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1. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Mário Fernando Bolognesi La Cultura y la Mercancía
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Adorno and Horkheimer adopted the notion of the fetishism of commodities for the analysis of art and culture. Material, physical goods are not identical with symbolic ones. In spite of being predominant, the culture industry cannot be taken as the prototype for all analyses of culture. One cannot reduce all cultural products in the market economy to market products. The plurality of artistic and cultural practices found in countries such as Brazil calls into question the Frankfurtian framework.
2. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Lee B. Brown Documentation and Fabrication in Phonography
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In most general terms, my paper is about the mixture of agendas in the recording industry, where documentation, with its apparently educational implications, becomes difficult to distinguish from a range of distinct, even opposed, goals—which I group under the heading "fabrication." After a few historical remarks, I develop the concept of what I call works of phonography (WPs)—that is, sound-constructs created by the use of recording machinery. (Examples: rap music recordings, electronic compositions for tape machine, sonic pastiche's by pop groups such as Art of Noise.) I detail their ontological characteristics, as contrasted the features of ordinary musical works. WPs are—I claim—replete. (Their finest sonic details are constitutive of them.) They are autographic. (Authenticity of their instances is not tested by the allographic criteria we associate with ordinary musical works, namely, compliance with scores.) And they are phono-accessible—that is, accessible only through playbacks of authentic instances of their record artifacts, e.g., cassette tapes, CDs, etc. I then turn to Theodore Gracyk's recent study of rock music (in his book Rhythm and Noise), arguing that his account is formally similar to my account of WPs. This raises the question of whether there be counter-examples to Gracyk's account—particularly of the sort that show his view to be too broad. I bring this to a focus finally by a comparison of rock recordings with jazz recordings—two classes that Gracyk tries to keep ontologically distinct. I argue that many classic jazz recordings are artifacts of the recording studio, no less than those Gracyk identifies as pure cases of rock music. In the same vein, I argue that, once recorded, the improvisational music of jazz is deformed—indeed, that it acquires features of WPs. This has the further implication that Gracyk cannot preserve his sharp distinction between rock and jazz records that he want's to maintain.
3. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Andrew Chignell The Problem of Particularity in Kant’s Aesthetic Theory
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In moving away from the objective, property-based theories of earlier periods to a subject-based aesthetic, Kant did not intend to give up the idea that judgments of beauty are universalizable. Accordingly, the "Deduction of Judgments of Taste" (KU, § 38) aims to show how reflective aesthetic judgments can be "imputed" a priori to all human subjects. The Deduction is not successful: Kant manages only to justify the imputation of the same form of aesthetic experience to everyone; he does not show that this experience will universally occur in response to the same objects. This is what I call Kant’s Problem of Particularity. After critiquing Anthony Savile’s attempt to overcome this Problem by linking Kant’s aesthetics to the theory of rational ideas, I elucidate the concept of (the oft-unnoticed) aesthetic attributes (§ 49) in a way that allows us to solve the Problem of Particularity.
4. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
W. Stephen Croddy Explaining Modernism
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Modernism in the arts commenced during the second half of the 19th century and extended into most of the 20th. A significant feature of this period is that each type of art gave principal attention to dimensions of itself. This was a type of self-analysis. I consider those art forms consisting of an image on a flat two-dimensional surface. I give particular attention to painting, a familiar example of this type of image. Explanations of Modernism are philosophically relevant not only for aesthetics but also for epistemology. The reason is that an analysis of our perceptions as a result of seeing a painted image can contribute to philosophy's analysis of the process by which we obtain knowledge through perception. I argue that we should interpret Modernism as contributing to this investigation.
5. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Igor Douven Style and Supervenience
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Cope’s Computers and Musical Style (1991) describes a computer program that allegedly can represent and replicate musical styles solely on the basis of compositions that have been entered into it. If this claim is correct, then it must be that an oeuvre’s stylistic characteristics locally supervene on its textual features, which roughly means that its stylistic properties are entirely determined by its textual properties. In my paper I argue that stylistic properties do not locally supervene on textual properties, and thus that neither Cope’s program nor any other that essentially works like it can represent or replicate styles.
6. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Petre Dumitrescu Le Theme de l’Unite et de l’Harmonie de l’Homme chez Friedrich Schiller
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This study demonstrates that Schiller's philosophical work is not limited only to the explanation of the artistic phenomenon as such, and that, for him, art represents the premise of philosophizing, of elaborating an original conception of the world and of humanity. I emphasize the way in which the poet and playwright uses art as a philosophical method with a view to penetrating meaning in the world and in life and to identifying a solution to the crisis confronted by modernity. In this context, based on the conviction that the historical and rationalistic methods are the only ones valid for human understanding and achievement, Schiller, due to his artistic genius and his beginning from Kant's ideas concerning the compatibility of the theoretical and the ethical by means of the aesthetic, advances a way of raising nature (the sensible) to the level of morality with the help of the artistic creation interpreted as a game. What radically distinguishes and confers originality on Schiller's versus Kant's conception is the modality of solving the problems of the relation between necessity and liberty, sensibility and intelligibility, and individuality and liberty, thus offering the image of a person able to aspire to resonance with the exactingness of the Great Time, when evolution may become self-evolution, and history transhistory.
7. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Fernando Inciarte Art and Republicanism
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Republicanism is contrasted with liberalism with special reference to the notions of presence, absence and representation. The contrast is more conspicuous in the Platonic tradition of republicanism than it is in the Aristotelian tradition, the former being more likely to degenerate into some form of totalitarianism. Examples thereof are given in accordance with the distinction between a strong and a soft iconoclasm, as it is found both in Antiquity and in Eastern and Western Europe’s quest for absolute presence or—as in avantgarde art of modernity—for absolute self-presence of the work of art. Having left such political and artistic utopias behind it, the pendulum is now swinging back in the direction of representation, but no longer in the illusionist sense which has dominated Western art form the Renaissance to the beginning of our century. Tied to the question of iconoclasm is the debate about the end of art inaugurated by Hegel in the general introduction to his Aesthetics and resumed in our days.
8. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Richard Gilmore Philosophical Beauty: The Sublime in the Beautiful in Kant’s Third Critique and Aristotle’s Poetics
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I argue that Kant's analysis of the experience of the beautiful in the third Critique entails an implicit or potential experience of the sublime, that is, the sublime as he himself describes it. Finding the sublime in the beautiful is what I call philosophical beauty. I then consider some aspects of Aristotle's analysis of tragedy in the Poetics, specifically his identification of the key elements of tragedy as those involving the experience of fear and pity, which leads to a catharsis of these emotions. Aristotle is famously unclear about what happens in this process of catharsis. I use the notion of philosophical beauty derived from Kant to suggest a possible explanation.
9. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Deborah Fitzgerald The British Avant-Garde: A Philosophical Analysis
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British Avant-Garde art, poses a challenge to traditional aesthetic analysis. This paper will argue that such art is best understood in terms of Wittgenstein’s concept of "seeing-as," and will point out that the artists often use this concept in describing their work. This is significant in that if we are to understand art in terms of cultural practice, then we must actually look at the practice. We will discuss initiatives such as the work of Damien Hirst, most famous for his animals in formaldehyde series, and that of Simon Patterson, who warps diagrams, e.g., replacing the names of stops on London Underground maps with those of philosophers. Cornelia Parker’s idea that visual appeal is not the most important thing, but rather that the questions that are set up in an attempt to create an "almost invisible" art are what are central, will also be discussed. Also, if we concur with Danto’s claims that "contemporary art no longer allows itself to be represented by master narratives," that Nothing is ruled out.", then it is indeed fruitful to understand art in terms of seeing-as. For application of this concept to art explains what occurs conceptually when the viewer shifts from identifying a work, as an art object, and then as not an art object, and explains why nothing is ruled out.
10. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Marc Jean-Bernard Estilo de pensamiento y estilo musical
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Fragmento sintético de una investigación general, el presente articulo tematiza, en tres actos cortos, la singular analogía notada por Wittgenstein entre investigación filosófica e investigación filosófica. A partir del pensamiento de Wittgenstein, considerado como pensamiento musical, esboza una perspectiva del estilo categorial en su "isología"con el pensamiento musical y enfoca la posibilidad de una hermenéutica descriptiva de los estilos liberada de los modelos trascendentales y estructurales.
11. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Glenn Kuehn Rhythmic Foundations, and the Necessary Aesthetic in Peirce’s Categories
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There has been a tendency in scholarship to steer quite clear of discussions of Peirce and Aesthetics, and I believe that the main reason that Peirce’s works lacks, perhaps even intentionally, a clear aesthetic theory is because his entire architectonic of experience is aesthetically founded. This thesis is based, in part, on the necessary aesthetic descriptions one is forced to use when describing something such as the categories. For example, Secondness necessarily elicits aesthetic descriptions of relations and tensions, Thirdness is described most accurately with words such as harmony and arrangement, and the process by which we come to attain a belief is an "aesthetic" endeavor aimed at satisfaction. Focusing particularly on the categories, and secondarily on the method for attaining belief, I hope to show that Peirce’s foundation is, itself, an aesthetic awareness of life.
12. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Robert Kramchynski Quality as Presentation: The Art of Speaking and the Science of Imitation
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The underlying thesis examined here maintains that meaning is simply subjective value which has been presented (i.e., enlarged or made explicit) in words or in some other plastic or static medium. This presentation of meaning consists in the extending of what is felt by the creator-subject to the other subjects. Although this extension of the primary agent may be the very thing which ultimately creates the space from where reflection might occur, the act of expression itself is not explicitly reflective. In other words, one might say that integral meaning is not reflective but rather is purely informing, while reflective meaning has to some degree lost its integrity. Working from these basic claims, I will examine how quality (or qualification) and quantity (or quantification) are related as functions of the languages of art and of science.
13. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Endre Kiss Philosophical Aspects of Literary Objectiveness
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Gadamer’s hermeneutic philosophy avoids the problem of literary objectiveness altogether. His approach witnesses the general fact that an indifference towards literary objectiveness in particular, leads to a peculiar neglect of par excellence literariness as such. It seems obvious, however, that the constitutive aspects of the crisis of literary objectiveness cannot be shown to contain the underlying intention of bringing about this situation. At this point, one can identify what could probably be the most important element in a definition of literary objectiveness. In contrast to ‘natural’ objectiveness and objectiveness based on various societal conventions, the legitimacy of a literary work is solely guaranteed by its elements being organized in accordance with the rules of literary objectiveness. Thus when the crisis of literary objectiveness intensifies, literariness will also find itself in a crisis. This crisis detaches new, quasi-literary formations from various definitions of literariness. When literary objectiveness ceases, however, to be understood as a system constituted by various objective formations aiming to correspond in one way or another to the ‘world’, scientific analysis of literary objectiveness will be rendered impossible. The crisis of literary objectiveness thus brings about the crisis of the theory of literature and the philosophy of art. Gadamer explicitly argues that the scientific approach proves to be inadequate in the analysis of artistic experience. This attitude results in the categorical rejection of a scientific orientation (and so in a complete indifference towards literary objectiveness), but he seems to overemphasize an otherwise correct thesis on the non-reflexive character of artistic experience. It is the anti-mimetic and Platonic character of Gadamer’s aesthetic hermeneutics that determines the status of literary (artistic) objectiveness in his system of thought. What is of crucial importance, however, is to point out that this aesthetics entails a fundamental reduction of the significance of literary objectiveness. As soon as the essence of aesthetic object-constitution is taken to be re-cognition (plus the emanating aesthetic possibilities), the absolutely natural interest in the original object represented by a work of art.Undoubtedly, Gadamer’s conception answers a number of questions that tend to be ignored by other theories. It is just as obvious, however, that Gadamer completes here the aesthetic devaluation of the objective domain. It is not the characteristics of the ‘original’ that constitute the image, but in effect the image turns the original into an original. Paraphrasing this claim one arrives at a near paradox: not objectiveness makes a work of art possible, but a work of art lends objects their objectiveness.
14. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Peter LaMarque Poetry and Private Language
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The paper discusses three theses in relation to poetry: (1) the Inadequacy Thesis: language is inadequate to capture, portray, do justice to, the quality and intensity of the inner life; (2) the Empathy Thesis: descriptions of certain kinds of experiences can only be (adequately) understood by a person who has had similar experiences; (3) the Poetic Thesis, which has two parts: (a) only through poetry can we hope to overcome the problem of the Inadequacy Thesis and (b) the difficulty of (some) poetry is at least partly explained by the Empathy Thesis. The paper argues that there are important truths underlying each thesis but that it would be wrong to connect this kernel of truth with a Lockean view of language, and in particular with a view of language as 'private', in the sense implied by Locke and criticized by Wittgenstein. The romantic conception of poetry, to which the theses are related, neither relies on the Lockean view nor does it succumb to the Wittgensteinian view.
15. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Andrew Light Restoration of Art and Restoration of Nature
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Robert Elliot's "Faking Nature," represents one of the strongest philosophical rejections of the ground of restoration ecology ever offered. Here, and in a succession of papers defending the original essay, Elliot argued that ecological restoration was akin to art forgery. Just as a copied art work could not reproduce the value of the original, restored nature could not reproduce the value of nature. I reject Elliot's art forgery analogy, and argue that his paper provides grounds for distinguishing between two forms of restoration that must be given separate normative consideration: (1) malicious restorations, those undertaken as a means of justifying harm to nature, and (2) benevolent restorations, or, those which are akin to art restorations and which cannot serve as justifications for the conditions which would warrant their engagement. This argument will require an investigation of Mark Sagoff's arguments concerning the normative status of art restorations.
16. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Liliana Máculus El Problem de la Comunicacion y Sus Relaciones con el Lenguaje
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Adviértase que no es caprichosa la elección de los acápites que guiarán el presente trabajo. Ambos, expresan un sentido de verdad respecto de sus propias disciplinas: la filosofía y la poesía, materias singularmente destacadas por M. Heidegger en cuanto a la custodia del instrumento más valioso en poder el hombre. Instrumento, herramienta, morada, condensados en la palabra humana que, a su vez, es propiedad de todos según Montale. La brevedad de las páginas que seguirán intentarán enforcar los problemas de la comunicación desde el lenguaje, la filosofía y la literatura, no sólo como hilo conductor para desarrollar el tema, sino como tributo que se rinde a quienes pasaron su vida inmersos en tales problemas, dedicados a resolverlos y a ahorrar al resto de la humanidad las consecuencias íntimas y externas de ese debatirse.
17. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Juan Lamarche La ficción y la verdad
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La filosofía clásica, adhiriendo a una concepción de la verdad como adecuación o correspondencia, con la garantía de la subjetividad moderna en sus distintas variantes, ubicó a la ficción como a una antítesis devaluada de la verdad. Luego de una revalorización de la ficción, en el siglo pasado, desde posiciones utilitaristas, abordamos una tesis de Paul Ricoeur, que correlaciona transculturalmente la actividad narrativa con el caracter temporal de la existencia humana. El eje fuerza de la obra analizada es la noción aristotélica de mímesis, desdoblada en tres dimensiones : I) prefiguración práctica en torno a la vida cotidiana II) configuración textual y III) refiguración receptiva a través de la lectura. La mímesis II , que abre el paso al "como si", opera como mediación entre el mundo de la vida -mímesis I- y la lectura refiguradora -mímesis III- y es la mediación entre el tiempo y la narración y entre la narración y la verdad. La confección de la trama, como actividad mimética fabuladora, está regulada en un proceso de esquematización, en el sentido kantiano, ya que subsume factores particulares en un todo -sensible e inteligible- bajo los parámetros del tiempo. La ficción y la verdad se relacionan entoces libremente bajo la éjida narrativa, sin la sujeción a un conciencia fundante, desplazándose a través de una identidad narrativa, que no es una yoidad formal, ni es un cambio indeterminado, al estilode Hume o Nietzsche, sino una ipseidad, que va de la vida al texto y del texto a la lectura, en una relación de inmanencia trascendencia.
18. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Stefan Munteanu The Art and Philosophy of Balance at Constantin Brâncusi
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Our paper intends to be an attempt of making evident the joining of the art and the philosophy of Constantin Brâncusi, the most outstanding representative of sculpture in our century. The way of approaching this topic was suggested to us by the great artist and thinker himself, who urges us that we should not make difficult what he expressed in a simple way. Of course, his multipurpose creation makes our job quite difficult, but we think the effort is worth doing, because in spite of all the limited commentaries, we succeeded in fiding out the coherence and the universality of his thinking as well as his capacity of placing himself above the cleatism—heraclitionism dispute which is considered as being fundamental for the whole history of art. That is because there exists, and we can speak about a unity of his works in all, based on the solidarity of the forms of his sculpture. As a result, mixing up the formal entities with the deviations from the principles of identity and noncontradiction in the discursive logic, we discover another type of logic in his creation. It is the logic of the metaphorical thinking, of the symbolic thinking based on the principle that anything can be something else in the same moment. This is why the aesthetic commentary, concerned with the modality of the suggestive expression, requires a complementarity of a hermeneutics of the symbol, capable of revealing the intention of the work in its complexity. Therefore, our attempt of considering the symbol of the ovoid as the keystone of Brâncusi’s philosophical conception, appears to be verisimilar. That is because, from the archetypal perspective, according to the arhaic Romanian philosophy, the egg is just the in-between shape (between en the spherical and hourglass, between geometric and biotic, between eleatic and heraclitian); it is the element by which the formal-aesthetic analysis can be unified; it is the synthesis of the opposites and the joy of the equilibrium.
19. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
Evanghélos A. Moutsopoulos Le Suranné Dans L’Art: Immanence et Nostalgie
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La catégorie du suranné, appliquée à l’objet esthétique, notamment au produit de l’activité artistique, désigne une mesure, un kairos, qui se situe entre l’ancien qui ne s’érige pas encore en classique et le contemporain qui n’est pas encore jugé démodé. Il qualifie tout objet esthétique en passe d’acquérir une valeur d’ancienneté sans pour autant s’affirmer comme universellement acceptable et sans s’imposer impérativement. Il ne détermine ni ce qui a vieilli ni ce que l’on qualifierait de vieillot; il dénote, plus particulièrement, un état intermédiaire, plus ou moins officiellement reconnu, qu’il relie au présent. Dans cet ordre d’idées, le suranné implique pour la conscience esthétique un jeu dialectique entre ce qui est directement vécu et ce qui est poursuivi, avec, en plus, un rien de dédain, mais aussi avec un certain regret à son égard. Il équivaut à un présent rétentionnel dont on voudrait, mais ne pourrait, se détacher; d’où la nostalgie que la conscience esthétique éprouve pour lui. D’ordre éminemment transitoire, l’objet suranné est un objet esthétiquement intermédiaire qui s’identifie à une hystérésis formelle autant que fonctionnelle. Dès lors, le suranné assure une continuité esthétique, oriente la conscience vers le passé, actualise l’inactuel et cautionne le rapprochement de ce qui est sujet à distanciation.
20. The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 1
María Rosa Palazón Relaciones Entre las Actitudes Bellas y las Morales
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There are no a-moral texts, even though amorality may be described by them: an amoral author would not dare into the search of beauty; it depends on a game of faculties that, also, play with the form. A moralizing literary text is not due to a game of author's faculties, but only to the author's conscience. Thus, it rebounds heavy and ugly. An ugly immoral literary text assaults on a redundant and calculated way some moral rules in favor of the "forbidden". Then, it is not a beautiful text. The aesthetic function is the one treating the stimulus as a purpose and not only as a means. This spontaneous behavior is condition of possibility for the moral act (the follower of the second kantian imperative). The one who spontaneously has the attitude that considers the other (alter) as a purpose and not only as a means, is a beautiful person. Its argued that it is not yet a morally good person. Anyway, "beau-ty" on its Latin etymologies (beau-t‚ and bello) means good, which involves a project that is dialoguing, truthful, respectful and advantageous for the community. It also means that the decision of using the proper means for the goal, has been taken. Once accepted the project, the individual shall act spontaneously on a ludicrous way so that the project may become real. He will be a more meritorious beautiful person if his spontaneous goodness means the overcoming over the experiences that have hurt hi. The matter is: is the moral beauty the highest point of morality? I will work on this topic on the basis of Schiller, Kant, Gadamer, and Sartre.