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1. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Introduction
2. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Anthony Pym On Erlebnis within Translation Knowledge
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For Gadamer, translation operates as an illustrative “extreme case” of interpretation, of interest to the extent that it can push the logics of less-extreme interpretative practices. Yet the main thing Gadamer consistently says about what is extreme in translation seems to be that it is a strangely intellectual process, bereft of lived experience. One can nevertheless trace threads of lived experience within translation knowledge, both through what translators say and from what translation process research reveals. Further, the nature of that experience, in exceeding its interpretations, can justify an empirical attitude to its study. Hence hermeneutics could do worse than incorporate empirical attitudes into its work on translation, rather than endlessly repeat inherited insights.
3. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Holger Siever Komplexes Denken: Eine Herausforderung auch für die Hermeneutik?
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Since at least the latter half of the 20th century, scientific theorizing has been marked by a tendency to focus increasingly on the concept of complexity. However, within the field of Translation Studies, we continue to work primarily with non-complex, uni-dimensional models. The relationship between the source text and the target text is commonly established in uni-dimensional terms, that is: either via sense (linguistics, hermeneutics) or via the function or skopos (Skopos theory, functionalism). Terms like equivalence (Nida, Kade) and adequacy (Vermeer) are also based on uni-dimensional models. In the late 1980s, Neubert suggested a two-dimensional approach using the notions of content and purpose to overcome uni-dimensional models. In my paper I would like to present a more complex approach to translation based on semiotics and interpretation philosophy. It consists of two levels: the intratextual level focusing the interrelation of signs (word, sentences, texts) within texts, and the extratextual level focusing the interrelation of signs with extratextual phenomena. Each level is divided into three dimensions. I use the concepts of meaning, function, and information to describe what a translator has to take into account on the intratextual level to be able to elaborate an equivalent target text, i.e. a text that fits into the constraints of a given linguistics settings. In addition to that, I use the concepts of sense, purpose, and form to describe what a translator has to take into consideration on the extratextual level to elaborate an adequate target text, i.e. a text that fits into the constraints of a given translatological setting. Whereas the uni-dimensional arrow just stands for the simple relation between source and target text, this new model establishes a whole translational space between both texts which is able to show the complexity of translational decisions to be taken.
4. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Radegundis Stolze Zur Anschlussfähigkeit der Hermeneutik in der Translatologie
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Due to the fact that hermeneutical approaches have widely been ignored or falsely understood as missing the scientific requirements in Translation Studies, this article wants to demonstrate how Translational Hermeneutics as an approach based on grounded understanding is crucial and endorses various other approaches in the research of translation. Explaining the scholarly perspective here as an individual worldview, the external opinions can be defeated. Concepts like subjectivity, intuition, sense of the text to be understood, and ever unfinished time-sensitive translations within a cultural context are discussed. Various aspects of understanding and formulation come together in the translator’s dynamic competence. Translational Hermeneutics links up with linguistic theories such as text-linguistics, semantics, rhetoric, the sociological systems theory, cognition research, and empirical methods of inquiring into the translator’s thinking. It connects less to corpus studies or language-based inter-lingual transfer and the technology-based process analyses. Didactics based on an hermeneutical approach may strengthen the translator’s self-confidence by preparing the background of understanding.
5. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Lucia Salvato Ein hermeneutischer Ansatz zur Versöhnung antagonistischer Übersetzungsorientierungen
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The topic of this contribution is the relationship between hermeneutics and translation practice. In the first theoretical part, some relevant central concepts dealing with the ontological valence of language and the ontological foundation in humans are introduced and discussed; in this part the concern is with the possibility and the meaning of translation between languages and cultures. Considerations by some important scholars and philosophers, linguists, and semioticians such as Augustine of Hippo, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Fritz Paepcke, and Umberto Eco are included in this section. The starting point is the antagonistic thinking which characterizes two main perspectives in translation studies; this antagonism has always characterized the history of translation and is now deeply anchored in European Translation Studies. Even if some theoretical answers to the ancient antagonism have been presented in the last years (e.g. Mary Snell-Hornby, Christiane Nord, Sergio Bolanos Cuellar), this contribution aims to criticize the theoretical exclusion of perspectives by proposing a comprehensive approach that takes into account both opposing but complementary viewpoints. As a key to good translation two main concepts are thus proposed: the idea of negotiation introduced by the Italian semiotician Umberto Eco and the concept of compromise as explained by the German initiator of philosophical hermeneutics Hans-Georg Gadamer. The theoretical reflections on language and human communication are then illustrated with reference to the practice of translation. The point is to show how the interweaving of theory and practice is particularly adequate for the task of translation, especially when the hermeneutic approach is employed in order to find the right translation solution. This work shows both the challenges translators face in their encounter with the foreign text and the practical and theoretical refinements that a hermeneutic reading of the translating process can bring, especially when it invites translators to take into account the thinking, the feeling and the action of the subjects involved in the translation process. This illustration is done with the help of text examples and by discussing the steps of a personal translating process as applied to some literary poems translated from German into Italian.
6. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Douglas Robinson The 心 of the Foreign: The Feeling-Based Hermeneutics of Translation as Influenced by Ancient Chinese Thought
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This paper tracks the influence wielded by ancient Chinese thought on not only the German Romantics but on dissident Western thought coming out of Renaissance esotericism into the “dark side” of the Enlightenment (the so-called “Endarkenment”), with the idea that tracing that history of intercivilizational influence may help us identify some strands of German Romantic theories of translation that have hitherto been overlooked, and to bring a better adapted analytical framework to bear on those theories.
7. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Anna Pavlova Kognitive Textverarbeitung und Verstehen fürs Übersetzen
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There has been an increasing amount of published scholarly work on hermeneutics and translation studies. However, hardly any work has been done to connect hermeneutic approaches to translation and hermeneutic approaches to psycholinguistics. This essay accordingly seeks to identify some of the key features common to both translation theory and psycholinguistics. At issue is finding areas of interaction and overlap between these two areas of enquiry, especially in relation to the hermeneutic account of text understanding processes.
8. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Mathilde Fontanet Revisiting the Unit of Translation from the Hermeneutical Perspective
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This paper attempts to show that the unit of translation, even though it has long been used by both translators and theorists, is not a very fruitful concept when it comes to describing the translation process. The way in which it has been defined up to now is either too restrictive to be valid or too broad to be manageable. It will appear that it is much more productive to consider translation from a hermeneutic point of view on the basis of both the working unit of translation (the portion of source text which is being processed at a particular time) and the complexity of the factors involved in the process. The notion of hermeneutic halo will be proposed as a useful tool in this context. Combined with the working unit of translation, it helps describe the translation process and is a means of accounting for the great variety of translations a single original can lead to.
9. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Paulo Oliveira Übersetzung als Aufbau des Vergleichbaren (Auf Ricoeurs Pfad mit Wittgenstein und Toury)
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Many of the apparent impasses and/or paradoxes in Translation Studies result from the lack of greater coherence between our basic assumptions about the relation language/world and the theories we derive from them. One of these apparent dilemmas is the concept of hypothetical untranslatability, which is logically dependent on the premise that translation is a phenomenon of language as a system, as opposed to the primacy of the practice from which language itself emerges. Paul Ricoeur, in three conferences published posthumously, coined a formula capable of dissolving this impasse: translation as the Construction of the Comparable. My aim here is to show the profound implications of this insight of Ricoeur, assuming a conception of language informed by the philosophical therapy of the later Wittgenstein and considering authors who start out from this therapy to formulate philosophical theses on how language and perception are articulated. This is another step towards an Epistemology of Translating, tributary of the later Wittgenstein and in line with Arley Moreno’s Epistemology of the Usage.
10. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Karolina Jezewska, Kasia Jezewska, John Stanley Introspektion unter der Lupe. Phänomenologische und hermeneutische Ansätze im empirischen Vergleich mit Think Aloud und IPDR
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This essay presents a portion of a long-term project designed to develop, refine and test methods that can be employed in research in Translation Studies. The research depicted here is a joint project between Adam Mickiewicz University (Poznań, Poland) and Technische Hochschule in Cologne, Germany. In the spring of 2014, eight students from each university took part in a project designed to compare the relative strengths and weaknesses – pedagogical as well as epistemological – of two methodological pairs: one being the phenomenological method and the hermeneutical analysis; the other was think-aloud and IPDR (Integrated Problem and Decision Reporting). The students were asked to perform role plays, four of which took place in Poznań, and four of which took place in Germany, which simulated job interviews or employee evaluations. Although the long-term goal of the project is to enhance introspective methods for use in Translation Studies, for methodological reasons this joint project deals medially with role plays and focuses on face-to-face interaction. Upon completion of the role plays, the authors of this essay used both quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze extensively the various reports from the role plays and to compare these reports with the video recordings made of the role plays. In this article we discuss the design of the role plays, the methods used to analyze them, and our conclusions.
11. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Masoud Pourahmadali Tochahi Grundelemente einer Phänomenologie des Übersetzens: Übersetzungsbewusstsein und phänomenologische Analyse von Übersetzungsakten im Ausgang von einem nominalen Ausdruck
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Although Husserl’s phenomenology constitutes one of the major sources of inspiration for modern hermeneutics and involves a vast and important philosophy of language, rigorous phenomenological approaches are rare within translation studies. In this paper, I attempt to carry out such phenomenological analysis. I base this analysis on Husserl’s phenomenology of language and its basic concepts. I shall then examine the fundamental mechanisms involved in what I call “translation consciousness” and I shall try to describe its intentional structure.
12. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Mohamed Saki Hermeneutics and Paratext: Seamus Heaney’s Retranslation of Beowulf
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This paper sets out to analyse the hermeneutical process of highlighting at work in Seamus Heaney’s preface to his 1999 retranslation of Beowulf. My analysis takes into account the generic identity of the preface by considering it as a textual subgenre where the translator becomes a metatranslator in order to voice herself out of invisibility, engaging thereby in a (self-reflexive) hermeneutical analysis and ‘justification’ by commenting on the selection of the text to be translated and her own translation choices. The analysis is carried out with the help of two concepts elaborated by Gadamer: situatedness and self-understanding. These concepts will help show how the Northern Irish poet fuses different horizons in the process of his retranslation. In this essay, I also take into account the specificity of retranslation as a particular instance of hermeneutical activity. To do so, I focus on how Heaney introduces his own rendering of Beowulf, and on how he explains the translational choices and processes he opted for in order to render this canonical text into contemporary language. I argue that the closely related notions of situatedness and self-understanding can help bring to the fore how Heaney establishes an intrinsic link between his own retranslation choices on the one hand and, on the other, his cultural identity and poetics. Taking into consideration the hermeneutical dimension of this preface, it will be argued, gives us valuable insight into the retranslation project of Seamus Heaney. It will show that he does not seek to impose on Beowulf a transcendental truth or to fix it in a definite retranslation and interpretation. Instead, situatedness and self-understanding help shed light on how he engages creatively with the epic Anglo-Saxon poem: at issue is both how his retranslation is situated and grounded in his own subjectivity, and indeed with respect to his existential questions, as well as in a wider socio-cultural context.
13. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Tomáš Svoboda A Hermeneutic Reading of the Works of Jiři Levý
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The work of Jiři Levý, the pioneering Czech translation scholar of the 20th century, shares a lot of common ground with the (neo)hermeneutic approach in translation studies. A closer look reveals, however, a good number of differing, and even opposite stances. For chronological reasons, Levý himself cannot be regarded a member of the neohermeneutic movement in translation studies; thus, the following questions arise: 1) What is the extent of overlap between Levý’s work and that of the main representatives of the hermeneutic approach in translation studies, mainly in Germany, and 2) how can this overlap be explained? This article seeks to demonstrate the following: There are full ‘matches’ between the two approaches, including some aspects of methodological approach, the value of texts, creativity, translating as a decision process as well as Levý’s concept of perception on the one hand and the hermeneutic circle on the other. A partial overlap between the two approaches has been identified in terms of the following matters: the applicability of translation theory, the language and style of theoretical works, the application of game theory, and the focus on individuals (recipient, translator). As regards differences, these include thematic focus, the idea of a personal link between the text and its recipient, and the concept of subjectivity. The purpose of the article is to show that, rather than being a (direct) predecessor, Levý can be regarded as a precursor of the hermeneutic approach in translation studies. Hopefully, illustrating this affinity between Levý and the hermeneutic approach will foster an interest in his theory, which is marked by openness and dynamism – qualities that also abide in the hermeneutical approaches of our present time.
14. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Philippe Forget Grenzen und Möglichkeiten der (paepckeschen) Hermeneutik
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After the author explicates how his academic relationship to Paepcke began in the 1970s, he proceeds to discuss critically the latter’s reflections on language and translation. Latent contradictions in Paepcke’s conceptual framework and in his understanding of the relationship between theory and practice are brought to the fore. This conceptual tension shows that Paepcke’s understanding of and approach to dealing with texts is problematic. Using concrete examples, the author demonstrates that Paepcke did not rely on the text as the criterion for constituting meaning. Rather Paepcke relied on historically mediated conceptual constructs which were given the status of authoritative units of sense, and these units guided Paepcke in his process of establishing the meaning of the whole. The reason for this can be found in unreflected preliminary decisions that are seen as “a priori evidence.” This also explains why Paepcke’s real achievement lies in the contrastive analysis of comprehensive concepts – of traditionally rich concepts developed over the course of time (human orientation) as well as in rationalized contemporary language (functional orientation).
15. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Alberto Gil Der Evidentia-Begriff in seinen rhetorisch-translatologischen Dimensionen. Ein Denkanstoß von Fritz Paepcke
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Evidentia is a concept passed on to us from rhetoric – more precisely from the third of the five canons of classical rhetoric, namely elocution. The goal of this canon is to achieve a stylistic quality that enables the listener to see what (s)he hears with his or her inner eye, i.e. to enable the listener to really visualize what is being said. Fritz Paepcke – whose one hundredth birthday we celebrated at this conference – applied the concept of evidentia to the field of translation studies. Within his conceptual framework, he portrayed it as a new experience – one which arises immediately, i.e., not through induction or deduction, but “as a result of the rule-governed and yet playful process of developing the most adequate wording of a translation” and from one’s interaction with the text. Paepcke did not, however, elaborate on this “intuition of intuition.” This article attempts to further develop the concept evidentia rhetorically and philosophically and to apply it to the field of translation studies. Two conceptions are particularly instrumental here: 1) The concept of fidélité créatrice as elucidated by the French philosopher Gabriel Marcel – to whom Paepcke often referred – as well as 2) the conceptual approach underlying and informing the research center Hermeneutik und Kreativität. In the latter, the processes of understanding and translating / translating and understanding are conceived of as being bi-directional and interdependent; this conception, which fuses understanding with empathy, is making new, significant inroads into translation studies. The notion of evidentia will be exemplified here using an empathetic Italian translation of a very young poet – Selma Meerbaum-Eisinger.
16. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
Eliane Laverdure Das Spiel des Übersetzens. Grundzüge einer komparativen Studie
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This article seeks to shed some light on the experience of interpretation and translation from a hermeneutical point of view, more precisely on how the subjectivity of the translator plays an essential mediation role in the process of rendering the meaning of a text in a new language, a role that certainly goes beyond the sole linguistic transfer, without being per se subjective. This idea can best be understood through the concept of “game” as developed by the philosopher Hans-Georg Gadamer and introduced in translation theory by Fritz Paepcke, because it offers a model in which the participation of the individual is necessary without being arbitrary, since the players have to abide by the rules of the specific game they are playing – in this case, the text itself. However, the aim of this article is not to offer a method of translation, but is rather an attempt to consider the adequacy of translation on the basis of subjective and intersubjective factors – including the translator’s own prior knowledge and experience, his openness towards the text and his critical self-awareness – and therefore to propose an alternative to the overly normative and restrictive theoretical framework strictly focused on linguistic equivalence between ST and TT.
17. Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics: Year > 2021
John Stanley Translational Hermeneutics: Understanding (Mis-)Understood?
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Hermeneutics is a discipline that has traditionally focused its inquiries on understanding and on the link between the process of understanding and communication. This area, namely understanding and the link to communication, has not figured predominantly in translation studies, and the new developments in machine translation make it increasingly obvious that exploring this aspect of human translation is particularly relevant. In this essay I show how the set of premises upon which hermeneutics rests differs in very significant ways from the fundamental premises upon which the natural science paradigm is based; it is this difference that makes research into the nature of understanding so crucial to Translational Hermeneutics. Scholars working in the field of Translational Hermeneutics have to clearly mark this difference vis-a-vis translation studies, otherwise scholars working in translation studies cannot understand the relevance of Translational Hermeneutics for translation professionals. Furthermore, the work geared towards gaining an empirically and phenomenologically well-founded, accurate description of the process of understanding has to be given first priority and pursued as expeditiously as possible, for this has to serve as the foundation for the further development of Translational Hermeneutics.