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Displaying: 141-160 of 294 documents

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141. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Břetislav Horyna Když nás vesmír začal brát na vědomí. Příspěvek k lepšímu pochopení metaforologie Hanse Blumenberga
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The goal of this work is to popularize the philosophy of the German philosopher Hans Blumenberg (1920–1999) in Czech context. Even though he is gradually becoming one of the most discussed authors in the Anglo-Saxon world, Blumenberg is still largely ignored here. This work focuses on a key theme from Blumenberg’s theory of metaphorology and analyzes the history and development of human defensive reactions against alleged expressions of cosmic powers and their impact on human lives: heavenly signs, unnatural signs at birth or death of important figures, religious miracles, etc. In order to defend themselves against absolute forces of the universe, people have developed magic (homo magus occurred in human history) as a tool of prevention from cosmic interference, created new myths and escaped into their mythical shelters by means of further metaphors. In the final part, the work deals with the phenomenology of the metaphor of „stream“, used by E. Husserl.
142. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Slavomír Lesňák K niektorým nedostatkom vybraných environmentálnych prístupov
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The author aims to evaluate various approaches of environmental philosophers to several specific problems from the standpoint of ethics of survival. He points to weaknesses and risks of conceptions of F. Capra, A. Naess, P. Singer and J. Šmajs. The author accepts using irrationality only as a complement of education, not as its main principle. He rejects ethics not based on ontological ground and promotes process thinking in ethics. The author criticizes rejection of anthropocentric approach. He analyzes the connections between evolutionary ontology and totalitarianism. He questions Naess’ application of nonviolence, links irrationality and ecological terrorism.
143. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Hana Řehulková Literatura a poznání
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The goal of the paper is to reconsider two incompatible stances on a possible cogni­tive gain from belles-lettres stories. Cognitivism is based on the fundamental state that a value of work of art is proportional to the degree of knowledge it brings. It is presupposed that a reader´s mental state before reading such stories is, in a way, poorer then thereafter. What kind of properties does such cognitive gain have? Is it a moral piece of knowledge? Or is it a piece of knowledge at all? A role of truth is mentioned. Two pros et cons arguments – namely Graham’s (argument about the cognitive value of the arts) and Stolnitz´s ones (argument about cognitive triviality of art) – are briefly examined. In the last part, a natural view of a literary cognitive gain is offered.
144. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Ivana Holzbachová Tainovo pojetí společnosti a státu
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The author presents Hippolyte Taine´s conception of society and state, which are, in her interpretation as well as Taine´s theory, deeply interconnected. It is quite obvious, however, that Taine was a committed liberal. This follows from his explicit ideas on the function of the state, his ruthless criticism of the Jacobin phase of French Revolution and Napoleonic conception of state as well as the state in which he lived, because that state stemmed from the Napoleonic conception. In the second part the author focuses on Taine´s description of the English system. Taine sees both its advantages and drawbacks. Generally speaking, he finds the English system preferable to the French one. However, on the basis of the theory of race, moment and environment, it was not possible to imple­ment the English model in France.
145. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Z Jednoty filosofické
146. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Z knižních novinek Katedry filosofie
147. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Z vědeckého života Katedry filosofie
148. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Jiří Gabriel Josef Ludvík Fischer, Výbor z díla III, eds. Sylva Fischerová
149. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Jakub Mácha Marek Picha – Dagmar Pichová, 100 myšlenkových experimentů ve filozofii
150. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Ivana Holzbachová Gottfried Schramm, Dějiny a řády života (pět rozhodujících zlomů lidských dějin)
151. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Jiří Gabriel O. A. Funda, Racionalita versus transcendence. Spor Hanse Alberta s moderními teology
152. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Ivana Holzbachová Pierre Manent, Lidská obec
153. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Jan Zouhar Polska fenomenologia przedwojenna. Antologia tekstów, eds. Dariusz Bęben, Marta Ples-Bęben
154. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Jan Zouhar V. Doubek – L. Hladký – R. Vlček a kol., T. G. Masaryk a Slované
155. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Jan Zouhar Ondrej Mészáros, Dejiny maďarskej filozofie
156. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 2
Dušan Lužný Kulturní paměť jako koncept sociálních věd
157. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 2
Ivana Holzbachová Tainova kritika společenské smlouvy
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Taine devoted his whole work to the French Revolution. He was very critical of it. Part of the criticism focused on the role that the revolution played in the theory of social contract. This aspect of Taine’s work Původ současné Francie (The Beginnings of Contemporary France) is the focus of this paper. The autor analyzes Taine’s critique in general, above all the assumption of (mathematical) equality of people, and then focuses on the way that Taine assessed the application of social contract theory by revolutionary governments. The author claimes that Taine, in fact, only dealt with Rousseau’s version of the theory and when analyzing people’s equality ofter referred to a general habit of the French to think in abstraction. In some aspects his ideas resemble those of Tocqueville. In the final part the author focuses on Lacombe’s analysis of Taine’s views.
158. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 2
Zlatica Plašienková Münzova teória poznania na pozadí kritiky marxistickej teórie odrazu v šesťdesiatych rokoch minulého storočia
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The author of this paper clarifies some gnoseological views of Slovak philosopher Teodor Münz. He formulated his opinions on the background of critics of Marxist theory of reflection in the 1960s and he published them in a series of articles at that time. The author of the article highlights Münz´s objections to this theory and arguments which point to non-dialectic understanding of practice as criterion of truth. She also reflects Münz´s understanding of development of knowledge, relations between truth and fault and other epistemological problems. These problems have been at the center of Münz’s interest until now. They are a proof of the metamorphosis of his noetic opinions.
159. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 2
Tereza Kunešová Recepce Dialektiky konkrétního v Československu mezi léty 1963–1969
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The aim of this contribution is to acquaint readers with responses to Karel Kosík’s most influential work, the Dialectics of the Concrete, that were published in former Czechoslovakia by philosophers and other thinkers between the years 1963 and 1969 with an emphasis on the journals Filosofický časopis, Kulturní tvorba, Literární noviny and Plamen. This paper also outlines a criticism of Kosík and his book by the Commu­nist Party of Czechoslovakia.
160. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 2
Petr Jemelka Výročí, odpůrci a disidenti
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This text is an attempt to reflect a discourse on the problem of the role of opposition in history. On the background of the “Velvet Revolution“ anniversary, it deals with the question of the necessity to analyse deeply the dissent phenomenon as part of opposition structures. It represents an important aspect of the critical study of our latest history.