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101. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Norio Murata Habitualität und Zeitlichkeit
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The concept of the habituality is to consider in reference of the temporality, as far as it is acquired in the course of the time. On the one hand the habit is not the unique being in the time like event or fact, but it lasts for a while. On the other hand, the habit is not valid supertemporally or omnitemporally like the ideal objectivity, but it has the beginning and the end in the time. In this article it is tried to relate the habituality to the temporality. At first, the difficulty to determinate the habituality is clarified in reference of the temporality. To avoid this difficulty Husserl pays attention to the intentional relation to the past. Secondly, in the analysis of the horizontal network of intentions the habituality will be investigated in reference of the past as sedimentation and future as anticipation. At last it is shown that in Husserl’s late years the habituality bases on the instinct. There we try to interpret the instinct not as inherent ability but as pure activity.
102. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Shoichi Matsuba From Miscarried Phenomenology to Intuitive Ontology: Merleau-Ponty’s Reading of Bergson
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It is clear that the philosophy of Bergson influenced Merleau-Ponty. In fact, Merleau-Ponty refers consistently to Bergson from his initial book review until the last drafts. Nevertheless, there are several aspects of the influence of Bergson’s philosophy: from which part, how much, and in which way was it carried out? We will examine the influence of Bergson’s philosophy on Merleau-Ponty, and affirm the following suggestions:First, Merleau-Ponty consistently took an ambivalent position towards Bergson. In other words, his evaluation did not change from positive to negative, or from negative to positive. Nevertheless, he changed the balance of evaluation in Bergson’s work. In his early period, a few comments on Bergson were critical. In contrast, after his middle period, the comments increased and he started to take a more positive position. The peak can be found in “Bergson in the Making,” though still there are some negative estimates.Second, there are surely consistent themes to be picked up: the theory of perception, that of duration, and that of intuition. But the way of picking them up differs in each period. In the early period, he mainly took the theory of perception and body. In the middle period, he considered the theory of history and language. In the latter period, again he took up the theory of intuition and deepened it.Finally, in the early period, the criterion depends on phenomenology whether the evaluation is positive or negative. The point of the critique is that Bergson took the naturalistic attitude, that he did not mention the intentionality, and that he confuses consciousness with the object of consciousness. The point of appreciation is that Bergson was no longer biased and intended the “immediately given things for consciousness,” that he tried to overcome the ready-made conflict between realism and idealism, and that he was meaning to go back to the “lived world.”
103. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Sung Tae Lee The Geophilosophy of WATSUJI Tetsuro and Cultural Plurality
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Put in the perspective of diff erences and identities, culture matters for any attempts to seek ways to “live together, equal yet different” in the age of globalization. WATSUJI Tetsuro, decades ago, had a kin image of globalization when he understands that the “International transportation has become remarkably easier” and, as a result, “all kinds of culture are mutually blending dyeing, echoing.” This essay is an attempt to approach the question of culture in the age of globalization focusing on how WATSUJI interpreted cultural “blending, dyeing, echoing” and what his or his Japanese contemporaries’ responses to the Westernization meant or still mean to Asian Others.
104. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Kwok-ying Lau Non-Familiarity and Otherness: Derrida’s Hermeneutics of Friendship and its Political Implications
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This essay retraces the essentials of Derrida’s hermeneutics of friendship. It concerns a conception of friendship which is oriented towards the future, something which is to come. It requires us not to understand friendship from the model of brotherhood, a mode of relation which priorities blood and kinship, i.e. a relation which is always already familiar and familial, even androcentric. At the time of globalization we should prepare ourselves for the encounter of foreigners and strangers who, different from us, incarnate figures of the unforeseen and the unexpected. This novel conception of friendship promises to provide the basis for a new politics of international relations.
105. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Nam-In Lee Husserl’s View of Metaphysics: The Role of Genuine Metaphysics in Phenomenological Philosophy
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It is the aim of this essay to flesh out the claim that Husserl’s phenomenology is not merely a neutral method, but has metaphysics as one of its constitutive parts. What I will show is that Husserl has the same view of metaphysics from the Logical Investigations to his later phenomenology. More specifically, he makes a distinction between a false metaphysics and a true one, and considers it to be the aim of his phenomenology to cope with the limitations of false metaphysics and to establish a true metaphysics on a genuinely phenomenological foundation.
106. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Kazunori Watanabe Der junge Heidegger und das Problem der Kategorie
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In the decline of Heidegger’s life, he said that his early interest in the problem of category already suggested “the question of being (Seinsfrage)”. This paper deals with Heidegger’s interpretation about the category. I want to demonstrate two sources which permit him to accept that category in his own particular interpretation: that is to say Aristotle and Dilthey. Heidegger learned Dilthey’s “category of life (Lebenskategorie)” from which he read that category is life itself, has as its nature an articulation of its own self and a tendency toward the world. In addition, he reads about the “logos”-character of the category in Aristotle: namely, category means to speak about the world. The world is spoken, but it is our respective lives that express the world as such. In other words, the world at the same time speaks and is spoken by its self. This structure is analogical to the structure of “the question of being” because Being (Being of Dasein) is questioned and the same Being questions itself. Herein we can find a starting point of Heidegger’s thought.
107. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Chung-Chi Yu On Schutz’s Way of Doing Phenomenology: The Phenomenological Psychology of Husserl as a Clue
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Schutz read Husserl and used the latter’s concepts to deal with problems that concerned him. In this essay the questions are raised of how his phenomenology is to be characterized and what is his position in the phenomenological movement? One interpretation views the Schutzian position as contrasting with that of Husserl, while another holds the mundane phenomenology may have nothing to do with Husserl and can only founded on social interaction. According to the second point of view Schutz has more enterprising philosophical anthropology than a phenomenology. Dissatisfied with both directions I turn to Husserl’s phenomenological psychology as a clue to deal with this problem.
108. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Zhihua Yao Dharmakīrti and Husserl on Negative Judgments
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Dharmakīrti’s theory of negative judgments grew out of extensive discussions and debates on the cognition of nonexistent objects (asad-ālambana-vijnāna) among various Buddhist and Indian philosophical schools. As is well-known, a similar debate on the objectless presentations (gegenstandslose Vorstellungen) happened in the early development of phenomenology and analytic philosophy. Among various opinions on this controversial issue, I find that Dharmakīrti and Husserl hold similar views. Both of them have less interest in redefining the ontological status of non-existent objects than Russell and Meinong. Rather they engage themselves in analyzing the experiential structure of negative cognition and come up with a similar conclusion that negative judgments presuppose affirmative perceptions. This study will enrich our understanding of both thinkers.
109. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Kwok-ying Lau, Jung-Sun Han Heuer, Toru Tani Chronicle of Phenomenological Organizations in East-Asia
110. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Julia Valentina Iribarne Edmund Husserl: On the Foundations of Ethics
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Th is essay deals with the foundations of ethics in Edmund Husserl’s thought. Th e first concern takes into account his idea of reason and its capability of shaping praxis. A historical approach shows an enrichment of the starting point in which ethics is seen in parallel with logic. In the last period of Husserl’s meditation, the corresponding texts surprisingly manifest that, although Husserl often deals with important ethical issues, he does not refer to ethics explicitly. The kernel of this last topic examines the meaning of Husserl’s concept of teleology and asks whether teleology can be thought of as a new foundation of ethics.
111. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Zelijko Loparic, Roberto Walton Preface for all volumes + Introduction
112. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Jose Carlos Michelazzo Dupla transcendência e historicidade: a divida de Heidegger para com Mestre Eckhart
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We know the Heidegger’s relations with Master Eckhart don’t reduce only to sporadic employments of words or expressions that he does of medieval mystic, but on the contrary, serve as inspiration for his audacious notion of man’s essence that is interpreted from its common-pertinence (Zusammengehorigkeit) with Being and oriented by a circular movement of double transcendence. In the midst of this various circles, so present in the philosopher’s thought, there is the circle of historicity, central aim of our paper, which affi rms that existence originates from abyss of future (first transcendence). From that abyss germinates the last human possible gesture, his death. In order to the man to be able to apprehend this final gesture in your authentically historical (geschichtlich) character, he needs the courage to take over the weight of his finitude and then to reach a free existenceguided by a “futural-vigorous past” [zukunftig-Gewesenheit] (second transcendence).Sabemos que as ligações de Heidegger com Mestre Eckhart não se limitam apenas aos usos esporádicos de termos ou expressões que ele faz do místico medieval, mas, ao contrário, servem de inspiração para a sua ousada concepção da essência do homem, interpretada a partir de sua co-pertinência (Zusammengehörigkeit) com o ser e orientada pelo movimento circular de uma dupla transcendência. Dentre esses vários círculos, presentes no pensamento do filósofo, está o da historicidade, foco central deste trabalho, no horizonte do qual a existência tem a sua origem no abismo do porvir (primeira transcendência), de cujo interior germina o último gesto humano possível, o seu morrer. Para que o homem apreenda esse seu derradeiro gesto em seu caráter autenticamente historial (geschichtlich), ele precisa ter a coragem de apropriar-se do peso de sua finitude a fim que ele possa alcançar a liberdade de existir, guiado por um “futural-vigor de ter sido” [zukunftig-Gewesenheit] (segunda transcendência).
113. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Alfredo de Oliveira Moraes Hegel, a Fenomenologia e a (bio)Eticidade ou a Vida Ética
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Th e author present a philosophical thinking about some aspects of the Hegelian thought and he propose to take in consideration the concepts, notion, categories and elements from Hegelian System to introduce the dialect way to think into the phenomenological thought in the contemporary philosophical debate.O autor apresenta uma reflexão filosófica analisando aspectos do pensamento hegeliano e propondo que se considere os conceitos, categorias e elementos do sistema hegeliano para introduzir o pensar dialético dentro do pensamento fenomenológico no debate filosófico contemporâneo.
114. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Adrian Bertorello Narrative Time of Philosophy: Heidegger’s Long Way Hermeneutics
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The purpose of this paper is twofold. On one hand, it attempts to show the narrative aspect of Heidegger’s philosophy from 1919 on to the publication of Sein und Zeit (1927). It leans, as an instrument of analysis, on G. Genette’s narrative theory. The narrative condition of Heidegger’s philosophy can be expressed as a homodiegetic analepsis. On the other hand, the paper attempts to discuss the distinction introduced by Ricoeur between a short way for hermeneutics (Heidegger’s way) and a long way (Ricoeur’s).
115. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Andre de Macedo Duarte Becoming Other: Heidegger and the Trace of a Post-Metaphysical Ethics
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Criticizing traditional interpretations that stress the “existential solipsism” of the resolute Dasein, this essay emphasizes the Heideggerian contribution to the question of otherness in Sein und Zeit. The key to uncover the post-metaphysical ethical dimension of Heidegger’s existential analytic is to be found in the theoretical articulation established between the phenomenological analyses of anguish and the call of conscience. My contention is that resolute Dasein already carries within himself the strange appeal of otherness, which, in turn, is the existential condition for the acknowledgment of the other as other.
116. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Zeljko Loparic Heidegger on Anthropology
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Based on Sein und Zeit (1927) and on Zollikoner Seminare (1987), the present essay reconstructs some aspects of Heidegger’s proposal for a scientific anthropology as a general framework for the development of a science of healthy human beings as well as for the Daseinsanalytic account of human pathology and therapy. Thomas Kuhn’s concept of paradigm is used as a guiding idea in reconstructing Heidegger’s, scattered and unsystematic remarks.
117. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Penha Regina V.L. Araújo, Florence Romijn Tocantins Necessidades Assistenciais de Mulheres Gestantes na Consulta de Enfermagem
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This investigation has as aim to understand, in the light of the lived experiences, which are the women health care needs when seeking for Nursing Consultation. It was opted for the phenomenological approach of Alfred Schutz’s Phenomenological Sociology through an interview with the following guiding question: “What do you have in mind when you come for the prenatal Nursing Consultation?” The comprehensive analysis of the 10 (ten) clients’ statements allowed building up the typical action of a pregnant woman who is demanding the Nursing Consultation: she needs to communicate with the health professional to know about her pregnancy and her baby. This study showed that dialogical conversation must be the starting point for a Nursing Consultation to be fully accomplished. Through dialogue, the clients indicate their “action project”, which can be understood as being their felt needs.The fulfillment of the needs of the female clients who seeks the prenatal Nursing Consultation should be directly linked to their way of life and to their care expectations. These include values, habits and customs, befitting the nurse with an open attitude in relation to the situations experienced by that group. The nurse should establish a relationship in which the scientific knowledge and the health care protocols are interlinked with the client’s knowledge of life, because only by doing so will she manage to provide the kind of care more orientated towards the client as a subject-person. Esta investigação tem como objetivo, compreender, à luz das experiências vividas pela mulher, o que as leva a procurar a Consulta de Enfermagem. Para alcançar este objetivo foi feita a opção pela abordagem fenomenológica da Sociologia Compreensiva de Alfred Schutz, sendo realizada uma entrevista com a seguinte questão orientadora: “O que você tem em vista quando vem para a consulta de Enfermagem em pré-natal?” A análise compreensiva dos depoimentos de 10 (dez) clientes permitiu a construção do típico da ação da gestante que demanda a Consulta de Enfermagem: ela tem necessidade de uma comunicação com o profi ssional de saúde, através da conversa, para saber sobre a gravidez e sobre o neném. O estudo mostrou que a conversa, o diólogo, é o ponto de partida para a realização de uma Consulta de Enfermagem, pois, através do diálogo, as clientes indicam seus projetos de ação, que podem ser entendidos como sendo suas necessidades sentidas. O atendimento das necessidades da cliente mulher que procura a Consulta de Enfermagem em pré-natal deve estar diretamente ligado às suas expectativas e ao seu modo de vida, o que inclui valores, hábitos e costumes, cabendo à enfermeira posicionar-se de forma aberta em relação as situações vivenciadas pelas pessoas. A enfermeira deve estabelecer uma relação em que os conhecimentos científicos e os protocolos dos cuidados de saúde devem estar interligados aos conhecimentos de vida da cliente, pois só assim poderá realmente estar prestando uma assistência mais voltada para a cliente como sujeito-pessoa.
118. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Anibal Fornari Narracion (Ricoeur) e Interpelacion (Levinas): la identidad personal como acontecimiento generador de historia
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Th is paper deals with the ontological-critical question about identity as posed in the productive confrontation between “narrative identity” (Ricoeur) and “prescriptive identity” (Levinas). It examines the structural character of the human disproportion disclosed in action as an ontic relationship invested with the totalizing and at once alterative dynamism of desire. The analysis of desire, in which both authors converge, dismisses, on the one hand, the projective modes of identifi cation and, on the other hand, stresses a mode of identity conceived as a selfhood that emerges as an ontic-alterative traumatization of desire-ofbeing and of being-in-time. An ontic and experiential event, as a historical possibility that unexpectedly corresponds to human disproportion, makes the selfhood of the ego come to pass through the revelation of the Other/other as an untimely presence that takes over and surmounts narrative mediation and ethical interpellation by introducing hope.
119. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Rosemary R.P. Lerner 'ό ἄνθρωπος άριθμητίζει': Intuitive Finitude and Symbolic Infinitude in Husserl’s Philosophy of Arithmetic
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Since its inception, Husserl’s phenomenology oscillates between a positive valuation of technical calculus in order to compensate for the limited capacity of human beings, and a denunciation regarding the blindness that its extraordinary development has brought about regarding the true nature of scientific and philosophical thinking, in their sense as logos. Likewise, regarding intuition phenomenology oscillates between on one side a positive valuation of the foundational and authentic character of the basic intuitive representations and, on the other, the observation of their radical fi nitude. This paper explores some salient features of these oscillations.
120. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 2 > Issue: Part 1
Paula Mousinho Martins Por uma intencionalidade não-noética: a superação do dualismo mente-corpo à luz da noção merleau-pontyana de expressão
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Th is paper aims at analyzing the concept of expression, by which Merleau-Ponty intended to neutralize the traditional opposition—still present in Husserl’s phenomenology—between the sign and its meaning. This and other correlative distinctions are in fact due to the classical scheme/content dualism, which is kept by Husserl as he maintains the hylé as an irreducible, exterior element in regard to noesis. With this criticism, Merleau-Ponty tried to overcome the obstacles that historically prevented (empiricist and rationalist) philosophy to conceive a really mobile, embodied subject, whose movements are no longer seen as product of an external decision of “spirit”.