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161. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Giorgio Lando Tractarian Ontology: Mereology or Set Theory?
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I analyze the relations of constituency or „being in" that connect different ontological items in Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. A state of affairs is constituted by atoms, atoms are in a state of affairs. Atoms are also in an atomic fact. Moreover, the world is the totality of facts, thus it is in some sense made of facts. Many other kinds of Tractarian notions - such as molecular facts, logical space, reality - seem to be involved in constituency relations. How should these relations be conceived? And how is it possible to formalize them in a convincing way? I draw a comparison between two ways of conceiving and formalizing these relations: through sets and through mereological sums. The comparison shows that the conceptual machinery of set theory is apter to conceive and formalize Tractarian constituency notions than the mereological one.
162. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Luke Fischer Derrida and Husserl on Time
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In this essay I take issue with Derrida's interpretation of Husserl's phenomenology of intemal time-consciousness in Speech and Phenomena. Derrida's critique of Husserl's phenomenology of time also forms the basis for what Derrida regards to be an undermining of phenomenological philosophy itself. After first disagreeing with Derrida's interpretation of Husserl's understanding of time I proceed to object to his „undermining" of phenomenology. I attempt to illustrate that his critique of phenomenology is unconvincing.
163. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Jarosław Paszyński Weisheit als Wissenschaft über Gott nach Thomas von Aquin
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Thomas geht davon aus, dass die Weisheit, gemäß der aristotehschen Definition, in der Erkenntnis der ersten Ursachen besteht. Nach Thomas ist die Theologie diese Weisheit, weil sie die Erkenntnis (Wissenschaft) über Gott als erste Ursache des ganzen Universums ist und zugleich die Erkenntnis über allesin Bezug auf Gott als ihren Urspmng und Ziel. Angenommen, dass für Thomas die Theologie die Weisheit ist, kann die logische Struktur seines Hauptwerkes Summa theologica anders wie gewöhnlich interpretiert werden und zwar, nicht nach dem neoplatonischen Schema: exitus - reditus, sondern als Realisation des Programms der Theologie als Weisheit.
164. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Józef Bremer An Obituary for Professor Jay Frank Rosenberg
165. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Simini Rahimi Swinburne on the Euthyphro Dilemma. Can Supervenience Save Him?
166. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Andrzej Bronk, Pawel Kawałec Adam Grobler, Metodologia nauk [Methodology of the Sciences] by Andrzej Bronk, Pawel Kawalec
167. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Daniel Laurier Making „Reasons " Explicit. How Normative is Brandom's Inferentialism?
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This paper asks whether Brandom has provided a sufficiently clear account of the basic normative concepts of commitment and entitlement, on whichhis normative inferentialism seems to rest, and of how they contribute to explain the inferential articulation of conceptual contents. I show that Brandom's claim that these concepts are analogous to the concepts of obligation and permission cannot be right, and argue that the normative character of the concept of commitment is dubious. This leads me to replace Brandom's conception of inferential relations as relations between deontic statuses with one according to which they are to be seen as relations between entitlements and acknowledgements of commitments.
168. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Lubos Rojka Human Authenticity and the Question of God in the Philosophy of Bernard Lonergan
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In his Insight, Lonergan presents a general form of the argument for the existence of God: „reality is completely intelligible, therefore, God exists." Its framework may be characterized as a Leibnizian version of the cosmological argument from the contingency of empirical reality to the unrestricted act of understanding.The acceptance of Lonergan's argument presupposes familiarity with his theory of being and objectivity. In my analysis, since Lonergan uses heuristic(second order) definitions and dialectical method in his justification of the complete intelligibility of reality, the argument invites continuous examination of theproposed alternative metaphysical theories.
169. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Manuel Rebuschi Czezowski's Axiological Concepts as Full-fledged Modalities: We Must Either Make What Is Good, Or Become Revisionists
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This short paper provides a tentative formalization of Czezowski's ideas about axiological concepts: Good and Evil are conceived of as modalities ratherthan as predicates. A natural account of the resulting „ethical logic" appears to be very close to standard deontic logic. If one does not resolve to become an anti-realist regarding moral values, a possible way out is to become a revisionist about deontology: convert to intuitionism or some other kind of revisionism in deontic logic, and remain classical in ethical logic.
170. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Joshtrom I. Kureethadam The 'Meditational' Genre of Descartes 'Meditations
171. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Józef Bremer Ireneusz Ziemiński, Tod, Unsterblichkeit, Sinn des Lebens. Existentielle Dimension der Philosophie von Ludwig Wittgenstein [Śmierć, niesmiertelność, sens życia. Egzystencjalny wymiarfilozofii Ludwiga Wittgensteina] by Józef Bremer
172. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Adam Świeżyński The Evolutionary Concept of Human Death
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The natural sciences reveal the existence of a constant process of cosmic evolution, in which new forms of matter emerge. The continuity of the non-Organic and biological evolutionary processes, their assignment to the laws of nature, as well as the fact that the appearance of a human being constitutes theirculmination, all this shows that a human being is an element of the material structure of the world. From the evolutionary point of view, it could be argued thatI human being is „the ultimate form of life," a very interesting but, in many respects, still very mysterious idea.
173. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Aleksandra Derra Explicit and Implicit Assumptions in Noam Chomsky's Theory of Language
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The author identifies selected implicit or not fully explicit assumptions made by Noam Chomsky in his theory of language. Through a careful examinationof Chomsky's work, she aims to present the solutions this linguist proposes with respect to two fundamental questions: the question of methodology and thequestion of the ontological status of language. After reviewing the central theses of Chomsky's theory in the first part of the paper, she tums to the question that ismentioned in the title of this paper, that is, the reservations regarding the assumptions underlying Chomsky's work.
174. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Stanisław Ziemiański Time and Its Philosophical Implications
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The conception of time, presented by St. Augustine, unites within itself the physical-philosophical views of Aristotle, and its own psychological view concerning the lived experience of the flow of sensory impressions from the past towards the future. H. Majkrzak (1999) underlines, in Augustine, the existential moment of time. The time of a human life is limited: it is situated within borders stretching from the day of birth to the day of death. This faithful and precise representationof the Augustinian conception of time, nevertheless brings the reader up against a problem: What value does it have today?
175. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Paweł Urgacz Friedrich August von Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty by Pawel Urgacz
176. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Mostafa Taqavi, Mohammad Saleh Zarepour The Strong Version of Underdetermination of Theories by Empirical Data: Comments on Wolenski's Analysis
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The Polish researcher in the field of logic and philosophy, Jan Woleński, in one of his recent articles, „Metalogical Observations About the Underdeterminationof Theories by Empirical Data," logically formalized two weak and strong versions of the underdetermination of theories by empirical data (or UT by abbreviation)and with these formalization has metalogically analyzed these two versions. Finally he has deducted that the weak version is defensible while the strong version is not. In this paper we will critically study Woleński's analysis of the strong version of UT.
177. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
John McDade Simone Weil and Gerard Manley Hopkins on God, Affliction, Necessity and Sacrifice
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Simone Weil's ideas on affliction and sacrifice have been interpreted by some as though they are the product of psychological problems. I will approachher writings on necessity and affliction through G. M. Hopkins' little prose masterpiece. Later I will suggest that she may be profitably related to some French spiritual writers in the 17th Century, who develop a link between the necessity of offering sacrifice to God and the radical contingency of created existence.
178. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Robert Grzywacz Joanna Barcik (ed.), De la philosophie reflexive à l'herméneutique. Philosophie française de la religion [Odfilozofii refleksji do hermeneutyki. Francuska filozofia religii] by Robert Grzywacz
179. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Jarosław Paszyński Weisheit Gottes nach Thomas von Aquin
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Thomas von Aquin geht davon aus, dass Gott die erste und einzige Ursache der Wirklichkeit ist, und somit alle Vollkommenheiten der geschaffenen Seienden in Gott auf eminente und vollkommene Weise zu finden sind. Deswegen ist die Weisheit aufgmnd der Analogie als Eigenschaft Gottes zu verstehen, und zwar als Wesenseigenschaft. Diese Weisheit besteht in der Erkenntnis, mit der Gott sich selbst erkennt. Die Weisheit bezieht sich auch auf die zweite Person der Trinität, die als das gezeugte Wort die Weisheit des Vaters ist. Betreffs des Schöpftingswerkes ist Gott als Schöpfer nicht nur causa efficiens der Seienden, sondern auch causa exemplaris und causa finalis. Mit der causa exemplaris ist die Weisheit Gottes gemeint.
180. Forum Philosophicum: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Henryk Machoń Tertium non datur? Der Streit zwischen Idealismus und Dogmatismus in Fichtes Versuch einer Neuen Darstellung der Wissenschaftslehre
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Der Beitrag präsentiert wesentliche Bestandteile von Fichtes Wissenschaftslehre mit einigen kritischen Bemerkungen. Als repräsentatives Beispiel seiner philosophischen Position, die zugleich die Gmndlage seines wissenschaftlichen Systems bildet, steht Fichte den Streit zwischen zwei möglichen philosophischen Systeme dar: dem Idealismus und dem Dogmatismus. In Auseinandersetzung mit dem Dogmatismus findet er die Begründung für die idealistische Position durch die Analyse von Begriffen und Phänomenen wie Erfahmng, Bewusstsein, Erkenntnis und schließlich Freiheit. Die Freiheit, verstanden als eine bewusste Entscheidung, nötigt den Philosophen zur Wahl einer konkreten Form von Philosophie, weil sie davon abhängt, was für ein Mensch man ist.