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101. Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy: Volume > 8
E. J. Bond Morality and Community
102. Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy: Volume > 8
Larry May The Moral Interests of Social Groups
103. Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy: Volume > 8
Jan Narveson A Contractarian Defense of the Liberal View on Abortion and of the Wrongness of Infanticide
104. Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy: Volume > 8
Holmes Rolston III The Human Standing in Nature: Storied Fitness in the Moral Overseer
105. Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy: Volume > 8
Gerald H. Paske The Moral Priority of (Most) Human Beings
106. Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy: Volume > 8
L. W. Sumner Subjectivity and Moral Standing
107. Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy: Volume > 8
Eric Katz Buffalo-Killing and the Valuation of Species
108. Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy: Volume > 8
R. G. Frey Autonomy and Conceptions of the Good Life
109. Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy: Volume > 8
Michael Wreen The Possibility of Potentiality
110. Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy: Volume > 8
Christopher W. Morris Value Subjectivism, Individualism, and Moral Standing
111. Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy: Volume > 8
Robert B. Hallborg, Jr. The Exploitation of Human Death
112. Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy: Volume > 8
L. W. Sumner A Response to Morris
113. Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy: Volume > 8
James Griffin How Anthropocentric is Our Notion of Rights?
114. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 2
Nada Kobeissi Foreign Investment in the Mena Regions: Analyzing Nontraditional Determinants
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Although there is substantial literature examining the flow of foreign investments into various regions of the world, there is still a lack of research about joint ventures and foreign investment activities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). One objective of this paper is to remedy this neglect and extend previous empirical work by focusing on foreign investments in the MENA region. The second objective is to focus on non-traditional determinants that have tended to be overlooked or underestimated in previous research. The increasing globalization has led to a reconfiguration of the ways in which multinationals pursue various types of foreign investments,and changed the motives for and the determinants of FDI. This has prompted some to suggest that non traditional determinants have become more important. In view of that, the paper will focus on factors such as governance, legal environment, and economic freedom and examine their impact on foreign investment activities in the MENA region.
115. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 2
Runa Sarkar Environmental Initiatives at Tata Steel: Green-Washing or Reality? A Case Study of Corporate Environmental Behavior
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The firm has an overwhelming role in sustainable development, and this paper identifies what influences a firm’s management of the business-environment interface. This is done through an in-depth case study of the environmental behavior of Tata Steel, India’s largest and oldest integrated steel plant. The Indian regulatory environment is one of strict (and sometimes contradictory) laws and slack enforcement. This paper examines the inclination of a firm in this context to commit to pollution abatement and honor its commitment by achieving long-run improvement in its environmental performance. Environmental responses studied include compliance withexisting norms, involvement in voluntary schemes, and implementation of environmental management programs. Other responses examined are investment in pollution prevention strategies, adoption of cleaner technologies, taking adversarial positions against regulators vs. working with them to develop regulations, influencing environmental policy, and meeting and/or exceeding stakeholder expectations. This paper analyzes Tata Steel’s reactive and proactive responses and generalizes some of its conclusions to firms indeveloping countries.
116. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 2
Duane Windsor Formulating a Moral Core for International Codes of Conduct
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A moral core places ethical considerations superior to business interest. This core must include voluntary prescriptions in various forms to “buy higher, sell lower.” International business ethics must somehow address the tradeoff between corporate financial and stakeholder interests. Corporation codes of conduct generally do not define a moral core. Corporate citizenship is typically strategic investment in markets and reputation. There are two practical paths for formulating a moral core. One path is civil lawsuits against multinationals that, successful or not, increase corporate moral sensitivity. The other path is evolution of multilateral codes of conductembedding negotiated norms for guidance of corporate behavior. Four key cases illustrate: (1) World Bank approach for combating corruption in Chad; (2) a lawsuit against Unocal alleging human rights abuses by Myanmar; (3) a lawsuit against ChevronTexaco alleging environmental and community damages in Ecuadorian Amazonia; and (4) demand by developing countries for relaxing intellectual property rights.
117. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 2
Pegram Harrison Corporate Social Responsibility: An Information Strategy
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Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) continues to evolve as an important paradigm for business strategy. There is much disparate information about it available; evaluating that information and deciding what applies to any given organisation is thus becoming a more complicated task. With an idea to simplifying this process, the Sustainable Development Unit at the Royal Institute for International Affairs (RIIA) considered how it might position itself as an information filter for CSR generally. The research summarised here concludes that CSR is too large and vague a concept to be practical or applicable, and suggests that an international organisation such as RIIA should concentrate on creating opportunities for focusing the idea, rather than actually attempting to effect practical change. Whether these opportunities emerge out of discussion, analysis, research, policy briefings, or by other means, will depend on the nature and timing of any specific topic within the overall CSR context.
118. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 2
Jacob Park Beyond Good Intentions: New Directions for Investing in Sustainability
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This paper examines the rise of socially responsible investment (SRI) as a sustainable finance mechanism and discusses the potential of SRI in steering the banking and financial services industry toward a more socially responsible and environmentally sound model of commerce. I argue in this paper that the potential of SRI to serve as a sustainable business mechanism to steer the global financial market toward a new ethical architecture depends on two related factors: (a) continuing institutional and social pressures forgreater corporate transparency, and (b) the ability of SRI to become a viable financial instrument outside its traditional markets in emerging and developing economies.
119. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 2
Adedayo O. Adeyemi, M. H. Ayegboyin The Use of Information and Communication Technologies for Providing Access to HIV/AIDS Information Management in a Resource-Poor Country: Nigeria, A Case Study
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We investigate the growing use of information and communication technology in Nigeria and its potential as a tool to combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic through information management. Potential applications include data gathering for research and disease tracking, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of information on research findings, prevention methods, available care and support, and patient rights. The research is based on 1450 responses to a widely distributed questionnaire.
120. International Corporate Responsibility Series: Volume > 2
William Flanagan, Gail Whiteman “AIDS is Not a Business”: A Study in Global Corporate Responsibility
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Most major pharmaceutical companies have corporate social responsibility policies that pledge their commitment to improving the health and quality of life of people around the world. Yet these same companies also have difficulty in ensuring that developing countries have access to affordable medications. In the late 1990s, Brazil engaged in a heated battle with large US-backed multinational pharmaceutical companies. Brazil was facing a growing HIV epidemic and was determined to provide treatment to those in need. This required massive price reductions on HIV medications. Although met with resistance, Brazil’s campaign eventually resulted in the negotiation of significant price reductions. Our study examines how Brazil was able to secure these price concessions. We conclude that corporate social responsibility initiatives must be viewed as a dynamic interaction between multiple actors. Our study highlights the importance of governmental action, in both the national and international forums, to negotiate pro-actively with companies to ensure that CSR commitments are met.