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161. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 16
Olga Pombo Notas de Leitura à Margem de uma Antologia
162. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 16
Paula Oliveira e Silva Luís Alberto de Boni, Filosofia Medieval. Textos
163. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 16
Renato Epifânio José Marinho, O Pensamento Filosófico de Leonardo Coimbra e Outros Textos, Obras, vol. IV
164. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 16
Desidério Murcho Thomas Baldwin, Contemporary Philosophy: Philosophy in English since 1945
165. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 16
Carlos Alfredo do Couto Amaral Natureza e Função do Símbolo na Metafísica Estética do Jovem Nietzsche
166. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 16
Ana Cristina Acciaioli de Figueiredo Cravo Ilustração. Ideia Poética e Imagem Gráfico-Plástica
167. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 16
Rui Cambraia A Distância Como Valor Estético
168. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 16
Renato Manuel Laia Epifânio Exposição da Teoria do ser e da Verdade - Uma Viagem Através da Viagem de José Marinho
169. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 16
Francisco José da Silva Gomes de Oliveira Bataille e a Sombra de Breton
170. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 9 > Issue: 17/18
Editorial
171. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 9 > Issue: 17/18
Cristina Beckert Do "Crepúsculo do Dever" à "Valsa das Éticas"
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This paper tries to analyse the way rational, prescriptive and universal morals turns into emotional and charitable ethics, in the middle of the twentieth Century. By means of confronting different positions like Alain Fienkielkraut’s, Gilles Lipovetsky’s, and Luc Ferry’s, it shows the importance of the bound between democracy and ethics, through a dialogical commitment, thought as a sign of ethical hypocrisy by Lipovetsky.
172. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 9 > Issue: 17/18
Sônia T. Felipe Da Igualdade. Peter Singer e a Defesa Ética dos Animais Contra o Especismo
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This article both introduces and reconstructs Singer’s arguments in favor of the extension of the ethical principie of equality to protect the interests of sentient animais. The concepts of speciesism, suffering and the value of life, as well as the distinction between the life of a human being and the life of a person are specially considered in this reconstruction of Singer’s animal ethics and its utilitarian influence.
173. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 9 > Issue: 17/18
Carlos João Correia A Religião e a Experiência do Divino
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The goal of this paper is to distinguish between two main concepts in Philosophy of Religion: the religious human experience and the notion of God. It argues that religion must be understood as a symbolic and cultural construction while the concept of the divine means the experience of the limits of human thought. Sometimes, throughout human history, these two experience meet but they are not conceptually the same.
174. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 9 > Issue: 17/18
Maria Luísa Ribeiro Ferreira As Mulheres Entram na Filosofia
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Quand Socrate, dans Phédon, ordonne aux femmes de sortir de sa chambre, pour qu’il puisse mourir entouré de ses disciples, il a marqué la place des femmes dans la philosophie - l ’absence. Cette situation commence à être contestée au XXème siècle. Après l’éclaircissement des concepts de “philosophie féministe” et de “philosophie au féminin”, ce texte se propose analyser les différentes orientations philosophiques contemporaines qui considèrent la femme et le féminin comme des philosophèmes légitimes. Il termine avec la discussion de quelques questions inévitables pour qui se penche sur la place des femmes en philosophie: la spécificité d’une philosophie au féminin, la validité d ’une nature féminine, la possibilité d’une éthique de la différence.
175. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 9 > Issue: 17/18
Adriana V. Serrão Pensar o Sentir de Hoje: Mutações da Sensibilidade Estética
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Cet étude se pose la question suivante: est-ce que l’Esthétique philosophique contemporaine peut encore fournir un cadre conceptuel d’intelligibilité en face de l’extrême diversité des événements artistiques, mais surtout en face du changement croissant des manifestations de la sensibilité dans nos sociétés de masses? Pour parvenir à une réponse cohérente, on commence par rappeller les principes fondamentaux de l’expérience esthétique et de la conception du goût selon Kant. Ensuite, on présente une synthèse de trois différentes lectures philosophiques de l’actualité conduites d’un point de vue esthétique: la fin des avant-gardes de Luc Ferry, la sensologie de Mario Pemiola et la théorie des images de Martin Seel.
176. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 9 > Issue: 17/18
António Pedro Mesquita O Problema da Definição do Acidente em Aristóteles
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The present article aims to clear up three different, though connected, questions: 1st. The significance of the double definition of ‘accident’ in the Topics. 2nd. The significance of the distinction be tween two types of accident (‘strict’ accident and per se accident) in the Posterior Analytics and in the Metaphysics, namely in its alleged relationship with the double definition of ‘accident’ in the Topics. 3rd. The meaning of per se accidents within the framework of the predicables, namely from the point of view of its putative identification with propria predicates. In the course of the analysis, the answers given to these three questions are the following (in inverse order to their presentation): 1. By definition, the same predicate can never be a per se accident and a proprium, except incidentally, namely when regarded ‘at a certain moment’ (pote) or ‘in relation to something else’ (pros ti). In fact, despite Aristotle’s silence about the status of per se accidents within the framework of the predicables, they have there its own peculiar logical location, namely under the first definition of ‘accident’. 2. The distinction between ‘strict’ accident and per se accident, on the one hand, and the double definition of ‘accident’, on the other, do not coalesce, though they partially overlap. The second definition of ‘accident’ in the Topics subsumes only ‘strict ’ accidents, while the first definition is generally valid for ‘strict’ accidents and per se accidents. 3. As far as an educated guess can go on historical matters, we can suppose that the second definition of ‘accident’ was conceived by Aristotle to cover the only kind of accidents recognised by him when writing the Topics, while, by that time, the first definition was thought merely as a alternative negative definition. However, it is the schema provided by the first definition that allows a precise technical definition of the two types of accidents, which nowhere can be found in Aristotle texts. In the final part of the article, we try to reconstruct this technical definition.
177. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 9 > Issue: 17/18
Adel Sidarus Filosofia Árabo-Islâmica (Breve Relance Histórico)
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Dans cet aperçu historique de la philosophie arabo-islamique, après avoir rappelé le mode de transmission de la philosophie et des sciences grecques dans la société musulmane, à travers notamment du mouvement de traduction surgi à Baghdad entre le IXe et le Xe siècles, nous exposons les présupposés épistémologiques qui ont présidé à la naissance des grands courants de la pensée philosophique musulmane, partant principalement des trois grandes figures que furent al-Kindi, al-Farâbî et Ibn Sînâ (Avicenne). Nous passons, par la suite, à la diffusion multiforme des idées philosophiques dans la société musulmane (milieux des lettrés et des hauts fonctionnaires, théologie scholastique, etc.) et à la réaction d'Al-Ghazâlî et du sunnisme orthodoxe, laquelle a figé pour toujours la pensée musulmane arabe, mais non iranienne, à partir du Xlle siècle. Dans ce siècle, toutefois, avec l ’iranien Sohravardi et, au XIIIe, avec l’andalous Ibn ’Arabî, la philosophie de la lumière (ishrâq) ou gnoséologie mystique, issue du monde iranien et développée un moment par Avicenne, ainsi que la mystique spéculative et cosmo-anthropologique ont connu un essor extraordinaire dont la portée et les prolongements en Iran et en Turquie doivent encore être découverts. Entre temps, la philosophie ibéro-arabe suivait un autre parcours. Ayant démarré véritablement vers la fin du Xle siècle, elle a mené à la découverte du vrai Aristote, par le grand Averroès (Ibn Rushd), et donné naissance, de la sorte, à l’aristotélisme qui a fécondé non pas la société islamique, qui entrait en déclin et se figeait au niveau de la pensée créatrice, mais l ’Europe du Bas Moyen-Âge et de la Renaissance.
178. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 9 > Issue: 17/18
Leonel Ribeiro dos Santos Viragem para a Retórica e Conflito entre Filosofia e Retórica no Pensamento dos Séculos XV e XVI
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La plus récente historiographie philosophique de la Renaissance ne cesse de mettre en relief l’importance qui a eu la rhétorique dans les programmes d ’études des studia humanitatis et de reconnaître comme ressort fondamental des humanistes la poursuite de l’éloquence. Cette orientation de la pensée humaniste vers la rhétorique et l’éloquence a eu une influence décisive sur toutes les manifestations de la culture et de la pensée, notamment sur la philosophie et la théologie. Dans cet article on essaye de comprendre, dans le cadre de la pensée de la Renaissance, les aspects du rapport complexe entre rhétorique et philosophie, à savoir: le projet de réduction de la philosophie à la rhétorique, poursuivi de Lorenzo Valla à Mario Nizolio; le conflit entre philosophie et rhétorique, qui a eu comme principaux protagonistes le philosophe florentin Giovanni Pico della Mirandola et l’humaniste vénitien Ermolao Barbaro, mais qui prolonge son écho dans la pensée de Vives, de Melanchthon, de Patrizi; le reculement de la rhétorique devant la nouvelle dialectique humaniste de Rudolphe Agricola et de Pierre de La Ramée. Ce long procès entre la rhétorique et la philosophie (ou entre la rhétorique et la dialectique) ne doit pas être envisagé comme un aspect de mince signification, mais comme expression même d ’un débat essentiel entre paradigmes de rationalité, qui à cette époque a atteint une notable dimension et une portée exemplaire.
179. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 9 > Issue: 17/18
J. Carlos Viana Ferreira Tolerância, Intolerância e Milenarismo: Da Reforma à Revolução Inglesa
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In the Christian world picture of early modern Europe Truth was absolute and enjoyed rights of its own. Protestantism shattered the unity of Christianity but did not fester any ideal of religious tolerance. Instead, closely interwoven with the Henrician Reformation and consequent break with Roman Catholicism, and with the establishment of the Elizabethan state, Protestantism led to a widespread millenarian belief in the leading role God had chosen for England, thus sharpening the opposition between Good and Evil, Christ and Antichrist. In the heady atmosphere of the 1640’s Milton, Cromwell, and the Independents stood for liberty of conscience, while the Levellers and radical separatists argued for toleration and religious liberty. Toleration emerged and thrived in the Puritan Revolution, not as an ideal, but as a temporary, pragmatic measure in the long path to achieve cherished but elusive religious unity.
180. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 9 > Issue: 17/18
Manuel J. do Carmo Ferreira O Abstracto e o Concreto na Filosofia Política de Hegel
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Hegel’s political thought, gathered in Philosophy of Right, is perceived as a doctrine of social relations, differentiated and structured by the abstraction/formalisation - concretion/realization’s scheme. Right, Morality and Ethical Life are seen as moments of a socio-historical process of identification of the individual by his insertion in a manner of a more true relationship, since it is simultaneously universal and concrete.