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1. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Vittorino Grossi Para leer la espiritualidad de san Agustín. Elementos culturales
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The article offers an outline of the context of the classical culture in which Christianity developed in the first three centuries, highlighting the humanistic culture of Seneca, the neo-Pythagorean school of the Sextii and the popular preaching of the Cynical Philosophers. On the other hand, the context of classical culture in Christianity of the 4th and 5th centuries is addressed, to highlight the problems that arose when trying to combine “culture” and Christianity. As an example of this problem, the case of Basil the Great and his Discourse to the young is offered. Subsequently, the article presents a series of open questions about the future of spirituality in relationship with «culture / cultures». The article ends with a discussion about Roman Paideia and the Christian Paideia.
2. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Vittorino Grossi Presentación
3. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Enrique A. Eguiarte B. Preámbulo
4. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Vittorino Grossi Para leer la espiritualidad de Agustín. Elementos antropológicos
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The article offers a synthesis of Augustine’s anthropological thought, pointing out the change he makes in the way of researching after his election to the episcopate, as well as the importance of Platonism in the building of the “Augustinian man”. Thirdly, the article presents his understanding of the God-man relationship, which is made clear from the couple “freedom-grace”. The article affirms that there is a reciprocal interference between these three elements, so that, taken together, they can provide the essential lines of Augustine’s anthropological thought.
5. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Vittorino Grossi Para leer la espiritualidad de Agustín. Elementos espirituales
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The article deals with the key ideas to understand S. Augustine’s Spirituality, setting in its context the figure of the postconstatinian saint, and discussing the topic of the degrees of sanctity in Saint Augustine. Later, it deals with the various spiritual phases in the writings of Saint Augustine, dividing the life of the doctor of Hippo in two moments, before and after his priestly ordination, pointing out in the second stage the role and function of the Holy Spirit as love and principle of holiness. The importance of spiritual man in the period of the anti-Pelagian struggle is also revealed. It also explains what is for Saint Augustine the spirituality of the heart.
6. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Vittorino Grossi La virgen cristiana en los escritos de Ambrosio y de Agustín
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The article presents the figure of the consecrated virgin, as it appears in the writings of Ambrose of Milan and Augustine of Hippo. It also offers a contextual synthesis of the conditions of women in Late Antiquity, both in civil society, presenting the women as uxor, the situation of the Vestal Virgins, as well as the women’s stituation within the Christian communities. Later a summary of the main Latin patristic writings on virginity is made, to analyze and compare in more detail, Saint Ambrose’s De Virginibus and Saint Augustine’s De sancta Virginitate.
7. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Vittorino Grossi El pensamiento de Agustín sobre la vida conyugal y la sexualidad: influencias y equívocos
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The article addresses Augustine’s understanding of human sexuality and the spirituality of the married couple, and has two parts. In the first part, some orientations are given for reading the ancient Christian texts; in the second part, the thought of Saint Augustine on the subject of human sexuality and spirituality of the married couple is exposed. On the other hand, some of the mistakes derived from the Augustinian thought are discussed. The article also presents a current application of the Augustinian thought on sexuality and the spirituality of the married couples in the Contemporary World.
8. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Vittorino Grossi La espiritualidad agustiniana de la vida conyugal
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The article addresses the spirituality of marriage according to Saint Augustine and has three parts. In the first part, the context of the Roman family institution, in which the Christian vision of the family was born and matured, is presented. Secondly, the presentation of the Christian family in the time of Saint Augustine is made, highlighting the three heterodox currents of that time in relation to marriage, as well as the position of the Bishop of Hippo regarding the body. Subsequently, a presentation of the most significant texts of De Bono coniugali is made. Thirdly, some pastoral observations are presented, starting from the penitential practice of Saint Augustine in relation to the wounded families, to later make a comparison with the contents expressed by Pope Francis in the Apostolic Exhortation Amoris laetitia on the same topic.
9. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Vittorino Grossi La espiritualidad de la madre de familia: Mónica «mater», imagen de la Iglesia
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The article presents the figure of Monica, mother of Augustine, highlighting her spirituality as a Christian mother, underlining especially three elements. First, the fact that Monica is a middle-class woman, in relationship to women of high social rank, of whom we know the stories, told by Gregory of Nissa, Gregory of Nazianzus or Jerome. Later, the article points out how Monica is the image of the Church, and not just a domestic example of a Christian mother. Finally, the article shows that Monica, as “mother”, plays a role in the society, not only with respect to her children, but also expresses the identity of the mother. In Monica, the woman as “mother” is “subject” of rights, is “uxor” according to Roman law.
10. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Vittorino Grossi El De viduis, de Ambrosio, y el De bono viduitatis, de Agustín
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The article addresses the figure of Widows in the ancient Church, making a brief summary of the literature that exists on them in the Pre-Nicene era, particularly the Apostolic Traditio, the Didascalia Apostolorum, the Ecclesiastical Constitution of the Apostles (also known as Canons of the Apostles, Egyptian Apostolic Constitution), showing that in the Pre-Nicene Church (1st-2nd centuries), widows were inserted into an ecclesial coetus. Subsequently, the article focuses on Ambrose’s De uiduis, highlighting how the Bishop of Milan inserted the widow into the Church’s life of his time, particularly underlining the works of charity they carried out, stressing their possible work in the reconciliation of women. Later, the treatise of Saint Augustine De bono uiduitatis is addressed, highlighting the role of charity that they exercised within the Church of Hippo, as well as their interaction and integration with the Consecrated Virgins and the Married.
11. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Vittorino Grossi El servus/serva Dei El monje/monja (frater/soror) agustiniano
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The article approaches the fiuure of the Augustinian monk taking as point of departure some of the Works of Saint Augustine, particularly the Regula ad servos Dei and sermons 354, 355 and 356, to show how Augustine from the initial anthropological category of homo interior-homo exterior –typical from the Latin Christian tradition–, he shifts, already in the Regula ad seruos Dei (probably around 400), to the category of homo spiritalis, in relationship to a spirituality of freedom under the grace of God. From this anthropological perspective, famulus/a seruus/a Dei (= the monk, the virgin) is considered not as “he who tames the flesh”, but rather as “he who loves spiritual beauty”, he who is born of Holy Spirit. The article points out how for Augustine, the monastery must be a place with an atmosphere of freedom and grace that gives life, “not as servants under the law”, but “as free men under grace” (reg. 3 8, 1).
12. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Vittorino Grossi El diácono y su espiritualidad en los escritos de Agustín de Hipona
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In this article, the figure of the Deacon in the Church of the IV and V Century is presented, starting mainly from the Augustinian sources to reveal fundamentally four elements. In the first place, the fact that the Deacon exercised different functions subordinate to the Bishop. Secondly, the conditions for being accepted in the group of Deacons in the time of Saint Augustine are revealed. Thirdly, the theological and liturgical background of Deacons in Late Antiquity is pointed out. Later, the figure of the Deacon in the Donatist controversy is addressed, and the article ends with some observations on the liturgical clothing of the Deacons.
13. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Vittorino Grossi La dimensión agustiniana del obispo
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The article presents those elements that were required of a bishop in Late Antiquity, both the cultural elements, as well as the spiritual ones, that he must have as the father of the Christian community. The article reviews some sermons of Augustine of Hippo, particularly those preached on the anniversary of his episcopal consecration (ss. 23; 46; 47; 49; 101; 270; 339; 340A; 355; 356). Such sermons have a particular interest, since they express Augustine’s point of view when interpreting his episcopal ministry in the context of the late Antiquity society, particularly in the Latin area.
14. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 256/257
Bibliografía
15. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 258/259
Bruno N. D’Andrea 'In tuam invocationem rumpebam nodos linguae meae' (conf. 1, 14): Un poco más que aprender a hablar
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The first book of Augustine’s Confessions has attracted the attention of many Scholars for a long time, especially the interest of those who study the Philosophy of Language. The article presents some considerations about the acquisition of language as explained by Augustine in the first Book of the Confessions, trying to verify if the only purpose of the Bishop of Hippo when narrating this event, typical of pueritia, was to communicate to the reader when and how he learned to speak. The article tries to point out that Augustine probably wanted to describe the moment when he was able for the first time to address God. In this sense, Augustine’s intention would be to point that the process of learning to speak is a necessary step to be able to call on God, to praise him and to pray, all topics which are important within Augustine’s Confessions.
16. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 258/259
Enrique A. Eguiarte 'Familia Christi': La eclesiología en el libro XII del 'Contra Faustum' de Agustín de Hipona
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The first part of this article, presents a bibliographic review of the works that in the last hundred years have addressed in a direct and central way Augustine’s Contra Faustum, making a more extensive description of the most important of them. Later the ecclesiological ideas of Book XII of Augustine’s Contra Faustum are approached, to discuss, Saint Augustine’s exegetical justification to make an spiritual interpretation of the Old Testament. Subsequently, the central ecclesiological figure of Book XII of Augustine’s Contra Faustum is addressed, namely, Noah’s ark, highlighting the symbolic meaning of the pure and impure animals, of the square and imperishable timbers with which the ark was built, of the ark’s side door and its relationship with the side of Christ, of the three levels of Noah’s ark and its ecclesial interpretation, of the greasy glue that joined the timbers as a symbol of unity and peace within the Church. The importance of the expression familia Christi as a name for the Church is highlighted, making an exposition of other augustinan works in which this expression is used. The theme of the Church as the body of Christ and the prosopological exegesis in Augustine’s Book XII of Contra Faustum is also addressed, as well as Saint Augustine’s interpretation of some characters of the Old Testament as figures of the Chruch in book XII of Contra Faustum. The article addresses indirectly to other contemporary Works of Contra Faustum, such as De Baptismo, Ad catholicos fratres and some sermons and enarrationes in Psalmos.
17. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 258/259
Joost van Neer Agustín habla sobre Alipio y Nebridio: Una nueva interpretación de 'conf.' VI, 7, 11–10, 17
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In conf. VI, the younger Augustine – as described by his older self – is well on his way to conversion, even though he is not yet aware of this himself. His spell as a Manichaean had not given him what he had hoped to find, and he feared that the Catholics would prove equally disappointing. Confronted with this situation, he decided to consult his friends. After an evocation of the influence of Ambrose (conf. VI,1,1–6,10), to which he proved susceptible, and before dealing with the problems to which the resulting choice gave rise (conf. VI, 11,18–16,26): to continue to work or not, to marry or not, Augustine describes his encounters with Alypius and Nebridius in conf. VI, 7,11–10,17. In this section, which is very carefully composed with regard not only to form (structure), but also, and primarily, to content (argument), he summons up the impasse in which he finds himself, and describes it with the aid of two images: that of illness, and that of danger at sea. The argument that he develops is that of a crisis: when a person is ill, it sometimes happens that the patient’s condition must first deteriorate before it improves, just as someone in danger at sea must sometimes face even greater peril before he is able to escape. This is what Augustine describes in conf. VI, 7,11–10,17, and this ensures that conf. VI is not a book in which he comes to a standstill, but one in which a therapeutic delay is created that gives him the strength and courage to accept humility instead of pride, and to persevere on his journey towards conversion, described in conf. VIII. This article analyses and interprets the strategy that Augustine employs to achieve this.
18. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 258/259
Enrique A. Eguiarte San Agustín y las migraciones
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The article presents, in the first part, some socio-political phenomena from Saint Augustine’s time, which caused migrations, to discuss which was the reaction of the Bishop of Hippo to these events. The topic of migrations and refugees are dealt taking as point of departure the Favencio’s dossier (epp. 113-116), as well as the case of Fascio, as it is described in Saint Augustine’s ep. 268. As an example of economic migrants, the case of the family of Antonino of Fusala is analyzed, as described in ep. 20*. Starting from the migratory movements of Saint Augustine’s time, as well as the decline of the great institutions and the internal corruption of the Roman Empire itself, the article presents Saint Augustine’s spiritual idea of peregrinus and peregrinatio, highlighting the characteristics of this essential augustinian spiritual anthropological condition, making a diachronic research in the Works of the Bishop of Hippo to identify the presence and meaning of the word peregrinus. Finally, the article presents some practical conclusions to face the reality of migration in our days, taking inspiration from the ideas and the life of Saint Augustine.
19. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 258/259
Pablo Irízar ¿La gracia del mérito o el mérito de la gracia? Retórica de la imagen y ambigüedad en los 'sermones' de Agustín
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The interplay between grace and merit is a recurrent Augustinian theme that is often discussed in polemical or theoretical works. Only recently has scholarly attention turned to the study of grace and merit in Augustine’s pastoral praxis. As part of this ongoing effort, the present paper offers an analysis of Augustine’s rhetoric of the image in the sermons, with special attention to the effects that the preacher/hearer dialectic produces in the social ‘moral imagination’. It is argued that Augustine’s dialectic preaching on the interplay between grace and freedom results in ambiguity concerning the sphere and boundaries of moral action in the hearer’s ‘moral imagination’. The implication on the social imagination, it is concluded, is a constant fluidity in the foreground of moral agency which either empowers or constraints the boundaries of moral action to the extent that graceand/or merit are emphasized.
20. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 258/259
Kauko Raikas Las dimensiones del 'Iudex' en el pensamiento y en la actividad episcopal de Agustín: Historia legal y examen del pensamiento teológico y de la práctica episcopal de Agustín
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The article addresses two specific areas on the topic of the iudex in Augustine, namely: his thought and his episcopal activity. First, the article deals with the roots of the concept of iudex in the Greek and Latin legal tradition. Later the idea of iudex is approached within the New Testament, particularly in the Pauline writings. Next, the theological and eschatological dimension of iudex in Saint Augustine is presented, highlighting the common use that the Bishop of Hippo makes of the term iudex, underlining words such as Iudicium, or legal situations such as the iudex qui litem suam fecit, or the decision of the iudex, considered from a theological and legal point of view. In this theological dimension, the aspect of God as universal and cosmological iudex is not excluded. Subsequently, the Donatist dispute is analyzed from a legal perspective, highlighting the ecclesiastical law of the state, discussing the epp. 133, 151 and 134, stressing in the latter the legal value of the word necessitas. The importance of the episcopal intercessio is also underlined, analyzing epp. 152 and 153, as well as the terms of reus, supplicium and supplicatio, within the framework of the Pelagian polemic. The article also considers the issue of compelle intrare, in epp. 93, 173, as well as in the s. 112. The correspondence of Saint Augustine with Boniface and Dulcitius (ep. 185, De correctione donatistarum), ep. 204 is analyzed in this same context, as well as some texts from c. Gaud. The dimension of the iudex in the Pelagian controversy is also addressed, discussing particularly texts from Gest. Pel. and c. Iul. imp., highlighting in this last work the legal vocabulary, particularly the words that refer to the iudex. The epìscopalis Audientia is also addressed, presenting the imperial laws that framed it, both those of Constantine, as well as those of Honorius and Arcadius, to later stress the actions that Saint Augustine performed as a judge. As an example of the performance of Saint Augustine as judge, ep. 7 * is discussed, highlighting the actions of the Bishop of Hippo as a judge in matters related to property, as well as Saint Augustine’s knowledge of the legal terms and procedures, presenting the example of ep. 8*, and his technical use of terms such as actio in rem, uindicatio, causa, among others. Finally, ep. 24* is discussed, where the knowledge that Saint Augustine had of the ius uetus and of the ius nouum is revealed.