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141. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
John Hooker Editor’s Foreword
142. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
James S. Welch Jr. Developing Ethical Business Leadership at the Undergraduate Level: An Analysis of Instructional Preferences in National Liberal Arts Colleges in the United States
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As evidenced by the recent revitalization of guidelines for general learning objectives for business ethics education by the two primary undergraduate business accrediting agencies, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools in Business (AACSB) and the Accrediting Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP), undergraduate business ethics education is of significant importance today. However, the specific ways in which business schools implement business ethics education remains quite diverse. This study was designed to survey and compare preferences for undergraduate business ethics education in national liberal arts colleges in the United States. The results indicate that, while preferences for business ethics instructional methods centered upon the case study methods in face to face, traditional classrooms, preferences regarding the selection of business ethics faculty members was slightly divided.
143. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
Sohyoun Shin, K. Damon Aiken, Vincent A. Aleccia Business Students’ Perceptions of Academic Misconduct, Credential Embellishment, and Business Unethicality
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This research explores the relationships between business students’ academic misconduct and their attitudes toward professional ethics, specifically credential embellishment and business unethicality. Based on 135 survey responses from business students in a northwestern university, we tested hypothesized relationships using multiple regression analyses. We found that students’ attitudes toward academic misconduct, especially illicit collaboration and exam cheating, were positively correlated with their attitudes toward credential embellishment (i.e., rèsumè fraud and/or rèsumè padding and business unethicality), unethical business operations, and unethical employee practices. In addition, gender yielded meaningful differences related to perceptions of both dimensions of business unethicality. We emphasize the importance of ethics education, and suggest actionable remedies including placement of strict policies, promotions of shared norms and cultures, and curriculum redesign guidelines for business educators and administrators.
144. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
Haseena Niazi, Richard A. Bernardi, Susan M. Bosco Do International Business Professionals’ Ethical Perceptions Associate with Their Prior Education, Country, or Gender?
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While most ethics studies use student samples, the participants in our research were 306 business professionals from Afghanistan (69), Germany (71), Philippines (77) and the United States (89). Our sample included 168 male business professionals and 138 female business professionals. Our research examined whether factors such as taking a college ethics course, gender, or being from a specific country significantly associate to being sensitive to ethical dilemmas. Our data indicate that individuals who had taken an ethics course in college were more sensitive to two of our four ethical dilemmas. Our analyses indicate that business professionals from Afghanistan and Germany were consistently less sensitive to unethical activities than were the business professionals the United States. Gender was significant in only two of the four scenarios we examined; male business professionals were more likely to agree with the unethical act for these scenarios. Individuals who were more prone to responding in a socially desirable manner reported a lower likelihood of supporting unethical actions. Our research raises questions about the difference between being required to take an ethics course versus taking an elective ethics course. Finally, our research indicates that female professionals are more sensitive to minor ethical deviations than male professionals; an alternate explanation is that male professionals were more willing to accept minor ethical deviations.
145. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
Chen Kong, Ying Han Fan, Yan Chen, Ruchuan Jiang, Grantley Taylor The Codes of Ethics for Accountants (Principles versus Rules): A Student Sample Evidence
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This study examines the effect of teaching ethics and the form of code of ethics (i.e., principles- versus rules-based) on auditors’ ethical decision making. We draw upon Rest’s (1986) decision-making model and Hunt and Vitell’s (1986) theory of marketing ethics to assist us with this examination. We use accounting students as substitutes for auditors in this study to enhance its internal validity as students are “subjects who would not already have detailed knowledge and experience of the Code” (Herrona and Gilbertson 2004, p. 510). The research method includes a survey and an experiment in the study. A between-subjects survey design with a sample of 271 students and a within-subjects experimental design with a sample of 146 students are used. A confirmatory factor analysis is conducted before other statistical methods are performed. Our results show that teaching codes of ethics improves accounting students’ awareness of audit independence issues and their ethical judgments and intentions. However, the form of a code of ethics does not make any significant difference in terms of the participants’ awareness of audit independence and their ethical judgments and intentions. Our study contributes to the debate on the effectiveness of principles-based versus rules-based codes of ethics and the importance of teaching ethics in non-Western economies.
146. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
Ayman E. Haddad, Dhoha AlSaleh, Mark Speece, Osama M. Al-Hares Determination of Ethical Acceptability among Business Instructors: The Case of Kuwait
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This study aims at measuring the level of unacceptability of certain unethical behaviours for educators in accounting/finance (A/F) as well as marketing/management (M/M) in their various roles. The research was conducted utilising a quantitative approach based on the Integrated Social Contracts Theory (ISCT) in order to compare norms of ethically acceptable/unacceptable behaviours of A/F and M/M educators in the context of Kuwait. The population for this study consisted of educators from A/F and M/M from different Business Schools in Kuwait. The results of the study indicate there is general agreement on unacceptable behaviours in academia between the two groups; however, in general, A/F faculty tend to rate nearly all unethical behaviors as slightly more unacceptable than do M/M faculty. While this may possibly indicate that A/F faculty are slightly more ethical, more likely it reflects different ways of perceiving the world among quantitatively vs. qualitatively-oriented faculty. We also compare the results to a prior similar survey conducted by Siegel and Jackson (2011). It seems that the perceived ethics of behaviours differs somewhat among educators in different parts of the world. This study is expected to assist the development of an ethical code in Kuwaiti academe. This in turn will help students to learn about codes of ethics which will govern their future conduct as professionals.
147. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
Aljwhara A. Al-Thani, Maryam Y. Al-Madhoun, Shahriar M. Saadullah, Ousama A. Anam A Way Forward for Ethics Education in Business: A Case from the Middle East
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The objective of this study is to review the performance of business students in ethics assessments and suggest enhancements to the ethics curriculum. Data triangulation method was used to gather the data. First, data was gathered from ethics assessments that tested the performance of students. Then a faculty focus group discussion was held to gather their thoughts on the future of the ethics education. Incorporating these thoughts, 389 students were surveyed to understand their perspectives on the future of ethics education. The results show that the faculty members believe the student performance needs improvement. In addition, the faculty and the students make detailed recommendations to enhance the ethics curriculum at the introductory and advanced levels. Their recommendations include that code of conduct should be a part of ethics education, and faculty members with work experience related to ethical dilemmas should deliver the ethics education. Both groups opined on the possibility of teaching ethics in a stand-alone course versus imbedding it in select courses. The details of the findings and implications are discussed.
148. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
Johannes Brinkmann Nathan the Wise: Addressing Enlightenment, Wisdom, and Tolerance
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The paper starts with a brief introduction, about teaching business ethics, by using theatre plays and literature in general, and about the selection of this play by Lessing in particular (published in German 1779; first performed 1783). Next follows a summary presentation of the play, its most critical scenes, roles and ingredients. As an open ending to this presentation (which includes further references to available texts and videos in English, German, and other languages), a number of questions are formulated which can be used for triggering and structuring student discussion and student papers (e.g. about lowering inter-religious and inter-cultural prejudice, and/or about putting enlightenment, wisdom and tolerance on the business ethics teaching agenda). Then the paper offers short answers to each of these questions (e.g. as a preparation for potential instructors).
149. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
Teresa M. Pergola, L. Melissa Walters Ethics in the Accounting Curriculum: A Model for an Enhanced Accounting Ethics Course
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Academic accrediting/standard-setting bodies and the accounting profession view the continued emergence of reputation-damaging ethical transgressions within the accounting profession as a failure of accounting education to effectively implement necessary reforms (AACSB 2004, IESBA 2014, PwC 2003). Although accounting educators have proposed various frameworks and instructional methods for improving ethics education, accounting still lags behind other professions in the moral development of aspiring professionals (Liu et al. 2012). The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for an enhanced ethics course developed for an accounting curriculum. The model course was designed to respond to identified deficiencies in accounting ethics education and improve the moral development of accounting students. The paper discusses course design, delivery methods, educational goals, topical coverage and assessment of learning. Assessment data indicated that accounting students’ levels of moral development improved to a level consistent with other professions upon successful completion of the course.
150. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
José L. Ruiz-Alba, Ignacio Ferrero, Massimiliano Matteo Pellegrini Experiential Learning in Virtue Ethics Through a Case Study: The “St. Albans Family Enterprises”
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Teaching business ethics effectively may prepare future leaders and managers to better deal with delicate situations that they might face in the workplace. However, such an aim is one of the biggest challenges that educators at universities are called on to solve. An increasing number of scholars are invoking the role of prudence in the virtue ethics context as a viable approach to teach students how to manage ethical dilemmas. In this regard, this paper discusses the “St. Albans Family Enterprises” case study that can serve as an instrument to help students and practitioners develop their ethical decision-making ability and to foster a disposition towards applying sound judgment or what can be called in classical terms, prudence. The teaching note that accompanies the case study offers guidance to educators about how the case can be used for teaching purposes, and explains the implications of exercising practical wisdom (prudence) within a virtue ethics framework.
151. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
Patricia Grant, Marjo Lips-Wiersma, Vidayana Soebagio Developing Essential Competencies of Sustainability Educators: Teaching and Modelling Systems Thinking Through Partnership Learning
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Sustainability education entails transforming values and habits as well as developing skills. Much progress has been made in developing the appropriate teaching and learning strategies which not only impart knowledge but shape attitudes and behaviour. However little attention has been given to the education of the educators who often are teaching and learning at the same time. A particularly important but also challenging competency to teach is systems thinking. This paper is based on the teaching and learning experience of two of the authors who teach the same sustainability paper in different semesters in a business faculty. A two-tier reflection presents their learning journey. The reflection of the first author focuses on the challenges experienced with teaching systems thinking in the first semester. The reflection of the second author is based on the next iteration of the course modified in light of the first author’s learnings including the incorporation of student-faculty partnerships. The paper outlines practices and learning associated with this intervention.
152. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
Hans-Jörg Schlierer, Johannes Brinkmann The Use of Online Resources for Teaching Business Ethics: A Pilot Project, a Framework, and Recommendations
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The constant growth of online learning and of online tools for teaching over the past two decades comes with opportunities and risks, with an oversupply of contents, but also with easily accessible enrichment of learning and teaching. Departing from an own learning by doing pilot project, the paper reviews studies of online tools and web-based learning environments in business ethics, using Bloom’s taxonomy as a primary reference. As an open ending, we formulate suggestions for future work and action research, with a focus on implementation, fruitful topics, and methodological issues.
153. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
Phillip Frank Values-Based Curriculum Development in a Study Abroad Program: International Marketing in Cambodia
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Ethics have taken a center stage in business curriculum development over the past 5 years. Sustainable business practices are an important issue when it comes to adequately educating the next generation of marketing professionals. A variety of approaches in how to achieve such goals have been proposed as ideal methodologies. This paper presents a case study on curriculum development for a study abroad trip in Cambodia for marketing students. Furthermore, this article represents one method to incorporate the role of NGOs in international business into business ethics courses. Results show that values-based curriculum serve as an appropriate learning pedagogy for the advancement of ethics in business educational scenarios. Through the use of values-based format, results demonstrate that when students are presented in constructive ethical situations it induces critical self-reflection necessary for more effective ethics education. Furthermore, with the additional cross-cultural component of the research design, students were also exposed to ethics as a component of culture. The current study extends both the pedagogy and ontological development and application of ethics education, specifically, the values-based curriculum providing a pragmatic approach to ethics teachings, and also presents an empirical study of how to integrate NGOs into international business educational platforms.
154. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
Marlene M. Reed, Mitchell J. Neubert HealthSouth Rehabilitation CFO: How Can You Turn the Wagon Around?
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This case recounts the founding of HealthSouth Rehabilitation, its rapid growth, financial mishandlings and the struggle former CFO Aaron Beam had in dealing with a conscience that kept him awake at night. Beam had met HealthSouth founder Richard Scrushy when applying for a job with Lifemark Hospital Corporation in Texas in 1980. After Lifemark was bought by AMI in 1983, Scrushy invited Beam to join him in the launching of his new company in Birmingham, Alabama. The uniqueness of the hospital was that it would provide inpatient surgery for those who had suffered an injury, but it would also provide outpatient services such as rehabilitation, nutrition guidance and psychological counseling. This type of structure was appealing to insurance companies because it would move the patient out of the hospital much quicker and save the cost of extended hospitalization. The company experienced rapid growth and went public within three years of launch. By 1996, the top executives of the company realized that they would not be able to meet Wall Street analysts’ forecasts which would affect the price of their stock and reduce their holdings. They decided to “cook the books” temporarily to meet quarterly expectations. However, once the financial mishandling had begun, the executives found it difficult to reverse their actions and report accurate numbers to the public. Beam decided to retire from the company in 1996; and after this action, he continued to find it difficult to sleep at night because of his involvement in the fraud. The issue in the case is whether Beam should consider coming forward and revealing to the Securities and Exchange Commission how the books had been doctored so that he could salvage his damaged conscience.
155. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
Elizabeth A. McCrea, Gladys Torres-Baumgarten GRAINS FOR GOOD: Choosing Between Two Business Models
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The Community FoodBank of NJ (CFBNJ) was a $100 million charitable organization that distributed over 44 million pounds of food each year through its partner organizations like food pantries, soup kitchens and the like. Its mission was to “fight hunger and poverty in New Jersey [USA] by assisting those in need and seeking long term solutions.” In a time of governmental cutbacks and shrinking private donations, the nonprofit sought new sources of revenue. One idea was to leverage perishable bakery donations and an in-house commercial kitchen, by creating and marketing an up-scale bagel crisp. After product development and market testing, the resulting business plan won a “Break the Gala Addiction” cash prize from the Prudential Foundation to further the social entrepreneurship effort. Now the organization needs to decide if it should use its scarce resources to scale the business internally—to maximize job creation, leverage existing facilities and capture all the revenue, or if it should outsource production and distribution for a percentage of sales so that it can focus on other efforts more tightly aligned to its mission. Students are encouraged to use ethical frameworks to think through the nonprofit’s dilemma.
156. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
José L. Ruiz-Alba, Ignacio Ferrero, Massimiliano Matteo Pellegrini St. Albans Family Enterprises
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This case study can serve as an instrument to help students and practitioners develop their ethical decision-making ability, in particular practical wisdom (prudence) within a virtue ethics framework. St. Albans Family Enterprises is a group of companies with three business lines: petrol stations, flower exportation and women´s fashion retail establishments, with around 300 employees and 20 stores in London, Liverpool, Manchester, Edinburgh and Bristol. Apparently, an alleged leakage of sensitive information took place at the Head Office, involving several employees who found themselves in a delicate professional situation and who happened to be relatives. Senior management are facing ethical dilemmas with respect to these employees but also with respect to themselves who feel partly responsible for having generated such compromising situation for some employees.
157. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
Kathleen Burke, Shafik Bhalloo A Joint for the Joints: The Case of (Medical) Marijuana in the Workplace
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Drug use in the workplace can pose legal and ethical challenges for employers and their employees. In this case, Fred is a long-term employee of the James Bay Logging (JBL) Company who recently returned to the workplace after extensive cancer treatment. Back on the job, he experienced debilitating joint pain, a side effect of his treatments. Fred’s decision to self-medicate with marijuana for pain management poses risks for people and property in his position as a logging truck operator and a moral dilemma for his employer with their zero-tolerance drug policy. The purpose of this case is for students to examine the competing interests a company faces in trying to fairly enforce their drug policy in the context of medical marijuana in the workplace and showing care and compassion to a long-term employee who violated this policy.
158. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 14
L. Benjamin Boyar Calculating & Disclosing Bond Yields: Ethics and Mechanics
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A student considering a career as a financial advisor is confronted by a common industry practice that some consider misleading and unethical. The case fosters financial literacy by allowing students to connect theory to practice through the analysis of a highly realistic brokerage statement using Microsoft Excel. It permits an instructor to seamlessly inject an ethical component into an accounting or finance course while simultaneously sharpening students' understanding of key financial concepts such as bond valuation and yield to maturity.
159. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 3
John Hooker In This Volume
160. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 3
Edward R. Balotsky, David S. Steingard How Teaching Business Ethics Makes a Difference: Findings from an Ethical Learning Model
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This paper introduces a four-stage ethical learning model that we posit will augment the evaluation of the effectiveness of business ethics education. Using the Ignatian (Jesuit, Catholic) methodologies of self-reflection and discernment, comments by 195 undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in an American university regarding the relationship between ethical attitudes and business conduct are examined before and after completing a business ethics course. Results suggest that ethics education can 1) raise students’ ethical awareness, and 2) shift ethical attitudes in either positive or negative directions, thus supporting the existence of levels of ethical understanding that our learning model proposes. Methodological challenges for current and future evaluation of the effectiveness of ethics education, including enhancement of the generalizability of findings across international borders, are considered. Several implications for linking business ethics education with the conduct and climate of business practice are also discussed.