conjoint of benevolence-righteousness (ren-yi 仁义).But as a category benevolence-righteous-ness (ren-yi 仁义) does not represent a sheer combination of benevolence (ren 仁) and righteousness (yi 义), but suggests a new or reformative version of this line of thought in the intellectual development within Confucian tradition. Mencius’s unique contribution by no means lies in an effort of simply forming a linkage between the two terms, but in the fact that he gives this concept a deeper connotation so as to transform it into an intrinsic-meaning-structure. Mencius’s thinking on this regard is mainly expressed through his theory of human nature, which forms the relation of benevolence (ren仁) and righteous-ness (yi 义), the two most important among the four starting point (si-duan四端). This paper aims to seek a comprehension of the Confucian stance towards evil or the negative phenomena in morality. According to Mencius’s under-standing, the meaning of righteousness is twofold, namely the sense of shame and the hatred of evil. Insofar as consciousness-structure is concerned, both pertain to the compassion for the innocent victims. The former refers to sort of reflection and repentance due to one’s sense of compassion; the latter to one’s coming forward against evil driven by the sense of compassion. Together they depict the whole picture of the Confucian treatment of the evil or immoral phenomena. Thus the sense of shame and that of the hatred of evil become an essential resource for the study of the sense of justice in Confucianism. In a word, the notion of benevolence-righteousness (ren-yi 仁义) indicates the combination of promoting the good and prohibiting the evil, whose function can be taken in both ethical and political terms.
5. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Zhang Haiyan “Good by Beauty” or “Unification of Beauty and Good”: Comparison of Aesthetic Status in Kant’s and Mou Zong-san’s Theory
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Both Kant’s and Mou Zong-san’s aesthetics have its own moral idea. The central concept of Kant’s theory (free will) is only a postulate by which beauty connects nature and freedom and beauty can be free of the dependency of good. Kant’s great works “Three Critics” reveal that and emphasize on the independency of beauty, which regards beauty as the intermedium of “Beauty by Good”. But the central concept of Mou Zong-san’s moral metaphysics (goodness) is the noumenon of “Unification of Noumenon and Function”. It means the dependency of objectivity on subjectivity, transcendent on empirical, then beauty have the moral connotation and the meaning of empirical experiences. Beauty is brought into the field of goodness and loses its independency, and then beauty is united into morality and under the shadow of good. In conclusion, Kant’s theory unfolds the western tradition of reason and Mou Zon-san’s theory unfolds the oneness of Chinese tradition.
6. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Lanfen Li An Alternative Interpretation of Neo-Confucianism: An Analysis on Tang Yongtong’s Li Xue Zhan Yan
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Tang Yongtong’s contribution is not directly related to the topic we discussed, that is the interpretation of classic works. However, his study on the history of the classical interpretaion has played a special role in this field, that’s why we should take him into the horizon of our discussion. Li Xue Zhan Yan is one of his early works, the theme of which is to interpret the thoughts of Neo-Confucianism. Therefore, through analyzing this article, this paper wants to disclose Tang’s unique concern on the thoughts of Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming, and elucidate his particular opinions on classic and interpretation, as well as his unique style of interpretaion. This job will be divided into four parts, and it will point out that, the way of Tang’s interpretation is neither traditional explaination of word, e.g. commentary sentence by sentence, nor pure theoretical construction, by exerting Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming’s thoughts freely. In contrast, Tang has his own concern. From his own understanding of Chinese culture and the faith that Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming’s thoughts can rescue man’s mind, moral and malady of his time, Tang convinces that in the classics of Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming, there is some special ‘meaning’. In his classical interpretation, Tang not only has some cultural conservative feelings, but also requires ‘content’ (An) and ‘practical’(Shi). However, actually, in his afterwards life, this kind of interpreting style is not persisted.
7. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Yongming Li 墨子环境思想的现代意义
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现代社会发展,强调的是可持续发展。其核心是经济发展与保护资源、保护生态环境的协调一致,是为了让子孙后代能够享有充分的资源和良好的自然环境。即要求在严格控制人口、提高人口素质和保护环境、资源永续利用的前提下进行经济和社会的发展。墨子“尊天” 、“崇地”,就是尊重大自然的规律,顺应自然。他的核心思想“兼爱”,除了要求处理好人与人之间的关系,更希望人与自然之间兼相爱交相利。他提出“节用”,看到了环境容量的有限性。墨子倡导人与自然的和谐相处,在今天看来,特别难能可贵。可以说,墨子的环境思想是中国古代环境思想的一个重要里程碑。今天,环境问题发展到十分尖锐的地步,在全球范围内出现了不利于人类生存和发展的征兆,资源短缺、耗竭,表明了环境问题的复杂性和长远性。兼爱,显示出墨子这位伟大哲人思想之深刻。循此,可以为人类的现代发展找到一条可行的出路,使子孙后代能够永续发展和安居乐业。
8. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Caigang Yao Liu Zong-zhou’s Doctrine of Mistake-Correction and its Ethical Inspiration
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One of the important contents, concerning the theory of self-cultivation of Liu Zongzhou, the great scholar of Confucius at the end of Ming Dynasty, is the doctrine of mistake-correction. On the one hand, Liu Zongzhou considered the metaphysical foundation of mistake-correction and holds that the more clearly the man recognizes the inwardness ontology, the more acutely he can find his own mistake and the more confidently he can correct the mistake; on the other hand, he made careful classification of human mistakes and advocated some innovative opinions on how to correct mistakes. The ethical inspiration for the mistake-correction doctrine of Liu Zongzhou lies in the following: firstly, it has to face the dark side of human nature. Liu Zongzhou illustrates the innate goodness of human nature while carefully examining the dark side of it, which inspires us a lot. In other words, the doctrine of good human nature in Confucian, only shows a kind of potential ability, however, if the evil in realistic human nature, is overlooked, the potential ability can hardly fully realize its promise. Secondly, it has to have the idea of life time mistake-correction. It is shown by Liu Zongzhou’s doctrine of mistake-correction, that it is not easy for a man to correct mistake. The man, in the first place, has to have the courage to admit his mistakes which he can find and reflect and correct. To correct the mistakes cannot be finished overnight, but in the everyday of human life and in the whole process of the whole life.
9. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Liangkang Ni A New View of the Problem of the Relationship of Founding between Objectivating Act and Non-objectivating Act
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Both Chu Hsi and School of Wang Yang-ming distinguished two kinds of moral consciousness: one is “Emotion latent” as non-objective, un-objective moral consciousness; the other is “Emotion shown” as intentional moral consciousness which intends concrete object. Accordingly, they also point out two kinds of different Kung-fu (practice). As for the questions of “Emotions shown or latent”, both of them have common ontological understand and Kung-fu’ understand. “Emotion latent” (as pro-objectivating act) and “Emotion shown” (as post-objectivating act) are two kinds of “non-objectivating act”, they have different foundational relations with objectivating act. Thus, the relations between objectivating act and non-objectivating act in the background of Phenomenology achieve a completely new interpretation in the horizon of the doctrine of Mind of Confucianism
10. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 9
Yongyi Zhang The thought of Fang Yizhi in his later years reflected in Renshu Lou Bielu
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Renshu Lou Bielu, a very short dialogue, is very important datum for us to understand the thought of Fang Yizhi (1611-1671) in his later years. We could get some conclusions from it. First, Fang Yizhi has never given up the attention to knowledge even if he was under pressure to become a Buddhist monk. Second, he never forgot the identity of Confucius even though he was an abbot in Qingyuan Mountain. Last, most of his theories have come from the Book of Changes even though he agrees with the syncretism of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism.