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1. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 12
Karin Buhmann Introducing Legal Method When Teaching Stakeholder Theory: Enhancing the Understanding of Stakeholder Expectations in Relation to Human Rights and CSR Reporting
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Governments are particularly salient stakeholders for business ethics. They act on societal needs and social expectations, and have the political and legal powers to restrict or expand the economic freedoms of business as well as the legitimacy and often urgency to do so. We draw on two examples: the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis of governments as stakeholders and their interests that drive expectations on firms. With a focus on analysis for responding adequately to stakeholder concerns,this article contributes to the emerging literature recognising the relevance of public regulation for CSR. More specifically, we contribute to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice.
2. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 12
Magnus Frostenson Teaching Issues-Driven Stakeholder Theory
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Teaching stakeholder theory may be difficult because of the constant calls for real-life relevance and application. The article argues that one way of overcoming the difficulty is to focus more on stakeholder issues than on stakeholders as actors. In education, materiality analyses, like the ones often present in sustainability reports, are probably a better way of approaching stakeholder theory than actor-centered approaches that end up in the identification of foreseeable groups ofstakeholders. Focusing on specific stakeholder issues also gives better possibilities to identify relationships and dependencies between stakeholders, which is of high relevance to managerial decision-making.
3. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 12
Kristian Høyer Toft Teaching Business Ethics to Critical Students—Adopting the Stance of Political CSR
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This paper provides ways of responding to critical students when teaching business ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR). A common premise of teaching pedagogy is to approach students from their “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky 1978). To get an understanding of students’ critical prior conceptions, the ideal type of the “liberal communist” (Žižek 2008) is invoked as suggestive of how students might think about business ethics and CSR. Two pedagogical approaches are suggested to address students’ a priori scepticism of business ethics and CSR. First, a framework of political views on CSR is presented. Second, approaching CSR by means of “problem based learning” is discussed. Finally, the paper reflects on the role of the business ethics teacher in light of tendencies towards commodification of education in the global economy.
4. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 12
Jacob Dahl Rendtorff An Interactive Method for Teaching Business Ethics, Stakeholder Management and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
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This paper presents a theoretical and practical approach to teaching business ethics, stakeholder management and CSR within the framework of the thematic seminar on business ethics and corporate social responsibility at Roskilde University. Within our programs in English of business studies and Economics and Business Administration the author of this article is responsible for this seminar that integrates issues of CSR and the ethics of innovation into the teaching ofcorporate social responsibility, stakeholder management and business ethics. This research oriented seminar provides a unique possibility for teaching CSR with an integration of methodological, theoretical and practical dimensions of business ethics (Rendtorff 2009). The idea is that the thematic seminar represents a tutor supported frame for extended studies of business ethics, stakeholder management and the social aspects of business and entrepreneurship. Each student shall present a paper on the basis of a collection of articles on the topic of ethics and social dimension of business. Moreover, it is required that the student is discussant of two other papers during the course. In addition, students shall prepare interactive participation in discussion of each paper. The sessions begin with a short introduction to the topic by the professor, then student presentations, after this discussant remarks, and finally general discussion followed by an evaluative assessment by the professor. During the seminar the student shall present both theory and case discussion so that we find a close interaction between theory and practice in the presentation. In the following, the paper elaborates on this development, in particular in the relation between theory presentation and case studies.
5. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 12
Maxim A. Storchevoy A Model for Identifying and Teaching Moral Issues in Stakeholder Relations
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The paper demonstrates how a typology of moral issues may be used to systematically analyze and discuss ethical problems in stakeholder relations. The suggested typology is based mostly on economic theory and represents a universal and comprehensive matrix of moral issues in business. We analyze its compatibility with other stakeholder management models and demonstrate how it may be applied as a tool for identifying relevant ethical issues in relations with any stakeholder, or to build instruments for measuring corporate social performance. In the conclusion we discuss other ways of application and future directions of research.
6. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 12
Kristian Alm Chains of Trust or Control? A Stakeholder Dilemma
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This paper discusses trust between stakeholders, with special emphasis on a new theory from the social sciences and ends up by focusing on a multidimensional dilemma between trust and control. Harald Grimen (1945-2011), an influential philosopher, social scientist and ethicist in Norway, defined trust as a communicative action between a trust-giver and a trust-receiver, characterized by the giver taking few precautions. This first part of his theory provides the basis for a specified interpretation of trust as a collective undertaking among stakeholders in modern organizations, such as financial companies, constituting chains of trust. The phenomenon of cooperation is fundamental in such chains. Grimen’s theoretical focus on trust as a single action, and on the chain of cooperation as several interconnected actions, represents a corrective to the psychological and individualistic profile of mainstream research on trust (Rousseau et al. 1998) and converges toward principal-agent theories. The paper uses Grimen’s theory to work out a hypothesis about a chain of trust between stakeholders in the financial industry, promoting a multi-efficient cooperation between them. The multi-efficiency of chains of trust is also discussed in connection with the risk of violating different ethical norms. The risk brings to focus the corresponding need for chains of control as a means to reduce the risk of violations of norms. But the chain of control has not only this advantage, but also a disadvantage. The inefficiency of chains of control is a severe hindrance to the efficiency of the chain of trust, even if it reduces the risk of violation of norms. The paper ends by underscoring a multidimensional dilemma typical for cooperation between stakeholders in modern organizations, i.e. the fundamental dilemma between the advantages and disadvantages of both chains of trust and chains of control.
7. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 9 > Issue: Special Issue
Mark Brimble, Brian Murphy Past, Present, and Future: The Role of Tertiary Education in Supporting the Development of the Financial Planning Profession
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The importance of financial advice for individuals is difficult to refute, however the degree to which the financial planning industry has been able to provide this to date is in debate. As a result, the industry, which is still in its infancy, has been subject to rapid growth, various controversies and regulatory intervention. The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) has contributed to the pace of this change with increased client, regulatory and self scrutiny as a result of the heightened dissatisfaction with advice outcomes. The coalescence of these factors has led to significant internal and external changes within the industry, resulting in the apparent commitment to becoming a profession. This paper will examine the implication of this agenda for tertiary education in relation to the role it could play to support the development of the financial planning profession. The paper achieves this by (1) reviewing the background to the financial planning industry and the move towards professionalism; (2) discussing current developments in the industry; (3) establishing the role of tertiary education and (4) assessing the role that tertiary education has played in supporting the financial planning sector. We argue that tertiary education has a critical role to play, however it is yet to achieve this. This study will be useful for those in both the managerial and operational/ academic elements of tertiary education in terms of providing considered avenues for engagement in this discipline. Indeed, if the paper provokes debate and discussion in tertiary education around the nation then we would consider our task complete.
8. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 9 > Issue: Special Issue
Jacqueline M. Drew, Michael E. Drew Who Was Swimming Naked When the Tide Went Out? Introducing Criminology to the Finance Curriculum
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Finance programs around the world have been revising their curricula following the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). While much of the debate has centred on the dominance of scientific and quantitative pedagogical approaches to finance education in business schools, one of the most egregious aspects uncovered during the deleveraging of the financial system was the scale and scope of finance crime and financial fraud (including the Madoff scandal, described as the largest Ponzi scheme in history). This paper argues that those “on the inside”, the professionals within the finance industry, have a central role to play in safeguarding the ethics and integrity of financial markets. It is our conjecture that prevention and earlier detection of finance crime and financial fraud may be addressed, in part, by better educating finance professionals about these issues. We posit that the enormity of illegal activity uncovered in the wake of the GFC demands, as a matter of priority, the integration of criminological and criminal justice theory into the finance curriculum.
9. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 9 > Issue: Special Issue
Richard I. Copp, Victor Wong Ethics Education for Finance Students Following the GFC
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University finance curricula have been criticized in the financial press in the wake of the GFC for ignoring the ethical dimensions of financial decision-making in practice. Many practitioners experience moral dilemmas about whether the broader “public interest” objectives of legal or accounting regulation, for example, should at times be sacrificed in favour of fulfilling an inconsistent upper management objective. Moreover, many propositions in finance are both positive and normative. For example, financial maxima and optima can be discussed only for a given distribution of wealth between relevant parties: shareholder wealth can be maximized, but only subject to a “given” constraint determined by the ethical norms of the society in which the firm operates. Assuming students’ sensitivity to ethical issues can be enhanced, ethics should be embedded within finance curricula, together with a final year, capstone course on “Ethical Investing” in the degree.
10. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 9 > Issue: Special Issue
Richard I. Copp Teaching Finance in the Post-GFC Environment: Quomodo hic habetur, et Quo hinc?
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Despite criticism in the wake of the GFC, history shows that theory and curricula adapt to rectify any disconnects between theory, curricula, and practice. Finance theory unquestionably has antecedents in economics, accounting, legal theory, and psychology. Some theoretical developments—including the moral hazard consequences of limited liability—have yet to filter through to many texts and curricula, which also omit explanations of uncertainty; incomplete and (sub)optimal contracting; contagion; and behavioural finance. Student learning outcomes could be enhanced if universities, perhaps in a final year, cross-disciplinary “capstone” course, empowered students to understand the financial documentation evidencing sophisticated transactions; map relevant cash flows and wealth transfers; and recognise Ponzi schemes, the ethics of stakeholder wealth transfers, the conditions for contagion, and incentives for adverse selection and moral hazard in practice.
11. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 9 > Issue: Special Issue
Ross Guest The Case for Integrating Accounting, Finance, and Economics in Teaching the GFC Through a Problem-Based Learning Approach
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This paper argues that a key lesson of the GFC of 2008-9 is that our “silo” approach to the disciplines of accounting, finance, and economics (AFE) has not equipped students to deal with complex real world problems such as global financial crises. Such real world problems are interdisciplinary in their causes, effects, and solutions. The paper discusses elements of each of the AFE disciplines that are essential for understanding the GFC, and why courses in economics and finance that seek to address the GFC as a topic need to integrate ideas from these three disciplines. A problem-based learning (PBL) approach is offered as a way forward, through at least one capstone course in a business/commerce degree that brings together the strands from a range of commerce/business disciplines in a case study approach. The paper offers an outline of such a PBL approach to the GFC.
12. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 9 > Issue: Special Issue
Jason West Money Mathematics: Examining Ethics Education in Quantitative Finance
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The field of quantitative analysis is often mistaken to be a discipline free from ethical burdens. The quantitative financial analyst or “quant” profession holds a position of significant responsibility as the keeper of mathematical models used in complex derivative security pricing and risk management. Despite this responsibility very few postgraduate programs address the teaching of ethics and professional standards in their curriculum, and the credibility of the profession has suffered as a result of several high-profile financial losses. Some of these failures could have been avoided and their impacts diminished if ethical considerations were integrated with quantitative method. Appropriate development in ethics education for quants is needed to identify points in the decision-making process where ethical questions can arise, and to explain how quants can protect stakeholders from the costs of unethical behaviour. An approach to ethics education needs to be flexible and allow for different methods to infuse ethical coverage into the course. Such an approach will go some way towards aligning the profession with other specialisations in banking and avoid the need for complex and unnecessary regulation.
13. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 9 > Issue: Special Issue
Zoltan Murgulov Simulated Trading Environment as a Learning Tool in Corporate Finance
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This research explores the application of an innovative learning approach by using trading simulation tutorials to reinforce the conventional learning styles in a corporate finance subject at postgraduate level. The majority of surveyed students perceive that their learning experience has been significantly enhanced through simulated trading tutorials. The post-trading survey shows students also indicate feeling more confident to self-monitor their learning. Furthermore, themajority of students feel able to recognise ethical issues in relation to trading in securities. This research highlights some potentially negative effects if trading simulations were to be used in isolation without providing students with a solid background in ethics. This issue is even more relevant in the post Global Financial Crisis environment. If carefully designed and implemented, trading simulations have a potential to mitigate some potentially negative effects of the use of technology and be an effective and inclusive teaching tool.
14. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 9 > Issue: Special Issue
Parmendra Sharma, Eduardo Roca, Ken McPhail The Global Financial Crisis and Reinventing the Business School
15. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Bernard Gert Avoiding Moral Cynicism
16. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
James D. Wallace Social Artifacts and Ethical Criticism
17. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Robert F. Ladenson The Educational Significance of the Ethics Bowl
18. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
David Rothenberg All Used Up with Nowhere to Glow!: Comments on the Goshute Nuclear Waste Repository Case
19. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Michael S. Pritchard Practical Ethics and Philosophical Reflection
20. Teaching Ethics: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
David R. Keller Un-American or Very-American?: The Goshute Nuclear Waste Repository