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1. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 20 > Issue: 39
Fernando Manuel Ferreira da Silva Das Gespräch Zwischen Hölderlin, Hegel und Schelling Über Kants Antinomien
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«Die Art, wie er den Mechanismus der Natur mit ihrer Zweckmäßigkeit vereiniget, scheint mir eigentlich den ganzen Geist seines Systems zu enthalten»; This quotation, which originated the present essay, is solely extracted from a letter sent by Hölderlin to Hegel, and yet, it condensates three different approaches from the three Tübingen friends to the problem of Kant’s philosophy of religion and to its possible resolution between 1795 and 1796. From this epistolary dialogue emerges a simultaneous study of Kant, originated by the growing dissension towards the orthodox thought of the Stift. The tuming point - or the maximum cumulative point - of this discordance happens precisely with the discovery of the «spirit of Kant’s System», as a combined explanation of the religious and philosophical phenomena [«Die Art, wie er den Mechanismus der Natur mit ihrer Zweckmässigkeit vereiniget»]. This, I think, is something which the three friends discover gradually and not independently from the concept of «providence», which Kant himself, according to Hölderlin, had used to «attenuate his antinomies», which Hegel uses in his first religious writings and the initial formation of his own philosophy and which Schelling will later explore in his System of Transcendental Idealism. In a word, providence is consensually the comprehension axis between man, God and nature and, thus, the explanatory link between the antinomical poles which regulate human existence. On the other hand, however - this being the aspect I would like to stress - , this decisive moment for a whole generation, for the history of philosophy itself, means the consummation of a new revolutionary perspective born in Kant, a new vision of the absolute and the divine and, therefore, a new way to write philosophy about philosophy, less philosophical than before, to the extent that the new situation of man and his reflection within the problem ultimately destined them - as is the case in the three young philosophers - to silence and death. The final aim of this essay is, therefore, to know what this «last step of philosophy» is and what dies along with it, what such a step may have meant and what it already foretold in terms of the development of philosophy.
2. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 41
Bernd Kast Die Gesetzlosigkeit und Eigengesetzlichkeit Stirners ud Simmels Individuelles Gesetz: Stirners Einfluss auf Simmel und Dessen Stirner-Rezeption
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In most of his published works, Georg Simmel dealt with themes which were also motives of concem for Stimer, such as the One and society, the individual and genre, social formations and domination, the problem of duty, egoism versus communism. Contradictions and parallelisms to Stimerian motifs can be found in Simmel’s thought since its early stages. Starting with an analysis of whether or not these are direct references to Stimer, this paper intends to show the relation between these thinkers and the possibility of a direct influence on Simmel by Stimer, namely in regards to their common idea of “individual law”.
3. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 21 > Issue: 41
Frank Hansel “Wie Hast Du’s Mit der Religion?” Religionstheorie Und -Kritik Nach Stirner
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Well before Friedrich Nietzsche had Max Stirner with great Gestus shouted (spelled) out the death of God and pulled away the veil of the realm of spirits. Religion critique after Stirner, which follows a clarified Enlightenment, can thereafter for all intents and purposes be only of two sorts: On the one hand, to explain how mankind (has) created its’ Religion and its’ Gods: Gunnar Heinsohn settles this. And on the other hand to point out: Which functional equivalents are themselves found as (religious) beliefs of humankind - freely adapted from Feuerbach: The truth of Religion is the need for it. The free self after Stirner, that knows rationally of the non-existence of God, chooses for itself its’ own respective God, or, it being strong enough, can leave it also as is.
4. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 22 > Issue: 44
Dirk Michael Hennrich Alexander Gottlieb Baumgartens Ästhetik und die Desastres de la Guerra des Francisco de Goya: Ein Beitrag zu Einer Ästhetik des Schattens
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Als ein Beitrag zu einer Ästhetik des Schattens deutet der vorliegende Artikel auf die Verwandtschaft zwischen dem ästhetischen Schatten bei Alexander G. Baumgarten und den Gravuren von Francisco de Goya. Der Schatten zeigt sich dabei, nach einer kurzen Einführung in den Begriff, als der grundlegende Modus der Darstellung und der Möglichkeit der Erkenntnis im Allgemeinen. Ohne den Schatten, als das Dritte zwischen Licht und Finsternis, ist weder die Vernunft noch die Unvernunft einsehbar. Auch diese Einsicht gehört in die Epoche der Aufklärung.
5. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 23 > Issue: 46
Dirk Michael Hennrich Tragische Dispositionen der Moderne. Stimmung und Aura im Wandel des Landschaftsbegriffs
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The present text deals with the relation between the consolidation and the development of landscape-painting and the concept of landscape during the 19th century and the catabasis of a certain economy of disposition until our days. The process of the transformation and overcoming of landscape-painting reflects the decadence of an entire epoch, influencing the introduction of the dispositions into philosophy, as well the initiation of a new philosophical discipline, the Philosophy of Landscape.
6. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 27 > Issue: 53
Gerd Hammer Georg Simmel, Stefan George und der Erste Weltkrieg
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Initially, the Great War was received euphorically by many writers and philosophers, including Max Weber, Martin Buber and Max Scheler along with Georg Simmel. For Simmel, the war was synonimous with a greater pace of life, a form of dealing with / overcoming the levelling of society caused by the worshipping of money (´Mammonismus`). This exaltation of the war on the part of intellectuals was not common to all – the harsh criticisms of Simmel´s enthusiasm for the war on the part of Georg Lucácz and Ernst Bloch are well-known. Regarding Stefan George, in 1901 Simmel had written: ´His art has been known since its beginning for the wish to act exclusively like an art (...) the fundamental change is complete: that on the contrary, all content is merely the means for forming values that are purely aesthetics.` Therefore, in the aesthetic of Stefan George, Simmel acknowledges the reason that George will reject the war – contrary to many members of George´s circle (George-Kreis) and has its expression in the poem ´The War`, first published in 1917. This contribution seeks to demonstrate the philosophical and aesthetical reasons for enthusiasm for the war and its rejection by Simmel and George, attitudes that are not able to be explained by the opposition to militarism/pacifism that is normally deployed to distinguish between supporters and critics of the war.