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1. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Duncan Pritchard The Opacity of Knowledge
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Here is a common ‘intuition’ that you’ll often find expressed regarding the epistemological externalism/internalism distinction. It is the thought that epistemological internalism, whatever its other faults, at least leaves the possession of knowledge a transparent matter; whereas epistemological externalism, whatever its other merits, at least makes the possession of knowledge opaque. It is the status of this view of the externalism/internalism contrast that I wish to evaluate in this paper. In particular, I argue that on the most credible interpretation of this ‘transparency’ thesis it is in fact inconsistent with even a minimal version of epistemological internalism. I conclude that knowledge is opaque on any plausible construal of knowledge, and consider some implications that this result has for the contemporary epistemological debate.
2. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
H. Benjamin Shaeffer Review of Considered Judgment, by Catherin Z. Elgin
3. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
David Boersema Review of Metaphysics and Its Task, by Jorge J. E. Gracia
4. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
David Guetter Review of A History of Ancient Philosophy: From the Beginnings to Augustine, by Karsten Friis Johansen, trans. Hendrik Rosenmeier
5. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Steve Matthews A Hybrid Theory of Environmentalism
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The destruction and pollution of the natural environment poses two problems for philosophers. The first is political and pragmatic: which theory of the environment is best equipped to impact policymakers heading as we are toward a series of potential ecocatastrophes? The second is more central: On the environment philosophers tend to fall either side of an irreconcilable divide. Either our moral concerns are grounded directly in nature, or the appeal is made via an anthropocentric set of interests. The lack of a common ground is disturbing. In this paper I attempt to diagnose the reason for this lack. I shall agree that wild nature lacks features of intrinsic moral worth, and that leaves a puzzle: Why is it once we subtract the fact that there is such a lack, we are left with strong intuitions against the destruction and/or pollution of wild nature? Such intuitions can be grounded only in a strong sense of aesthetic concern combined with a common-sense regard for the interests of sentient life as it is indirectly affected by the quality of the environment. I suggest also that of the positions on offer, a hybrid theory of the environment is best suited to address our first problem, that of having an effective influence in the polity.
6. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Yuriko Saito Scenic National Landscapes: Common Themes in Japan and the United States
7. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Ken Cussen Aesthetics and Environmental Argument
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The human-centred notion of the “instrumental value of nature” and the eco-centred notion of the “intrinsic value of nature” both fail to provide satisfactory grounds for the preservation of wild nature. This paper seeks to identify some reasons for that failure and to suggest that the structure - though not the content - of the “aesthetic value” approach is the most promising alternative, though the notion of “the aesthetic value of nature”, as usually employed, also fails to capture the real motivation for such preservation. I argue that these problems arise because humans are, for good reasons, deeply ambivalent about their relation to nature. This ambivalence is explained in a Nietzschean context and I argue that an understanding of this ambivalence can be used to develop and illustrate a fuller and richer understanding of what we mean by “the value of nature” which does provide grounds for the preservation of wild nature.
8. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Thomas Heyd Nature Restoration Without Dissimulation: Learning from Japanese Gardens and Earthworks
9. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Emily Brady Interpreting Environments
10. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
William O. Stephens If Friendship Hurts, an Epicurean Deserts: A Reply to Andrew Mitchell
11. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Andrew Mitchell A Response to the Reply of William O. Stephens to “Friendship Amongst the Self-Sufficient: Epicurus”
12. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Mark Owen Webb Review of Key Concepts in Eastern Philosophy, by Oliver Leaman
13. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Steven Schroeder Review of Martin and Hannah: A Novel, by Catherine Clément
14. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Jonathan J. Sanford Review of Aristotle’s Ethics, by David Bostock
15. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Steven Schroeder Review of Philosophy of Literature, by Christopher New
16. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Joseph Prabhu Review of Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy, by John Rawls, ed. Barbara Herman
17. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Alexander Klein Review of Labyrinth: A Search for the Hidden Meaning of Science, by Peter Pesic
18. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Elizabeth Millán-Zaibert Review of The Roots of Romanticism, by Isaiah Berlin
19. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Dennis R. Cooley Review of What We Owe To Each Other, by T.M. Scanlon
20. Essays in Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
David Boersema Review of Reconsidering Logical Positivism, by Michael Friedman