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161. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Oana Matei Revenge Against Tyrants. The Political Theory of French Protestantism
162. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Carmen Cozma Reviving a Cardinal Value: Sophrosýne
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In the context of today.s moral and ecological crisis, and the accelerated advance of information and communication technologies, when human beings intensively experience their own fragility, a major question is that of well-being. That raises the issue of moral health, which represents, in an axiological and normative sense, a basis for the human being to find proper opportunities for remaking and protecting the beingness' equilibrium in face of a variety of risks in a society of excesses. We consider that a significant element of moral health lies in the old Greek value of sophrosýne. In this essay, we highlight its meaning and role. We do this by reviving the core of a wise learning coming from Ancient philosophy about one of the moral excellences. Sophrosýne is approached as a necessary factor in human well-being; it is pursued in the prophylactic and therapeutic potential for the maintenance of human health; finally, it is developed inits fundamental action of allowing happiness in a well-functioning and self-fulfilling life of the human being.
163. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Frederic Will Directionalities
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The essay hypothesizes a norm condition of stasis—the mood of sentient peace occupied on a quiet porch. From there the psyche is drawn upward by concept, into the benign/abstract world or downward into the pre-verbal which links us with prespeech man/woman. Is there any default position in this map of the positions of consciousness?
164. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Thomas Kochalumchuvattil The Importance of Subjectivity in Overcoming Ethnical Conflicts in Africa: a Philosophical Reflection
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Africa’s widespread problems are well publicized and none receives more attention than that of periodic outbreaks of ethnic violence. Past events in Rwanda, and in the ongoing conflict in Darfur-Sudan, linger in the memory while the outbreak of postelection violence in Kenya is a more recent example of the seemingly endless capacity of Africa to generate ethnic unrest. The problems of Africa have become the subject of intense philosophical debate and reflection in an effort to find a just and sustainable future for the continent. This contribution to the ongoing debate will argue that the root cause of ethnic violence (and indeed many of Africa’s other problems) is a lack of subjectivity and that the insights of Søren Kierkegaard, with regard to the role of subjectivity in intersubjective relations, will not only give us a perspective on the origins of these problems, but through education, offer a way forward to a more optimistic future.
165. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Xiaoxiao Wang Comparison Analysis on Architectural Culture in China and Western Countries
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Architecture culture is the synthesis of material possession and spiritual wealth, created by human society history development and reflects historic continuity and nationality character. This paper has a comprehensive comparison analysis on distinctions of originality, architecture characteristic, developing logic, art forms, and intention between China and Western Countries exhibited on architectural culture, including three parts: ancient period, current period, and future development. Through comparison studies, it presents a comprehensive cognition on different cultural backgrounds and unique exhibition forms for different architectural styles on China and Western Countries; have a deeper understanding on architectural culture communion in two different civilization zones; and find a future developing way with ethical features and spirit for Chinese and Western architecture.
166. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Sanja Ivic European Human Rights Binaries
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In the following lines the symbolic oppression founded on binary hierarchies that exist inside the framework of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Basic Freedoms will be presented. In those binary oppositions opposed terms are not equally valued. One of these terms is dominant, while the other is subordinated and mostly defined only as the first term’s other. This symbolic oppression creates various forms of discrimination. This paper argues that this problem can be resolved by deliberative democracy. Effective deliberation leads to more informed public sphere which is capable to embrace otherness and diversity.
167. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Raffaella Santi From the History of Philosophy to the History of Science: Hegel’s influence on Whewell
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William Whewell is usually portraied as an anti-Hegelian. This article shows that, despite his criticism for Hegel’s philosophical system, Whewell was influenced by the Hegelian “historical” approach in the Lectures on the History of Philosophy, and by the conception of the progressive development of though (philosophy for Hegel, science for Whewell) as a dialectical unity.
168. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Till Kinzel Segun Afolabi, Transnational Identity, and the Politics of Belonging
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This paper explores the implications of mass migration and the conditions of hybridization for early 21st century Western societies in texts dealing with migrantexperiences. The novel Goodbye Lucille (2007) by the Afro-cosmopolitan writer Segun Afolabi will be explored with respect to the crucial problem of an ethics and politics of belonging, related to the recent controversies surrounding multiculturalism and issues of migration. This text deals with the “in-between world” of migrants and negotiates questions of identity, alienation and belonging in a so-called transcultural/transnational context. The issues raised in Segun Afolabi's fiction are addressed by employing the ways of thinking developed in political philosophy, including recent phenomenological attempts to theorize the notion of “home” and “belonging” (e.g., by Karen Joisten, but also Martin Heidegger) in order to deal with the complexities of the issue. The question, “What constitutes the good life for the individual and the political community?”, needs to be considered by taking into account the current plurality of approaches to forging identitiesin the political sphere as well. The subtlety of literary accounts of this phenomenon – literature may indeed be one of the best diagnostic instrument for studying a society – sheds light, I suggest, on the conditions of politically relevant identity formations. A close reading of literary texts such as those by Afolabi offers an important contribution to a realistic, and therefore complex and complicating, account of our overall situation in the Western world with respect to the politics of belonging.
169. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Mihaela Mocanu How to Write a Scientific Text
170. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Dan Chitoiu The Idea of the Rationality of the World in the European Cultural Horizon
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This article suggests an evaluation of the way by which European Culture understands the idea of rationality of the world. We pursue the consequences of the fact that in this cultural tradition the world is seen as a rational and unitary reality, which exists for the human dialogue as a condition for man’s spiritual growth. We also point out the implications of the affirmation according to which the rationality of the world has multiple virtualities, but its malleability and contingence are brought to the light and put in acts by man, the one who uses these dimensions. We evaluate the importance of these theses from today’s necessity to expand the scientific paradigm of describing the reality, when it is clearly necessary to overcome the classic subject-object duality.
171. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Magda-Elena Samoilă Changes of Paradigm in Education
172. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Sebastian Boţic Is Popper’s ‘Criterion of Demarcation’ outmoded ?
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This paper is concerned with the ′criterion of demarcation′ that Karl Popper put forward, while trying to show that it can be safely said that it is still standing. In doing so, I turn to two main objections to it: a Lakatos-Kuhn vision on the growth of science, and the famous Quine-Duhem thesis. The point that I hopefully made here is that the basic message of this prescriptive method is as respectful as ever, and, although not the subject of this paper, for special emerging fields of knowledge, such us urbanism – my main field of interest, falsifiability can offer the right scientific attitude.
173. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Marţian Iovan The Role of Spiritual Values and Beliefs in the Historical Development of Peoples
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An extremely profound knower of the history of the Romanian people and of humankind as a whole, Vasile Goldiş brought an original contribution to the development of philosophy of history. In this respect, without having attempted to write a treatise or to work out a systematic body of work in the field, he discovered objective grounds or “natural laws” determining the evolution lines for historical events, analyzed the relation between trends in lawmaking and the unifying force of spiritual values, expressed his persuasion regarding historical progress, the need for solidarity among people and peoples until humanity would reach a planetary organization of society, a world state capable of securing universal peace, based on the precept of Christian love and succeeding in bringing the human soul and the divine absoluteness together.
174. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 1
Nicolito A. Gianan Valuing the emergence of Ubuntu philosophy
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The article aims to support the notion of philosophy emerging from culture; a notion that paves the way for the emergence of ubuntu as a philosophy from an African culture. Understanding this emergence is vital in the manner a particular human community relates with itself and other communities worldwide. Moreover, the idea of ubuntu has become a philosophy that is in dialogue with culture. Hence, from the writer’s punto de vista, this stance further strengthens the argument affirming the value of African culture from which African philosophy has certainly emerged.
175. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
William Ferraiolo Collective Karma and “Blowback”
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In Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire, Chalmers Johnson offers a prescient analysis of the dangers presented by an unchecked U.S. military-industrial complex and the likely consequences of American interventionism abroad. Blowback’s prescience is revealed by the fact that Johnson predicted escalating terrorist attacks on the United States and its citizens prior to the tragedies of September 11, 2001. He goes on to predict the likely decline and ultimate collapse of what he describes as the “American Empire,” largely as a result of the socio-economic consequences of hyper-militarism and growing anti-American sentiment resulting, at least in part, from America’s aggressive militarism and persistent socio-economic meddling abroad. In this paper, I attempt to formulate the “consequences of American empire” as the fruit of what some Buddhists have termed “collective karma”. A proper analysis of collective karma will, I contend, illuminate the role of America’s military and economic imperialism as causal antecedents of “Blowback,” and will also help us grasp the degree to which American citizens unknowingly (or unthinkingly) support the U.S. military-industrial complex that virtually ensures resentment, hostility, and, ultimately, the collapse of the “empire” – and, with that collapse, the reaping of the bitter fruit of our collective karma.
176. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Ştefan Gaie Dilemmas of Public Art (strolling around Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc)
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Public Art has represented a rising artistic genre for the last few decades. Art abandoned museums and galleries to conquer the public space, a fact which gave birth to passionate controversies that cannot be approached only in terms of paradigms of art history. Taking Richard Serra’s controversial sculpture, Tilted Arc, as an example, this article aims at tracing, by means of an interdisciplinary approach, the challenges that public art has been confronted with in the contemporary city.
177. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Thor Olav Olsen On Humanization of Life
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To go on in the business of living, man needs a basic certainty. This is what I interpret as metaphysics. A prerequisite for making metaphysics is that you have some understanding of Biography of Philosophy. On the other hand, life is not a pre-given entity; it depends on what you do out it. This is the action directed aspects of life. In short, what I am arguing for is that the human being itself is the foundation for every story we tell and re-tell about what we have done, and what we are doing in review of our plans and project for the future.
178. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Daniel Ungureanu Sayyid Qutb's Ideological Influence On Contemporary Muslim Communities Across Western Europe
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Sayyid Qutb promoted the idea of a pan-Islamic state, governed solely by the shari'a (Islamic law) as an idea whose time has come, in an era of trans-national ideologies. He argues that all contemporary societies returned to state of jahiliyya or pre-Islamic ignorance, in which authority and primacy of God have been replaced by other sources of authority, justifying this way the launch of jihad. As stated Qutb, jihad against unbelievers is wearing by sword and spear and against the hypocrites by argument and word.
179. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Nicolae Râmbu The Puerilism. An Axiological Approach
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Theoreticians of civilization have defined a series of anomalies of the European culture as cultural maladies. But this notion was used from author to author with very different meanings, being vaguely defined or used as a simple metaphor. In the ideological discourse of the Third Reich the references to the maladies of the European culture are frequently correlated to the references to the savior Reich. The present study suggests the concept of axiological malady in order to designate more precisely a series of unhealthy phenomenon of the European culture, for instance the puerilism.
180. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Erdoğan Kaya, Nazlı Gökçe Environmental Education Projects Conducted at Primary Schools in Turkey
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Projects conducted at primary schools are of great importance in environmental education. In this study, interviews were carried out with teachers who were theparticipants of particular environmental projects. This survey study is conducted through a descriptive research method, namely, semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed descriptively. The study revealed that teachers felt environmental education projects made various contributions to students, schools, school staff, teachers, parents, and the school environment. However, it was discovered that teachers experienced some problems in project implementation. The solutions offered by teachers who experienced these problems were also determined.