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1. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Jose Carlos Michelazzo Dupla transcendência e historicidade: a divida de Heidegger para com Mestre Eckhart
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We know the Heidegger’s relations with Master Eckhart don’t reduce only to sporadic employments of words or expressions that he does of medieval mystic, but on the contrary, serve as inspiration for his audacious notion of man’s essence that is interpreted from its common-pertinence (Zusammengehorigkeit) with Being and oriented by a circular movement of double transcendence. In the midst of this various circles, so present in the philosopher’s thought, there is the circle of historicity, central aim of our paper, which affi rms that existence originates from abyss of future (first transcendence). From that abyss germinates the last human possible gesture, his death. In order to the man to be able to apprehend this final gesture in your authentically historical (geschichtlich) character, he needs the courage to take over the weight of his finitude and then to reach a free existenceguided by a “futural-vigorous past” [zukunftig-Gewesenheit] (second transcendence).Sabemos que as ligações de Heidegger com Mestre Eckhart não se limitam apenas aos usos esporádicos de termos ou expressões que ele faz do místico medieval, mas, ao contrário, servem de inspiração para a sua ousada concepção da essência do homem, interpretada a partir de sua co-pertinência (Zusammengehörigkeit) com o ser e orientada pelo movimento circular de uma dupla transcendência. Dentre esses vários círculos, presentes no pensamento do filósofo, está o da historicidade, foco central deste trabalho, no horizonte do qual a existência tem a sua origem no abismo do porvir (primeira transcendência), de cujo interior germina o último gesto humano possível, o seu morrer. Para que o homem apreenda esse seu derradeiro gesto em seu caráter autenticamente historial (geschichtlich), ele precisa ter a coragem de apropriar-se do peso de sua finitude a fim que ele possa alcançar a liberdade de existir, guiado por um “futural-vigor de ter sido” [zukunftig-Gewesenheit] (segunda transcendência).
2. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Alfredo de Oliveira Moraes Hegel, a Fenomenologia e a (bio)Eticidade ou a Vida Ética
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Th e author present a philosophical thinking about some aspects of the Hegelian thought and he propose to take in consideration the concepts, notion, categories and elements from Hegelian System to introduce the dialect way to think into the phenomenological thought in the contemporary philosophical debate.O autor apresenta uma reflexão filosófica analisando aspectos do pensamento hegeliano e propondo que se considere os conceitos, categorias e elementos do sistema hegeliano para introduzir o pensar dialético dentro do pensamento fenomenológico no debate filosófico contemporâneo.
3. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Penha Regina V.L. Araújo, Florence Romijn Tocantins Necessidades Assistenciais de Mulheres Gestantes na Consulta de Enfermagem
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This investigation has as aim to understand, in the light of the lived experiences, which are the women health care needs when seeking for Nursing Consultation. It was opted for the phenomenological approach of Alfred Schutz’s Phenomenological Sociology through an interview with the following guiding question: “What do you have in mind when you come for the prenatal Nursing Consultation?” The comprehensive analysis of the 10 (ten) clients’ statements allowed building up the typical action of a pregnant woman who is demanding the Nursing Consultation: she needs to communicate with the health professional to know about her pregnancy and her baby. This study showed that dialogical conversation must be the starting point for a Nursing Consultation to be fully accomplished. Through dialogue, the clients indicate their “action project”, which can be understood as being their felt needs.The fulfillment of the needs of the female clients who seeks the prenatal Nursing Consultation should be directly linked to their way of life and to their care expectations. These include values, habits and customs, befitting the nurse with an open attitude in relation to the situations experienced by that group. The nurse should establish a relationship in which the scientific knowledge and the health care protocols are interlinked with the client’s knowledge of life, because only by doing so will she manage to provide the kind of care more orientated towards the client as a subject-person. Esta investigação tem como objetivo, compreender, à luz das experiências vividas pela mulher, o que as leva a procurar a Consulta de Enfermagem. Para alcançar este objetivo foi feita a opção pela abordagem fenomenológica da Sociologia Compreensiva de Alfred Schutz, sendo realizada uma entrevista com a seguinte questão orientadora: “O que você tem em vista quando vem para a consulta de Enfermagem em pré-natal?” A análise compreensiva dos depoimentos de 10 (dez) clientes permitiu a construção do típico da ação da gestante que demanda a Consulta de Enfermagem: ela tem necessidade de uma comunicação com o profi ssional de saúde, através da conversa, para saber sobre a gravidez e sobre o neném. O estudo mostrou que a conversa, o diólogo, é o ponto de partida para a realização de uma Consulta de Enfermagem, pois, através do diálogo, as clientes indicam seus projetos de ação, que podem ser entendidos como sendo suas necessidades sentidas. O atendimento das necessidades da cliente mulher que procura a Consulta de Enfermagem em pré-natal deve estar diretamente ligado às suas expectativas e ao seu modo de vida, o que inclui valores, hábitos e costumes, cabendo à enfermeira posicionar-se de forma aberta em relação as situações vivenciadas pelas pessoas. A enfermeira deve estabelecer uma relação em que os conhecimentos científicos e os protocolos dos cuidados de saúde devem estar interligados aos conhecimentos de vida da cliente, pois só assim poderá realmente estar prestando uma assistência mais voltada para a cliente como sujeito-pessoa.
4. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Paula Mousinho Martins Por uma intencionalidade não-noética: a superação do dualismo mente-corpo à luz da noção merleau-pontyana de expressão
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Th is paper aims at analyzing the concept of expression, by which Merleau-Ponty intended to neutralize the traditional opposition—still present in Husserl’s phenomenology—between the sign and its meaning. This and other correlative distinctions are in fact due to the classical scheme/content dualism, which is kept by Husserl as he maintains the hylé as an irreducible, exterior element in regard to noesis. With this criticism, Merleau-Ponty tried to overcome the obstacles that historically prevented (empiricist and rationalist) philosophy to conceive a really mobile, embodied subject, whose movements are no longer seen as product of an external decision of “spirit”.
5. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Elsa Oliveira Dias Winnicott e Heidegger: temporalidade e esquizofrenia
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Th e intention of this article is to establish some connections between the psychoanalysis of D.W.Winnicott and the existential analysis of M. Heidegger. I aim to, in particular, 1) examine the observations of Heidegger on the structure of the Dasein in newly born babies, formulated in paragraph 15 of Einleitung in die Philosophie (Introduction to Philosophy, GA 27) in the light of Winnicott’s conceptions on the constitution of the earlier self, giving a special emphasis to the primitive temporality of the baby and to the temporary character of the trauma; 2) analyse, while remembering the winnicottian theory of schizophrenic disturbances, the observations on a case of schizophrenia made by Heidegger in the Seminars of Zollikon.O objetivo deste trabalho é estabelecer algumas conexées entre a psicanálise de D. W. Winnicott e a analítica existencial de M. Heidegger. Viso, em particular, 1) examinar as observações de Heidegger sobre a estrutura do Dasein do recém-nasci-do, formuladas no parágrafo 15 de Einleitung in die Philosophie (Introdução a Filosofi a, GA 27) a luz das concepções de Winnicott sobre a constituição do si-mesmo infantil, dando ênfase especial à temporalidade primitiva do bebê e ao caráter temporal do trauma; 2) analisar, levando em conta a teoria winnicottiana dos distúrbios esquizofrênicos, as observações sobre um caso de esquizofrenia feitas por Heidegger nos Seminarios de Zollikon.
6. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Marco Antonio Casanova O Homem Entediado: Tédio, Niilismo e Técnica
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The subject of the paper is Heidegger’s conception of nihilism as event of abandonment of Being and the consequences of this conception to human Dasein. In order to reconstruct such a conception and to undertake an analysis of these consequences, I concentrate myself on Heidegger’s interpretation of Nietzsche’ thought as well as on the development of elements of this interpretation inside of Heidegger’s critics on modern technology. Through these two moments I come then to show in which measure Nietzsche’s philosophy and the world of technology as its radicalization imply a lost of the self for human Dasein. My final thesis in this context is: boredom is the fundamental attunement of the nihilistic world because boredom has an essential connection with the lost of the self.“O andarilho sem destino reparou então/ que seus sapatos tinham a poeira indiferente/ de todas as pátrias pitorescas; e que seus olhos conservavam as noites e os dias/ dos climas mais vários do universo;/ e que suas maos se agitaram em adeuses/ a milhares de cais sem saudades e amigos;/ e que todo o seu corpo tinha conhecido/ as mil mulheres que Salomão deixou./ E o andarilho sem destino viu/ que não conhecia a Tarde que está oculta no tempo/ sem paisagens terrenas, sem turismo, sem povos,/ mas com a vastidão infi nita onde os horizontes/ são as nuvens que fogem”. Jorge de Lima, “Tarde oculta no tempo”, em: Tempo e Eternidade“A primeira e única evidência que assim me é dada, no ambito da experiencia absurda, e a revolta. Privado de qualquer conhecimento, impelido a matar ou a consentir que se mate, só disponho dessa evidência que é reforçada pelo dilaceramento em que me encontro. A revolta nasce do espetáculo da desrazao diante de uma condição injusta e incompreensível”. (Albert Camus, O homem revoltado, p. 21)
7. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 2
Ricardo Timm de Souza Da metamorfose da intencionalidade à metamorfose do sentido: Uma leitura de Levinas
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The article seeks to show how Levinas’s work, taken as a whole, brings about a reversal of sense of phenomenological intentionality by the introduction of the notion of “passive” or “nonintentional” consciousness, so as to operate a deeper, significant metamorphosis of philosophical activity as such, starting from the inquiry into the human question, as it is undertaken in his text “Humanism and An-archy.”O artigo pretende evidenciar como, na obra levinasiana considerada em seu todo, ocorre, a partir da inversão do sentido da intencionalidade fenomenológica pela introdução da noção de consciencia “passiva” ou “não-intencional”, uma metamorfose mais profunda e significativa da atividade filosófica como tal, a partir do exame da questão do humano, tal como esta investigação se dá no texto levinasiano “Humanismo e An-arquia”.
8. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 2
Eder Soares Santos D. W. Winnicott: instigações a uma fenomenologia existencial
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The aim of the present article is to show that it is possible to perceive that certain discussions suggested by D. W. Winnicott’s psychoanalytic theory instigate and clear inquiries that are still pending in Heidegger’s Existential Analysis, such as the question of natality, of the physicality of the Dasein, and of the reaching of the potentiality-for-being of the Dasein. Consequently, it can be said that some Winnicottian ideas on being and going-on-being touch the essential theme of Heidegger’s theory found in Being and Time, i.e.: human existence is, fundamentally, a timely and finite experience.Este trabalho tem por objetivo mostrar que é possível perceber que certas discussões avançadas pela teoria psicanalítica de D. W. Winnicott instigam e aclaram indagações ainda pendentes na analítica do ser-o-aí (Dasein) de Heidegger, tais como a questão da nascencialidade, da corporeidade do ser-o-ai e do chegar ao poder-ser do ser-o-aí. Por conseqüência, poder-se-á indicar que algumas idéias winnicottianas sobre ser e continuara-ser tocam o tema essencial da teoria heideggeriana presente em Ser e Tempo, a saber: o existir humano é, no seu fundamento, um acontecer temporal e finito.
9. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 2
Róbson Ramos dos Reis Contenção e aprisionamento humanos: a sublimidade da natureza em Os Conceitos Fundamentais da Metafísica
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The present contribution examines the notion of sublime within the reconstruction of the phenomenological interpretation of the alive nature and animal organisms in the book “The Basic Concepts of Metaphysics” (Heidegger, 1929/30). It is intended to show that the appropriate ontology for the proper behavior with the alive nature implies the recognition of a sublimity predicated of the nature itself. Having presented the ontological identity of the organisms with the two concepts of captivation (Bennomenheit) and interpenetration of the disinhibiting rings, Heidegger identifies in the adaptative dynamics of the organisms a movement of construction and overcoming of the nature by the nature itself. In these terms, the sublime is not only the proportionate feeling for the meeting with the nature. It does not give place to the game between the finitude human being and the autonomy of the reason, but it is characteristic of the nature qua nature. The sublimity of nature is relative to a dynamics that is not internal to the subjectivity, but points out the dimension of manifestation of ontological structures. In face of this dynamics it appears a attunement that Heidegger calls restraint (Verhaltenheit). In fact, the restraint is asserted as the condition for any kind of relation with living creatures that observes the adequate ontological categorization of nature.
10. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 2
Marcos Lutz Muller Sartre e a Crise do Fundamento. A propósito de Sartre. Metafísica e Existencialismo de Gerd Bornheim: Em Homenagem a Gerd Bornheim
11. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 2
Dario Teixeira Significado Enquanto Atributo de Intenções nas Logische Untersuchungen de Husserl
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I intend to reconstruct Husserl’s conception of meaning, expounded in the Logische Untersuchungen, and to defend his central thesis according to which the meaning of an expression should be explained as the intentional content in specie of the speaker’s intention and thus as an ideal attribute (i.e. an universal) instantiated in the intentional content of the meaning intention that the expression intimates. I discuss some theoretical advantages of this conception, especially concerning the account of our ordinary consciousness of meanings.
12. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 2
Caroline Vasconcelos Ribeiro A ontologia Fundamental de Heidegger e a crítica à metapsicologia freudiana: o homem enquanto Dasein
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Unlike the absolutification of the mode of thinking that reduces man to a mind, which represents, and the world to a physical-mathematical structure available just through objectification, Heidegger requests philosophy to return to the question of the being making it a task of the thinking. During the course of this task he constructs the possibility of a thinking about man unbending to the objectifying discourse. Taking the treatise of 1927 and the Zollikon Seminars as a reference, we would like to ask if the Freudian psychoanalysis – as a science of psychic phenomenon – is able to think the human existence as outside of the enclosure of the modern subjectivity and objectivity. In other words: if the freudian meta-psychology breaks with or adjusts to the imperatives of the metaphysics of subjectivity.Contra a absolutização do modo de pensar que reduz o homem a uma mente que representa e o mundo a uma estrutura fisico-matemática disponível apenas pela via da objetificação, Heidegger convoca a filosofi a retomar a questão do ser, fazendo-a tarefa do pensamento. No caminho desta tarefa, constrói a possibilidade de um pensar sobre homem irredutível ao discurso objetifi cante. Tomando como referência o tratado de 1927 e os Seminarios de Zollikon, visamos perguntar se a psicanálise freudiana – enquanto ciência dos fenômenos psíquicos – dá conta de pensar o existir humano fora da clausura da subjetividade e objetividade modernas. Em outros termos: se a metapsicologia freudiana rompe ou afi na-se, com os imperativos da metafísica da subjetividade.
13. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 2
Nythamar de Oliveira Adeus: A epifania do Outro segundo Levinas
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The paper seeks to revisit Levinas’s conception of à-Dieu as a plausible account of a new way of saying (dire) the name of God (Dieu) without reducing its radical alterity to a mere dictum (dit). The Portuguese word adeus is perhaps the most felicitous way of doing justice to Levinas’s radical subversion of onto-theology, as the hyphenated term (a-deus) also allows for an important ambiguity, beyond its own polysemy and plays on words, that not only one may think of the equivalent function of addressing the Other (à Dieu) and its negation by way of a privative alpha (a-Dieu) but also a tacit il y a.
14. Phenomenology 2010: Volume > 2
Melissa Garcia Tamelini, Daniela Ceron-Litvoc Fenomenologia da Mania: Phenomenology of Mania
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The goal of this article is to describe and discuss the concepts of Mania according to a phenomenological-structural approach. The mainstream of psychiatry defines mania on the basis of signs and symptoms, most of them merely behaviors. The phenomenological-structural thinking attempts to illuminate the structure which defines the pathology and determines the phenomena. The manifestation of mania will be divided in fundamental phenomenological categories such as Time, Space, and Interpersonal Contact in a dialogue with postulations of classical authors. The possibility of a similar structure for mania and melancholia is suggested in the last part of the article.
15. Phenomenology 2010: Volume > 2
Maria Aparecida Viggiani Bicudo Compreendendo a matemática de um ponto de vista fenomenológico: Understanding Mathematics from a Phenomenological Point of View
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This paper attempts to present an introduction to Phenomenology and Mathematics. Phenomenology was created and developed by Edmund Husserl. He left an amazing production concerning one of the questions that haunted him throughout his life: “what is the nature of the objectivity of Mathematics”. The following items are here dealt with: the meaning ground of Husserl’s phenomenological conceptions; the meaning of mathematical idealities; and formalization and categorization as constitutive aspects of the Science of Mathematics.
16. Phenomenology 2010: Volume > 2
Soraya Guimãres Hoepfner A dimensão do hoje: Heidegger e a temporalidade do discurso filosófico: The Dimension of the Today: Heidegger and the Temporality of Philosophical Discourse
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This paper proposes a reflection upon philosophy’s role in discussing contemporaneity. By questioning if it is the philosopher’s vocation to think our actuality, the author discusses the character and temporality of philosophical discourse itself. She argues, in a provocative manner, that it is only possible to philosophise about today. Recognizing philosophical discourse’s distinctive character as its possibility of understanding the today beyond today’s facts, she refers to an essential temporal dimension of the contemporary, the same that the temporality of philosophical discourse refers to. Concerning philosophical discourse, the author shows that its reference to the essential dimension of today not only is a signature of distinction from a mere historical-anthropological approach, but precisely that it is what determines its very mode of being. This interpretation is founded on the analysis of two distinct philosophical approaches to contemporaneity. First, it establishes a close dialogue with Martin Heidegger’s thinking of his own contemporaneity, making explicit how he thinks his actuality and how he had an insight into what it is [Einblick in das was ist] as a way of revealing the today in its phenomenological sense. !e second illustration, or the counterpoint, is made by an analysis of the lecture of Giorgio Agamben’s “What is the contemporary?” [Che cos’è il contemporaneo?], which portrays the predominant character of contemporary philosophical discourse about contemporaneity. Such a character is based on a conception of temporality that cannot grasp the essential dimension of the today and, as a result, thinking remains enclosed in the perspective of human agency. Heidegger’s approach to contemporaneity remains in the realm of philosophical discourse by grasping the essential temporality of the today. In general, philosophical discourses in our contemporaneity about contemporary issues remain attached to an interpretation of events in time that reinforces the agency of the human. In short, the author considers relevant the contrast between both discourses in order to claim that philosophical discourse should be always an insight into and beyond the today. The awareness of this essential temporality is what defines its philosophical status and most importantly gives philosophy the task of questioning contemporaneity—of truly thinking the world of today.
17. Phenomenology 2010: Volume > 2
Maria Aparecida Viggiani Bicudo, Maurício Rosa Mundo cibernético e horizontes educacionais: um ensaio: Cybernetic World and Educational Horizons: An Essay
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This article focuses on the cybernetic reality, asking about its ontological and epistemological aspects and about its possible educational horizons. We develop the ontological arguments about the cybernetic reality drawing from authors that deal with Virtual Reality (VR) such as Levy and Castells. They take VR as a concept and show us which of the concept’s characteristics are in opposition to those characteristics that do not belong to VR. These procedures present difficulties that are confronted when one tries to express the concept of cybernetic world reality. They concern space and time, and what is deemed real, virtual, probable, potential and actual. These difficulties are confronted, attempting to clarify the philosophical meanings of reality by drawing on presenting studies by Granger and Deleuze, and assuming the phenomenological conceptions of knowledge and world. The authors assume that cyberspace is a world reality, which reveals its own characteristics as being dynamic, fast, speeded, de-territorialized. !e cyberspace reality is supported by a strong scientific and technological apparatus and updates its potentialities through the possible intervention triggered by the actions of people living-in-the-world-with-others-and-with-the-media. The modalities of these interventions are actualized with the exchange among subjects during knowledge production and social communication. The apparatus of the cybernetic world makes possible the collaborative knowledge construction and distance education (e-learning). The authors present and discuss the educational horizons as well as the open region of possibilities that are posed at the world, which can be realized and can be worked in a cybernetic context.
18. Phenomenology 2010: Volume > 3
Urbano Mestre Sidoncha A invesigaçao da subjectividade psicossomática como tarefa essencial da fenomenologia
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Bridging the gap between phenomenology, namely, husserlian’s phenomenology, and concrete and everyday issues such as the mind/body problem comes now to light as the chief driving force in this paper. Showing that this called for connection was to be written within, and not beyond, the field of transcendental phenomenology, worked for us as the guideline that shaped all further steps and decisions. To accomplish this, we attended to some of the mains thesis developed by Edmund Husserl in the second book of his Ideen, in an attempt to trace the signs that bears witness to a plan where not only phenomenology has the required expertise for dealing the problem, but a plan which is also responsible for the production of this new and distinctive evaluation which, by it self, should put together a better version of a less puzzling problem.