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101. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 13
Frank J. Russo, Jr, The Issue of Parental Choice in Education
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The most fundamental parental right is the right to guide your child’s education. This basic parental right was clearly enunciated by Pope John Paul II in Familiaris Consortio. But this is not only a Catholic view, but a universal one. In its famous 1948 Declaration on Human Rights, the UN declared, “Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education to be given to their children.” Our country, unfortunately, has one of the worst records in the entire world in living up to this key principle, where education remains the last great unnatural monopoly. At a cost of over half a trillion dollars per year, U.S. education fares poorly compared to other industrialized nations. Competition, through parental choice, will improve the quality of education for all students, lower the cost for taxpayers and allow parents to better guide their child’s moral development.
102. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 13
Guido Giacomo Preparata Un(for)giving: Bataille, Derrida and the Postmodern Denial of the Gift
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Georges Bataille, along with Thorstein Veblen, Marcel Mauss, Rudolf Steiner, and Karl Polanyi, may be considered an exponent of a school of thought alternative, if not antagonistic, to Liberal economics—a school which may be called “the political economy of the Gift.” The economists of the Gift” analyze economic performance mostly through a society’s use of its surplus. What differentiates Bataille from the others, however, is his obsessive insistence that wholesome, disinterested ways of giving are, in fact, an impossibility. To Bataille, all acts of munificence throughout history have been but manifestations of abarbarous appetite to outshine others, either in peace through sumptuary expenditure, or in war through holocaust and sacrifice. This characterization of human conduct has become a tenet of the late anti-humanist discourse by way of Jacques Derrida, who recycled Bataille’s polemic in the eighties. It is thus curious to observe how, in the end, Bataille’s anti-Liberal radicalism has brought his postmodern followers to converge with the Liberal school, which itself belittles the power of selfless donation and the significance of gift-exchange.
103. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 13
Patrick Foley Catholics Of The South: Historical Perspectives
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As the historical study of various aspects of American society has unfolded over the course of centuries, the terms “Catholic” and “South” have matured as specific identifications of peoples with clear and precise heritages. But far too often these identities have been victimized, made unclear, through certain scholarly purviews of authors writing the histories. One noticeable tendency long present in the publishing of American history textbooks, for example, has been theover-focusing on the English heritage of the American story at the expense of a more in-depth and accurate look at the Spanish historical legacy. Thus the Protestant Anglican narrative, even today, oftentimes tends to be biased and over-stated. Certainly this is true in Texas where your author lives. Just look, for example, at the manner in which the Alamo is handled. Or again, study how the U.S. invasion of Mexico in 1846 frequently is taught in our schools. Clearly, within this context, the American South and the Roman Catholic history of the United States, particularly in the South, needs to be presented more accurately. It isthe several perspectives of this need to seek historical truth in these areas more accurately that this essay will search out.
104. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 13
Mark S. Latkovic Iraq, The “Surge,” and Just-War Theory: Some Thoughts About the Current Situation in Light of Catholic Morality
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This piece was originally presented as a talk for the Archdiocese of Detroit’s Presbyteral Council’s “Disputed Questions” Debate, on February 19, 2008. It argues that the most recent phase of the Iraqi war effort—the “surge”—meets the just-war criteria. In the next issue of CSSR (2009) the editor would like to include a short"symposium" that would include responses to this article, and a reply from the author. Anyone who wishes to respond may submit, for review, a response of approximately 1000 words or less, by January 10, 2009. Send a Word file to Lowery@udallas.edu The numbering will make it easy for respondents to refer to the article. Keep in mind that this piece was written in March 2008.
105. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 13
Rupert J. Ederer A Principle for Economics
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The principle of solidarity is critical for the social order overall. The Catholic Church in its social teachings since Leo XIII has emphasized its importance and relevance specifically for the economic order. First termed “social charity” by Pius XI in Quadragesimo Anno (1931), solidarity was then declared by John Paul II to be “a Christian virtue,” in Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (1987), and identified as the “principle of solidarity” in Centesimus Annus (1991). Three leading economic system-builders recognized it, which suggests its roots in the natural law. Adam Smith, after indicating its implicit presence in the division of labor, subsequently rejected it in favor of self-interest. Karl Marx distorted it into a class concept by confining its application to the proletariat. Only Heinrich Pesch, S. J. made it the basic principle for all sectors of the economic system and throughout the social order.
106. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 13
Heinrich Lechtape, Rupert J. Ederer The Question of Justice in Taxation the Basics of Tax Reform in Terms of the Solidarity Concept of Heinrich Pesch, S. J.
107. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Cecilia R. Castillo Strauss and Christianity: Friends or Foes?
108. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Scott McDermott Orestes Brownson and the Contract of Government
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Orestes Brownson’s doubts about the social contract theory expressed in America’s founding documents have been cited by some Catholic scholars against the legitimacy of The American Republic. Did Brownson reject the American experiment as an atheistic usurpation of legitimate authority—and if so, was he justified? This paper considers Brownson’s critique of democracy in The American Republic in the context of his other writings. Brownson’s organic vision of Americanpolities, derived from Hegel, is of lasting value. But Brownson’s attack on social contract theory ultimately founders because of its failure to distinguish the “contract of society” from the “contract of government.”
109. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Su Li Lee Persons as Gifts: Understanding Interdependence through Pope John Paul II’s Anthropology
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Interdependence is a phenomenon prevalent in collectivist societies. Despite being a well-known concept, it is only recently that the interaction between interdependence and independence was studied as orthogonally varying constructs (Liu & Goto, 2007). A primary finding is that individuals high on both interdependence and independence have better mental health and higher family cohesion. This article attempts to understand these findings in light of Pope John Paul II’s understanding of persons as gifts. From Trinitarian theology to its philosophical underpinnings, it will be shown that it is precisely in this gift character that interdependence finds its roots and fundamental meaning. Furthermore, this gift structure also accounts more fully and coherently for the independence-interdependence interaction.
110. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Thomas W. Jodziewicz In the Matter of Catholic Historiography: a Proposal
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Nineteen-sixty was a significant year in American Catholic history. The election of John F. Kennedy was heralded as symbolic of 'the arrival' of American Catholics in an American society which, in the past, had not always been quite so welcoming to Catholics. However, candidate Kennedy's celebrated insistence on a strict separation of one's private religious views from one's public life and service was not embraced by all observers, Catholic and non-Catholic alike. Two other circumstances in 1960, the publications of John Courtney Murray's We Hold These Truths and Thomas T. McAvoy's "American Catholics: Tradition and Controversy" in Thought, suggested other possibilities and concerns regarding the more complete involvement of American Catholics in the host culture. This involvement, then and now, speaks to the reality and the charity of inculturation, but also as a project incumbent on all believers and perhaps on historians and other scholars as well.
111. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Emil Berendt A Response from Emil Berendt
112. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Kenneth L. Grasso Neither Ancient Nor Modern: The Distinctiveness of Catholic Social Thought
113. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Thomas E. Woods, Jr. Catholic Social Teaching and the Market Economy Revisted: A Reply to Thomas Storck
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It is a violation of legitimate academic freedom to attempt to link Catholicism to a particular school of economic thought and shut down all further debate. Whether the realm of human choice, which economics describes, is subject to an array of cause-and-effect relationships is obviously a matter for human reason to determine. From there, reason can then investigate these relationships. Although economic policy has a moral dimension, economics as a positive scienceconsists merely of an edifice of cause-and-effect relationships, and to that extent is as autonomous as the purely descriptive sides of all other sciences.
114. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Robert P. Hunt Christianity, Leo Strauss, and the Ancients/Modern Distinction
115. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Charles M. A. Clark A Response from Charles Clark
116. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Thomas Storck A Challenge From Thomas Storck
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It is often claimed that there is a conflict between the ethical mandates of Catholic social teaching and the findings of economic science. However, the kind of economic analysis such critics adhere to is either the mainstream neoclassical (including the Chicago School) or the Austrian School, whose modes of economic analysis differ from that employed by the popes. Using examples from encyclicals, this article shows that the Supreme Pontiffs gave a more prominent place in their economic thinking to economic power and to institutions such as legal or cultural norms than to market forces. Instances are then given in which economic power is shown to have affected economic outcomes, and alternative schools are proposed as offering a type of economic analysis closer to that used by the popes.
117. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Ronald J. Rychlak Cardinal Stepinac, Pope Pius XII, and the Roman Catholic Church During the Second World War
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Like Pius XII, who fought to undermine the Nazis, Croatian Archbishop (later Cardinal) Aloysius Stepinac battled with the Nazi-like Ustashi regime. Like Pius, Stepinac was known to those close to him as a staunch opponent of Fascism, but also like Pius, his reputation was smeared by false accusations after the war. In fact, evidence that was manufactured by Communist authorities after the war to defame Stepinac, and which has since been established as false, has made itsway into the historical analysis of Pius XII’s papacy. That false evidence continues to confound scholars and distort their appreciation of efforts undertaken by Pius and Stepinac to combat evil regimes and protect victims of all different backgrounds.
118. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Wolfgang Grassl The Study Of Business As A Liberal Art? Toward An Aristotelian Reconstruction
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The prevailing model of teaching business administration at Catholic universities does not sufficiently differentiate Catholic institutions; it does not live up to the expectations of the Church; and it underplays the potential of the Catholic Intellectual Tradition to elucidate the sphere of business. Attempting to integrate business administration into the “liberal arts” is a misguided approach, for barring an implementation of the historical liberal arts curriculum there is no non-arbitrary way of defining what the term denotes. From an Aristotelian perspective as carried on in the Thomistic tradition, reality is continuous, and all social and behavioral sciences are unified in their material object while they study persons under different aspects. Business is a region of human behavior, and its study naturally coheres with other disciplines. The practice of business is ontologically integrated into a reality that unifies man, his actions, and their results,and its study is integrated into the academic edifice through the use of the Catholic style of thought. This model facilitates a new understanding of teaching and research in business administration, in what is hoped to be a more Catholic spirit.
119. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Elizabeth Holmes Reforming Ireland? An Inquiry from the Standpoint afforded by Rival Traditions
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Commitments agreed upon internationally by Irish political representatives often escape scrutiny at home.1 One outcome of this omission is evidenced in the debate regarding the family: Is it pivotal to the achievement of the common good, or does its unity act as an obstacle to full equality? This article examines this debate from the standpoint afforded by MacIntyre’s formulation of tradition-constituted enquiries, asking whether current political trends entail a shift in the very basis on which the Irish reason practically.
120. Catholic Social Science Review: Volume > 14
Joseph A. Varacalli A Catholic House in Repair or Further Dividing?
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As she emerges from the immediate post-Vatican II period, the Catholic Church in the U.S. is experiencing simultaneously both positive and negative developments. Negatively, the immediate post-Vatican II period, characterized by the institutionalization of internal dissent, predictably produced various religious and social dysfunctions and witnessed increasing numbers within the ranks of Catholic leadership accepting secular assumptions of reality as superior to those of the historic and organically developing Catholic tradition. During the immediate contemporary era, the growth of this institutionalized dissent—characterized as a “first wave” of decomposition—has been capped but has not been significantly reduced.Key to contemporary positive developments occurring at the moment is the appearance of a significant minority of young people in search of a worldview and lifestyle consistent with the spiritually rich and life-affirming worldview of the Catholic faith. Key to contemporary negative developments is a more recent “second wave” of decomposition characterized by needless and self-destructive rancor taking place within the remaining sectors of orthodox Catholicism. This second wave of decomposition is partially the result of the inability of a Catholic leadership too enamored of a secular bureaucratic mentality to articulate and enforce the parameters of Catholic orthodoxy in the form of a “Catholic center” as defined by Magisterial thinking.The failure to forge an effective Catholic center has resulted in the continuation of the general decomposition of the Church in the form of a partially hidden but operative “protestantization” and individualization within the Catholic community. In this second wave, elements of orthodox Catholicism conflate their time and space-specific responses to the unsatisfactory condition of the Church in America with the far wider range of legitimate responses acceptable within thetradition of the Church Universal, thus absolutizing what are, in reality, responses that are relative, incomplete, and, in some cases, simply false. Because of the lack of an effective “Catholic center” in America, in other words and in too many cases, the organizations and movements created by serious Catholics in response to the present unsatisfactory condition of the Church have failed to revitalize and invigorate the Church and her tradition through an organic development. Rather, they are serving to further splinter her into competing, and at best, partial and incomplete versions of the Catholic faith.The immediate future of the Catholic Church in America, and derivatively, the direction of American civilization depend on whether legitimate Catholic leadership can create a functioning Catholic center based on Magisterial authority that is consistent with the adage, “in necessary things, unity; in doubtful things, liberty; in all things, charity.” The task of this Catholic center, under present circumstances, is to suppress and control the two waves of decomposition, both of which operate simultaneously within the contemporary Catholic Church. The Catholic center must discipline and reject the overt dissent generated by secularism, focus attention on the basic and non-negotiable principles of the Catholic faith, and significantly reduce needless conflict on prudential concerns and issues between the various sectors of orthodox Catholicism in the United States.