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Displaying: 161-180 of 292 documents

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161. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Tomáš Machula Naturrecht und Menschwürde. Universale Ethik in einer geschichtlichen Welt: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
162. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
David Peroutka OCD Závěrečné vyjádření: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
163. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Josef Novák Přirozená theologie pro naši dobu: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
164. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Daniel Heider Analogie vnitřní atribuce jako možné řešení nejasností v Aristotelově pojetí blaženosti v Etice Níkomachově: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
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The paper deals with the problem of conceptual interpretation of Aristotle’s prima facie divergent opinions on human happiness in his Nicomachean Ethics, especially in Book 1 and Book 10. As its starting point it takes the well-known expository scheme connected with the polarity “Dominantism versus Inclusivism”. It attempts to show that the relationship of two main candidates on human happines, namely the activities of moral virtues and of contemplation, should be understood on the basis of the predicative scheme called the intrinsic analogy of attribution. While both contemplation and the activities of moral virtues are intrinsically valuable, it is argued that they exhibit certain order of priority and posteriority: the theoretical activities of our intellect realise happiness primarly, whereas the moral activities merely secondarily. The desirable character of intrinsic goodness of our moral actions consists in the fact that they are beautiful and that they, in a certain way, approximate theoria. Interpreting the teleological relation between moral action and contemplation as one of approximation thus seems to represent a plausible alternative, which, unlike the standard means–end relation, keeps in balance both of the desiderata, i.e. the intrinsic goodness of our moral actions as well as their intrinsic orientation toward contemplation.
165. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Tomáš Machula Modern Writings on Thomism: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
166. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Miroslav Hanke Perspektivy logické sémantiky Jana Buridana: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
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The subject of the present article is the analysis of fundamental logical-semantical terminology of late-medieval nominalistic logician Jean Buridan (c. 1295–1360). The analysis focuses on the concepts of truth conditions and logical consequence, whose clarification presupposes explication of modal terminology as well as a solution of semantical antinomies such as “Liar” (or an attempt to solve them). The analysis of Buridan’s argumentation suggests that Buridan’s project of logic actually fails due to several failures of conceptual analysis of semantical and modal terminology. An alternative solution of the question concerning logical consequence is thus proposed in terms of Buridan’s implicit (and unused) semantical conception of modalities that makes it possible to establish conceptually and therefore explicatively closed logical framework.
167. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
Lukáš Novák Problém abstraktních pojmů: Odpověď bosým karmelitánům
168. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 4 > Issue: 2
David Svoboda Francisco Suárez on the Addition of the One to Being and the Priority of the One over the Many: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
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Suárez’s solution to the problem of the conceptual Addition of the One to being follows firstly the Aristotelian-Averroistic tradition mediated by Aquinas. According to this tradition, the One adds to being only a negative determination. Suárez claims that the One does not signify any positive perfection either really or conceptually distinct from being as such. Suárez’s own solution to the problem is presented in a critical discussion with many different conceptions, but Suárez pays most attention to the theory of certain, mainly Franciscan, authors who hold that the One adds to being a positive perfection which is only conceptually distinct from being as such. The main argument for this thesis is based on the assumption that indivision is to be taken as a double negation, by which an affirmation is expressed. This concept of indivision was, according to Suárez, also defended by Aquinas, who holds that the negation which is expressed by the One negates the division of one being from another. Suárez rejects this solution and proposes his own conception, according to which the One does not negate the negative moment of the division of one being from another, but the positive moment of an essential division of a being in itself. The One thus negates a real positive division of being in itself. On the basis of this theory, Suárez further rejected Aquinas’s (and the Thomistic) conception of a conceptual priority of the One over the Many, which was put forth as an answer to the old Aristotelian problem of a privative opposition between the One and the Many. Suárez defends the real priority of an indivision over a division as well as a real and conceptual priority of the One over the Many. Suárez’s conception seems to us to be compatible with his concept of a negative Addition of the One to being.
169. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Stanislav Sousedík Člověk a stát: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
170. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Prokop Sousedík Co je podle Wittgensteina řeč?: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
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The author shows that, after some considerations about the nature of speech, we can take two substantially different paths. Wittgenstein’s early philosophy is the paradigm of the first path, his later the paradigm of the second. According the author, the difference between these two conceptions is that in the late Wittgenstein, as opposed to his early conception, rejects the search for, and the clarification of, the essence of our language.
171. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Pavel Materna, Josef Petrželka Definition and Concept. Aristotelian Definition Vindicated: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
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The modern (Russellian) theory of definition conceives definitions as abbreviations, so that the question of adequateness (let alone of truth-value) of definitions becomes meaningless. In this paper we show that beside Russellian conception of definitions understood as abbreviations, there is an Aristotelian conception, which exploits the notion of essence and that this conception can be rehabilitated from the standpoint of the modern logic (in particular by means of Pavel Tichý’s Transparent Intensional Logic). Also Carnap’s ‘explication’ indicates that what we feel to be a definition is frequently distinct from a Russellian definition.
172. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Lukáš Novák Metafyzika jako věda. Ibn Síná a Ibn Rušd ve scholastické diskusi.: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
173. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Suárez’s Metaphysics. Disputationes Metaphysicae in their Historical and Systematical Context.: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
174. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Michal Chabada 700-lecie śmierci bł. Jana Dunsa Szkota. Międzynarodowe sympozjum jubileuszowe: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
175. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Lukáš Novák Ján Duns Scotus. Vybrané kapitoly z jeho epistemológie a metafyziky.: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
176. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 5 > Issue: 1
Stanislav Sousedík, Karel Šprunk G. Frege: Dialog s Pünjerem Český překlad s kritickým výkladem
177. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Marián Kuna Theory, Practice, and Tradition. Správa z medzinárodnej macintyrovskej konferencie: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
178. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Petr Dvořák Thomas Aquinas on Contingency in Nature: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
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The paper deals with Aristotle’s argument against determinism and in favor of contingency in nature as interpreted by Thomas Aquinas. The case against determinism is based on the idea that there are properly uncaused accidental events in reality. This means that in case there is some coincidental future event e, one cannot trace an unbroken causal chain leading to e back to the present or the past. For a Christian Aristotelian, such as Aquinas, there arises a difficulty concerning divine foreknowledge and volitional determination of events of this sort. Thomas’s solution is based on the claim that the latter divine acts are not within the scope of modal determination (necessity/contingency).
179. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
David Svoboda Transcendentálie a kategorie v díle Tomáše Akvinského: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
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The paper deals with the conception of transcendental and categorial concepts in the work of Thomas Aquinas. As a starting point of the exposition the discussion of this matter in De veritate 1, 1 has been chosen, where Aquinas, drawing on Aristotle and Avicenna, determines which are the first concepts of intellect. The absolutly first concept, the terminus of conceptual analysis, is the concept of being (ens). All other concepts, both categorial and transcendental, result from conceptual addition to being. Aquinas’s conception of conceptual addition is explained in detail and used to illustrate Aquinas’s explication of individual transcendentals and categories. Finally it is shown, how Aquinas derives transcendental and categorial concepts as general and special modes of being (modi essendi) of being as such. Translation: Lukáš Novák
180. Studia Neoaristotelica: Volume > 5 > Issue: 2
Matthias Perkams Naturgesetz, Selbstbestimmung und Moralität. Thomas von Aquin und die Begründung einer zeitgemässen Ethik.: A Journal of Analytic Scholasticism
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Starting from Aquinas’s natural law theory, the article discusses in which way one can ground an ethical theory relying on the concept of personal autonomy. This is possible because natural law, as a law of reason, determines the ends for which every individual human being reasonably may strive. In this context, it is also possible to justify the role of morality in human life. This is due to the nature of man as a social animal whose natural ends include a life in a human community. From this one can infer the two principles, not to harm others and to attribute his right to everybody. The application of those rules, as of any other rule of natural law, depends upon the person of the agent and his historical and social situation.