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121. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Carmen Cozma Mapping the Offer of the Phenomenology in Arts
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Among other modalities of arts” approach, phenomenological apparatus offers us a fruitful one in the endeavour to disclose part of the rich and in-depthmeanings that art in general unfolds through its products. Here, we are especially interested in phenomenology as a style of philosophizing and as a method of analysis, able to open new dimensions to the process of interpretation and comprehension the peculiar living of man in relation with arts. There are some paradigms that have been acknowledged by phenomenologists within the topics of dwelling upon the fullness of artistic logos in its potential of life experiencing, finally. In this essay we try to point out part of phenomenology”s opportunities to scrutinize, in an appropriate way, art as a significant creative phenomenon; and thus to reveal much more about an ideal essence communicating a fundamental order of beingness to which man has access.
122. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Vlad Ichim The Political Plato
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This study deals with the issue of Plato’s political interest. Some say he had none. We’ll try to show that in fact he was very political, to the extent that the core ofhis work is a political agenda, and is politically orientated. There’s also the aspect of the relation between metaphysics and politics in his work; that is a delicate issue, as some consider that Plato “disguised” his political convictions in myths. That too will be taken into consideration.1. The number of metaphysical dialogues is small, compared to the vast majority of the platonic dialogues2. No only the writings, but also the life of Plato show him as political3. Even the “metaphysical” dialogues have a political agendaThere are authors that consider Plato to be no less than a forerunner of Christianity, a mystic conscious of the contemplation of an ideal “beyond”. One should bear in mind that Plato has even been declared a saint by the Orthodox Church. We choose to be more cautious in dealing with the interest that Socrates’ pupil is supposed to have taken into mystics (theory or practice). In the following pages, we’ll try to explain these reserves.
123. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Phyllis Vandenberg Relationships and the spectator perspectives in Hutcheson, Hume, and Smith
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Looking closely at Adam Smith’s account of the spectator perspective – along with the compatible spectator accounts in Hutcheson and Hume – is especiallyhelpful to understanding one of the main themes of the Scottish Enlightenment. The Scots in response to Hobbesian egoism described a morality that does not need to overcome a human nature that pits individuals against each other. Rather each of the three Scots describes the empirical formation of our humanity and our moral sentiments in the context of relating to and observing others. The three spectator accounts of Smith, Hutcheson, and Hume clearly describe this involvement of others in the formation of morality. Adam Smith explicitly gives an accounting of the importance and, in fact, necessity of others in the formulating of not only our moral evaluations but also the very possibility of understanding one’s humanity and having an idea of morality at all. In this paper, I explain Smith’s account specifically along with its similarity to Hutcheson’s and Hume’s and argue that these empiricists ground moral sentiments in person to person relationships. For the three Scots, being human and developing a morality is begun in interactions with others. We formulate who it is we are and can be and determine acceptable ways to interact in the company of others.
124. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Simona Mitroiu The Culture at the Crossing between the Memory and the Oblivion
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The culture defines some of the elements that we consider identity guide marks. The continuity of the identity is very closely bonded to these cultural elements.The understanding of the modality to represent the identity is possible through the analysis of some of these cultural elements and of the correlations that these establish in the context of memory and oblivion. This paper analyzes the dynamics of these three elements: memory, identity and oblivion, in literature.
125. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Dan Chiţoiu The Theme of the Simplicity of the Mind as the Presupposition of the Byzantine Cultural Model
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This article discuss the origin of the Byzantine Cultural Model, influenced by the patristic anthropologic perspective, which discerns that present-day man is notgeneric man, but is at an intermediate stage, between a lost condition and one that could be attained. A dimension of the Eastern Christian understanding of man that is less known nowadays is related to the theme of the garment of skin. This is connected with another one, the theme of the simplicity of the mind.
126. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Tomiţă Ciulei Reflections on an Ignored Dimension of Pre-Socratic Philosophy: Knowledge
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This paper bases on a (great!) wrongful act which was made to Greek philosophy, and especially to the pre-Socratic one: the unilateral abatement of thestudies to those of cosmological nature. The big mutation would take place in Socrates’ time, who by the anthropology of the discourse takes philosophy to a theory of knowledge, through a program which would be perfected by Plato and especially by Aristotle. This is a point of view co-substantial to history of philosophy, which some times risks to charge in an alethic (good/bad) way a paradigm based on false discussions. Pre-Socratics were not only preoccupied by ontology, or even cosmology, as well as Aristotle was not a radical empirist. In the economy of thought the nuances are more important than a classification often made for our epistemological comfort.
127. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Magdalena Iorga Ethical Dilemmas in Academic Activity
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The nowadays academic teacher’s activity is split between teaching activity, scientific research concern and institutional goals. As it appears in the studies focusing on academic problems that the teacher’s orientation is going to be rather personal and professional than academic. The new generation of academic staff is trying to mix solutions in order to survive the ethical problems. Academic ethics seems to be in the middle of an important triangle: personal, professional and corporate ethics.
128. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Guy Trolliet Should Businesses and Corporations Set up a "Department of Islamic affairs"?
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In a world in which globalisation has opened the access to Muslim countries, Muslim community having been identified as a distinctive high potential market, the question if businesses and corporations should set up a „Department of Islamic affairs" became more than pertinent.
129. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Carmen Cozma In Quest of the Measure's Restoration
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The acute consciousness of the moral crisis we face today makes us to inquire after the philosophy's opportunities in finding a viable way to overcome seriousworries concerning life, world, and human being. We think that the ethical value of measure and the correlated principle of "golden mean" could enlighten, on a high level, our understanding upon the real needs and purposes to be identified in assuming and cultivating a fitting attitude to an authentic humanness in accordance with the demands of nowadays characteristics of the globalization development. Returning to the measure's integrator meaning that has been acknowledged by the Ancient thinkers of the Western culture, in this essay we try to emphasize the capital significance of the notion at stake, beyond any particularities of temporal and spatial context, like a basic philosophical concept to be explored and activated in its valences of promoting and increasing the quality of life. We pronounce for the necessity of measure's restoration in which, first of all, our moral status in the world has to be grounded. More than ever, weneed to recover the measure as a guide in shaping human deliberations, choices, decisions making, actions into a constructive orbit, into equilibrium and order, security and harmony, into Good and Right, by commitment, respect for and responsibility toward the whole life on Terra. A culture of measure, eventually, is fully worth to be displayed in the framework of the moral philosophy in driving at the human well-being and at the wellness of the total existence, alike.
130. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Aleksandra Pawliszyn Archaeology of the Body and Womanhood
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The subject of the paper is a philosophical analysis of the womanhood in the context of M. Merleau-Ponty`s ontology of corporeality (la chair). The womanhood is grasped (after Levinas) as a cosmic element, penetrating the tissue of the embodiment of the logos of the world. As an element of the same ontological level as death, the womanhood on the one hand brakes up the stability instilled in the human world and introduces an anxiety into a plural entity. On the other hand it also brings in a vigil, which generates responsibility for the stability instilled in the human world.
131. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
David Cornberg Semiotics as a Pathway to Spiritual Science: From the Culture of Addiction to Absolute Freedom
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The continuing growth of semiotics signifies increased awareness of global communicative processes. Expansion of the communicative universe through semiotic research furthers the transformation of our contemporary experience. Semiotics thus provides a means to articulate transmodernity. We validate this assertion through semiotic analysis of an everyday object, by which we discover an infinite horizon. With that horizon, we transcend the global culture of addiction and reach the spiritual science that is necessary to develop a lasting paradigm for humankind.
132. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Daniel Ungureanu Between Islamism and Islam
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Islamism is a form of political and religious utopia, created by the Arab-Muslim world, as an ideological alternative to the invasion of modern western doctrines: communism, socialism, liberalism, capitalism etc. This political and ideological current appears to some as a substitute for nationalism, which lost its appealin many Muslim countries, due to the application of a „socialist" model, as well as due to the deception that emerges from the successive defeats in the fight with the Israeli enemy. The anti-Occidentalism of this movement is seen as a side effect in the fight against laicization, against materialism and moral degradation.
133. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Raffaella Santi Beyond the Bounds of Experience? John Tyndall and Scientific Imagination
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"You imagine where you cannot experiment"... John Tyndall is a 19th century Irish scientist and natural philosopher. For him, scientific imagination is thefaculty that enables scientists "to transcend the boundaries of the sense" and to connect the visible with the invisible - by forming mental images of phenomena, and tracing links among them. This article reconstructs his theory of scientific imagination, focusing on the central passages found in his works.
134. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Horia Bádescu La Fête Perdue
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The lost celebration. To live the sacred, that means to admit its presence in the world and to celebrate this presence; respectively, to affirm the presence of its absolute value, of the Meaning, finally, in the horizon of harmony and joy, and to fill up ourselves by that. In nowadays, do we really know to live the feast, namely the feast of our spirit? Do we still have the wish and the wisdom to institute sacred times and spaces, to offer our soul to the joy and not to the manipulation, to the ritual and not to the rut-ness? Are we able to escape from the tyranny of clamor and of instinct? These are questions to which we are trying to find some answers in our essay.
135. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Carmen Cozma Improving Human Value through an Aretaic Propaideia
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This essay is focusing on the understanding of the necessity to care more and more about the value of human life, and consequently to find a pathway of cultivating and improving the humanness of man, considering the nowadays climate with its serious moral and ecological crisis. Facing the risks of a spiritual malady due to a profound alienation from his very own essence, human being has to look for the best opportunities in avoiding the situation of becoming the prison of an artificial existence’s captivities and of falling in barbarism. Thus, we think that a real chance for human well-being rising to the excellence of man is an aretaic propaideia; respectively, an education centered on the moral meaning of arete / virtue, by restoring the significance of golden measure, finally leading to equilibrium and harmony, to the health and the joy of an authentic human life in freedom and dignity.
136. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Gheorghe-Ilie Fârte Mass Media and European Cultural Citizenship
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The main thesis of my article is that the viability of the European Union does not depend so much on its political structure as on its being anchored in a culture-based public sphere and on the establishment of a cultural European citizenship. The public sphere could be defined as an unique world, characterized by consensus and cooperation, in which only public goods can be sought and acquired, or as an unique world, characterized by rivalry and competition, in which everyone could pursue their private interests, but only if there is a consensus regarding an objective and fair procedure. In any way, we cannot speak of a pluralism of public spheres - like the black public sphere, the LGBT public sphere, etc. - but (at the most) a plurality of interests represented in the public sphere, under the reserve of respecting a fair procedure, which allows the expression of axiological judgments. The EU needs a progressive citizenship, from civil citizenship to cultural citizenship, depending on the acquired skills, behavior and virtues. One deserves cultural citizenship and have the right (or, perhaps the privilege) to manifest - in the public sphere - a way of life and a cultural identity only if promote authentic values: virtues, rationality, free will etc. The problematic aspects of the European media sphere are obstacles on the way to establishing an authentic European cultural citizenship. They can be kept under control by assuming a healthy reactionary attitude and associating every element of change and contingent progress (speed, reductive simplicity, user's solitude, pictoriality, lateralness, data overload, immediacy, segmentation, social amnesia, etc.) with an element of moderation and equilibrium. Only thus can the media contribute in the making of a viable union of the European peoples, grounded on a well articulated European cultural citizenship.
137. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Till Kinzel Metaphysics, Politics, and Philosophy: George Grant’s Response to Pragmatism
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The Canadian thinker George Grant offers a critique of modernity that tries to come to terms with the challenge of Heidegger to Plato. Against philosophical approaches which claim that any kind of metaphyics is obsolete and should be overcome, Grant attempted to think through what the rejection of metaphysics by important modern forms of philosophy means. Grant’s thought looked back to Plato for a conception of justice that he felt was endangered in the modern world. In particular, his philosophical thinking could be said to engage the various forms of pragmatism that he regarded as emblematic of modernity’s emphasis on making and creating in contrast to the older virtue of contemplation. However, the ontological concern about the priority of conetmplation over action was, forGrant, also connected to problem of justice. Could one defend an understanding of justice that gives to man what is his due while accepting the pragmatism of modern philosophy? And does pragmatism succeed in eliminiating the question conerning God from the concerns of the philosopher?
138. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Irina Frasin The Myth of Alexander the Great. A Model for Understanding "the Other"
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Under Alexander the Great the Greeks conquered Asia. This extraordinary undertaking was made possible, beside the military achievement, by the Greek thought and philosophy. The belief in the superiority of the Greek over the barbarian and freedom of the first and slavery of the second rendered the conquest and domination of Asia into a noble "mission of civilization". What is more, Western historians of philosophy and culture have used this Greek self-understanding to legitimate the view of Western cultural superiority based on universalism.But the expedition and conquest was also an amazing opportunity of meeting and knowing directly "the Other". What Alexander discovered was that the world was much larger than it was thought in Athens and the barbarians were not so unreasonable as Aristotle believed. All these things, that raged the king's contemporaries, are very well kept by his legend. The deep sense of his adventures is revealed by the legend. Alexander, passionate for adventure, discovery, curious to know "the Other" is the hero that fights the absolute "other": the foreigner, the barbarian, the monster. But with all his actions he demonstrates that "the Other" can be recognized, understood and even loved.And maybe his extraordinary discovery should guide us as a model in the turbulent times we live in which cultural differences become more and more important.
139. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Teodor Negru The Modernist Project of Post-Humanism
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The idea this article relies on is that we should rethink cultural distance between modernism and post-modernism. We can no longer support the thesis of a radical break between the two cultural periods since many of the changes that have marked our contemporary world were initiated or at least announced in the modern period. Besides the cultural and epistemic factors, the socioeconomic conditions have also contributed to shape a new sensitivity and a new outlook. One of the major contributions to this change was the replacement of the epistemic pedestal - oriented toward the metaphysical knowledge of the world - with a kind of knowledge inspired by the model of sciences which determined the understanding of the world as a „standing-reserve" (Heidegger). Thus, we speak about a techno-world, which is not merely a consequence of our way of interacting with our fellow beings or the environment. It is also a consequence of our wayof creating reality. The post-humanist approach of the man - similarly to modern utopias - considers technology the main means of improving human condition. Furthermore, we need to see in post-humanism the hope of rethinking humanity in a world growingly devoid of spiritual values.
140. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 6 > Issue: 1
Dan Chiţoiu The Founding Ideas of the Modern Cultural Horizon and the Meanings of Reason
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The present text investigates the key ideas of the modern cultural horizon, and especially the meanings of what we call Reason. Modernity brings a certain understanding of Reason sought as the main human capacity. But this understanding took the shape of a belief, fact visible everywhere not only in the scientific investigation but also in other cultural forms, among which were philosophy and theology. And also became an ideology. Yet, the last century, especially in its second half, provided interpretative instruments and paradigms which made possible the recovery of the cultural perspectives and especially of the spirituality from the Eastern European area, which had other ground than the paradigm of the modern rationalism.