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101. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 7
Betty Stoneman Ideological Domination: Deconstructing the Paradox of the American Dream and the Working Class Promise
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The “American Dream” and “Working Class Promise” ideologies are ubiquitously dispersed in American society. These ideologies posit values of equality and opportunity. In this paper, I deconstruct these two ideologies in order to examine the effects these ideologies have on income inequality, social inequality, and social immobility. I argue these ideologies create a paradox in society whereby the more these ideologies are believed, the more the ideologies exacerbate income inequality, social inequality, and social immobility.
102. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 7
Author Biographies
103. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 7
Esther Wolfe, Elizabeth Grosz Bodies of Philosophy: An Interview with Elizabeth Grosz
104. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Camilla Cannon The Contemporary American Child as a Docile Consumptive Body
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In this paper, I argue that the contemporary relationship between children and advertising can be seen as illustrative of Foucault’s theory of disciplinary power and docile body production. I contend that, within the context of a consumption-based economy, an individual’s prime utility is her rate of personal consumption. Therefore, the subjection of children to ubiquitous advertising can be seen as the discipline through which the utility of personal consumption is maximized.
105. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Katie Lane Kirkland Concreteness and Contraception: Beauvoir’s Second Sex and the Affordable Care Act
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In this paper, I analyze Simone de Beauvoir’s goals for women expressed in The Second Sex and compare these goals to the opportunities created by the Affordable Care Act’s contraceptive mandate. Though the contraceptive mandate advances Beauvoir’s goal of concrete equality by supporting economic independence and recognizing women’s sexual freedom, there are social and political limitations to these advancements.
106. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Ian Ferguson Nietzsche and the Prince
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The main character of Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s novel The Idiot is a devout Orthodox Christian named Prince Myshkin. Friedrich Nietzsche, who is intensely critical of Christianity, and Myshkin share the same views on shame and pity despite their apparent ideological differences. They condemn the damaging effects of shame and praise the redeeming quality of pity for people who are put to shame. Nietzsche and Myshkin criticize the moral aspect of Christianity, but Nietzsche generalizes it for all of Christianity and Myshkin limits it to the Catholic Church. In the end, they both advocate a philosophy of love for humanity.
107. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Brandon Ferrick Defending a Benefit-Based Approach to Compensation for Necessary Losses
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This paper examines cases when compensation follows from necessary actions that cause harm. I posit that we can determine when compensation is due in instances of necessity by referring to the distribution of benefits and losses that result from the action.
108. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Eric Badovinatz There Are No Genuine Disagreements about Funniness
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I argue that there are no genuine disagreements about whether something is funny. My argument rests largely on the premise that something is funny only if someone experiences it as funny. The bulk of this paper is spent supporting this premise, primarily through an analysis of the meaning of “funniness.” The rest of the paper is spent demonstrating how my conclusion follows from this premise.
109. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Anson Tullis Duality Unresolved and Darwinian Dilemmas
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By using Sharon Street’s Darwinian Dilemma, Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer attempt to show that Sidgwick’s duality of practical reason, whereby an agent has equal reason to act in their own interests or act impartially for the benefit of all, is not actually a duality; rather, reasons for action are solely impartial due to the unreliability of intuitions favoring self-interested behavior. I argue that Lazari-Radek and Singer fail to accomplish their goal. I argue that Singer has previously provided an account of impartiality that makes it just as unreliable on the same grounds as self-interested tendencies. Sidgwick’s duality remains unresolved.
110. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Richard R. Eva Multilateral Retributivism: Justifying Change
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In this paper I argue for a theory of punishment I call Multilateral Retributivism. Typically retributive notions of justice are unilateral: focused on one person’s desert. I argue that our notions of desert are multilateral: multiple people are owed when a moral crime is committed. I argue that the purpose of punishment is communication with the end-goal of reconciling the offender to society. This leads me to conclude that the death penalty and life without parole are unjustified because they necessarily cut communication short.
111. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Hannah Bahnmiller The Intersections between Self-Deception and Inconsistency: An Examination of Bad Faith and Cognitive Dissonance Hannah Bahnmiller
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The relationship between the concepts of bad faith, coined by Jean-Paul Sartre, and cognitive dissonance, developed by Leon Festinger, is often misunderstood. Frequently, the terms are over-generalized and equivocated as synonymous ideas. This paper attempts to clarify the intricacies of these two concepts, outlining their similarities and differences.
112. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Charles Mills, Arthur Soto Rethinking Philosophy and Race: An Interview With Charles Mills
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The Stance team spoke with Charles Mills, noted philosopher and John Evans Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy at Northwestern University whose work focuses on issues of social class, gender, and race, on December 1, 2014. Dr. Mills reviewed Stance’s transcription of the interview and made slight corrections for grammar, style, and reduction of repetition. He also inserted a sentence or two to add clarity. We hope readers find the result illuminating.
113. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Authors
114. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 9
Caroline Carr Does the Dao Support Individual Autonomy and Human Rights?
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The Universal Declaration of Human Rights lists what have come to be called “first” and “second” generation rights. First generation rights are civil and political; second generation rights are social, economic, and cultural. Western and Asian nations are in disagreement about whether each of these rights is universal. While Western nations strongly believe that first generation rights should be universal, many “Confucian” nations insist that second generation rights precede first generation rights. After analyzing the Confucian values in detail, I conclude that Confucianism supports both generations of rights.
115. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 9
Raquel Robles Just Visiting: A Working Concept of “Wilderness” for Environmental Ethics and Ordinary Language
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This paper argues for retaining the concept of “wilderness” as a significant ethical category and considers arguments by J. Baird Callicott and William Cronon for abandoning it. Counters by Paul M. Keeling and Scott Friskics are evaluated and defended. Lastly, the paper recommends thinking of the term “wilderness” as belonging to a certain range of meanings on a spectrum of naturalness.
116. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 9
Steven Dykstra Scientific Minimalism and the Division of Moral Labor in Regulating Dual-Use Research
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In this paper I examine the merits of a “division of moral labor” regulatory system for dual-use research. I borrow an argument from Thomas Douglas against scientific isolationism to show that researchers must be morally responsible for resolving at least some dual-use problems. I then argue that there are key benefits of scientific isolationism that are preserved in a position I call scientific minimalism. I then demonstrate that scientific minimalism, in a division of moral labor system, succeeds in maximizing both scientific freedom and moral efficiency, which I hold to be an essential aim for any proposed alternative regulatory model.
117. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 9
Charlie Melman If “Everyone Does It,” Then You Can Too
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I argue that the “But Everyone Does That” (BEDT) defense can have significant exculpatory force in a legal sense, but not a moral sense. I consider whether legal realism is a better theory of the law than the more orthodox view of respecting the law as it is written. I next examine what the purpose of the law is, especially attending to how widespread disobedience is treated. Finally, I attempt to fit BEDT within Paul Robinson’s framework for categorizing defenses. I conclude that, first, BEDT can have significant exculpatory force; second, a BEDT plea does not comport with either Robinson’s definition of an excuse or other commonly held conceptions and so needs its own classification; and finally, BEDT does not exonerate the offender in a moral sense—only in a legal context.
118. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 9
Richard Spradlin “Hood Politics”: Racial Transformation in Hip-Hop
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This paper explores the possibility of music to transform the way we understand each other. In particular, it looks at the genre of hip-hop and the ways in which it can serve as a vehicle for understanding black experience. I argue that hip-hop’s structural elements allow artists to convey their living narrative in a way that recognizes, challenges, and changes our conceptual understanding of the black body. Using the works of Darby English and Harry Nethery, I examine hip-hop and apply their arguments to two specific rappers in order to illustrate my argument.
119. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 9
C.J. Oswald Moral Vegetarianism and the Philosophy of Mind
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Most arguments for moral vegetarianism rely on the premise that non-human animals can suffer. In this paper I evaluate problems that arise from Peter Carruthers’ Higher-Order Thought theory of consciousness. I argue that, even if we assume that these problems cannot be overcome, it does not follow that we should not subscribe to moral vegetarianism. I conclude that we should act as if non-human animals have subjective experiences for moral reasons, even if we cannot be certain that they do.
120. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 9
Miguel D. Guerrero The Academic Animal is Just an Analogy: Against the Restrictive Account of Hegel’s “Spiritual Animal Kingdom”
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The “Spiritual Animal Kingdom” is an often-misunderstood section of G.F.W. Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit. Many scholars interpret the ‘Spiritual Animal Kingdom’ as being analogous to intellectual life. While the intellectual life analogy is useful, the restrictive account takes it to be the sole content of this section. In this essay, I argue that the restrictive account misidentifies what Hegel means by die Sache selbst (in English, “the matter in hand”). Such a mistake will affect the ability of consciousness to progress to absolute knowing, the ultimate project for Hegel’s Phenomenology.