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101. Journal of Early Modern Studies: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Ana Duarte Rodrigues The Role of Portuguese Gardens in the Development of Horticultural and Botanical Expertise on Oranges
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In the early modern period, botany still remained a relatively new arrival at the top table of knowledge. Much botanical work was not done in universities, colleges, academies, laboratories, or botanic gardens (usually associated with univer­sities), but behind the walls of different kinds of gardens – of the royalty as well as of common people, of monasteries as well as public gardens. By following the circula­tion of oranges, especially taking into consideration the role of Portugal as a turn­table, this paper sheds light on several of the unexpected ways in which the history of botany and horticulture and the history of gardens encountered in the early modern world. The history of oranges has often made reference to the acclimatization of this citrus fruit in Europe and its transplantation to the New World. However, very few works have addressed the dissemination of oranges from the Iberian Peninsula. In this paper, I argue for a change in perspective by stressing the role played by the Portuguese on acclimatization and dissemination of oranges from Asia to Portugal, and from this country to the Old and New Worlds. I also stress the role Portugal played in building and popularizing horticultural expertise for orange growth and its corresponding botanical knowledge.
102. Journal of Early Modern Studies: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Alette Fleischer Leaves on the Loose: The Changing Nature of Archiving Plants and Botanical Knowledge
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This paper focuses on the relationship between the compilation of a herbarium in early modern history and the search for a classification of nature. By looking at the histories of different herbaria and their compilers, this paper shows how the nature of ordering botanical materials changes along with the search for a system of ordering plant knowledge.
103. Journal of Early Modern Studies: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Sarah Cawthorne Experimenting with “Garden Discourse”: Cultivating Knowledge in Thomas Browne’s Garden of Cyrus
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Books were materially and metaphorically botanical in the early modern period. This article uses The Garden of Cyrus (1658), Thomas Browne’s wide-ranging philosophical tract, to illustrate how the often self-conscious links between books and gardens could operate in epistemologically significant ways. It argues that Browne’s repeated positioning of his book as a garden creates a productive model for aesthetic, theological and scientific experimentation and innovation. The framework of the garden constructs a space in which the foremost, apparently contradictory, models of knowledge associated with the seventeenth-century garden—the analogical approach of the doctrine of signatures and the empirical approach associated with the “new science”—can coexist. Extrapolating from the book of nature to suggest the inherently discursive and rhetorical forms of Browne’s knowledge as well as its limitations, the article concludes by proposing a new spatial model for this kind of coterminous literary and experimental approach: the elaboratory.
104. Journal of Early Modern Studies: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Alexandru Mexi Early Modern Garden Design Concepts and Twentieth Century Royal Gardens in Romania: Peleş Castle and the Mannerist Landscape
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Built in between the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century in a mountainous region in Romania, the Peleş Castle and its gardens were conceived according to the mid sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries landscape design principles. Thus, the surrounding landscape, the park and gardens at the royal residence in Sinaia make up an overall image of a Mannerist landscape in which the Villa or, in this case, the castle, is integrated in a complex allegorical, alchemical and political programme. To explore this chronologically incongruent design and to explore gardening principles perhaps invisible in plain sight for modern eyes, the following study aims to emphasize the presence of early modern Western European gardens in the design of the park and gardens at Peleş. This analysis will also reveal the various ways in which, by manipulating nature according to Late Renaissance and Mannerism principles, nature was staged to achieve political goals.
105. Journal of Early Modern Studies: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Gabriel R. Ricci Science, Art and the Classical World in the Botanizing Travels of William Bartram
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William Bartram would accompany his botanizing father, John, into the wilderness and he would famously memorialize his own explorations with an account that mixed romantic conventions with natural history and Quaker theology. William’s interior life corresponds to the spirit of Virgil’s Eclogues with its promise of the resto­ration of a Golden Age, replete with bucolic scenes of shepherds tending their flocks and singing nature’s praises. This paper addresses some of the political interpretations that Bartram’s work has received and argues that William was focused on a distant past which he was introduced to through the classical curriculum at the newly founded Academy of Philadelphia (1752). William’s curriculum guaranteed an introduction to the conventions of the sublime and the picturesque, since Addison’s Spectator was also required reading and he was well-versed in Linnaean nomenclature, but wherever William botanized his observations of the natural world were framed by classical literature. His tour of ancient Indian ruins where he imagined an Areopagus and a space free of strife and bloodshed is a dramatic example of William’s habit of importing a place defined by classical literature into his natural history.
106. Journal of Early Modern Studies: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Eduard Ghiţă Francis Hutcheson and the Origins of the Aesthetic
107. Journal of Early Modern Studies: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Speranța Sofia Milancovici Eye for Detail: Images of Plants and Animals in Art and Science, 1500-1630
108. Journal of Early Modern Studies: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Matias Slavov David Hume and the Culture of Scottish Newtonianism: Methodology and Ideology in Enlightenment Inquiry
109. Journal of Early Modern Studies: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Guidelines for Authors
110. Mediaevalia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Fred C. Robinson Anglo-Saxon Studies: Present State and Future Prospects
111. Mediaevalia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Sandro Sticca Praefatio Editoris
112. Mediaevalia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Daniel P. Poteet II Condition, Contrast, and Division in the Ludus Coventriae "Woman Taken in Adultery"
113. Mediaevalia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Joseph Szövérffy Marginal Notes on a New Edition of the Hymnarius Paraclitensis
114. Mediaevalia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Clifford Davidson After the Fall: Design in the Old Testament Plays in the York Cycle
115. Mediaevalia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Contributors
116. Mediaevalia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
John F. Stephens Andrew the Chaplain and the Social Significance of Medieval Romanticism
117. Mediaevalia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 2
Susan L. Clark, Julian N. Wasserman Decameron 2.4: The Journey of the Hero
118. Mediaevalia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 2
Josiah C. Russell Death Along the Deer Trails
119. Mediaevalia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 2
Joseph B. Trahern, Jr. An Old English Verse Paraphrase of Matthew 25:41
120. Mediaevalia: Volume > 1 > Issue: 2
Contributors