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181. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 5/6
Józef Hen, Natalia Janota, Benjamin Borek The Royal Constitution
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Stanisław August Poniatowski (1732–1798) was the last king of Poland. He reigned from 1764 to 1795 and, during this time the first Polish constitution, the first in Europe, was established. These excerpts come from Hen’s book My Friend the King (Mój Przyjaciel Król). The book is narrated by the fictional Gaston Fabre, who is a close confidant of the King and is privy to all the turmoil and machinations at Court in months and years preceding the signing of the constitution.
182. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 5/6
Józef L. Krakowiak Instead of an Editorial: The European Spirit of Polish Culture and Universalism as a Metaphilosophy
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For my part I seek the metaphilosophical in universalism in the interdisciplinariness concept typical for ecology and system and information theory. I reject monologue as a form of hegemony and propose dialogue as an interpersonal path for seekers and cocreators of truth. I accept relational and reject substantialistic ontologies and all absolutism, including virtues, in an attempt to make room for the quest for common values attainable by those who identify with them on multiple levels (the universalism of Paul of Tarsis). Hence, basing on humanity’s cultural and civilizational multiplicity, I analyze the Europeanism idea through the prism of centripetal and centrifugal forces, locating “Polish” elements on this path. On one hand I approach Europeanism as the most immediate of the environments which reflect and make understandable the spiritual aspects of Polishness, on the other hand I suggest that many of its aspects should be avoided.Nonetheless I commend the disclosure and sustainance of the separateness of ethical norms developed by the ancient Greek from the legal norms instituted by Rome and the religious norms imposed on our western civilization by Christianity. This is something other civilizations lack and what bars them from more intensive participation in humanity’s advancement towards universal civilization—no longer seen as monopolistic, as in the ecological perspective this would only enhance mankind’s destruction. From the Polish perspective the most valuable Europeanism aspects are diversity, methodology in the quest for truth in philosophy, religion and science, openness to the objective products of the human spirit (which Islamic civilization opposed), and a strong accent on praxis.To close I will allow myself reference to Janusz Kuczyński’s Polishness Decalogue, an attempt to analyze the Polish “national spirit” and pinpoint those universal aspects of “Polishness” which—as clusters of empirical, social, theoretical and cultural facts—still fill Polish hearts with pride. Here, as we can see, the initially concretized universality criterion ultimately becomes an applied valuation category. Hence, universalism as a meta-philosophy appears to be a philosophy of essence, not fact, and therefore not subject to valuation.
183. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 5/6
Jørgen Knudsen My Essence Intensified—Georg Brandes’ Polish Impressions
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The Danish critic Georg Brandes (1842–1927) visited Warsaw in 1885 and 1886, with the pretext of lecturing—in French—on modern literature, making thereby the Polish cause for freedom his own. It was his endeavor not to take sides in the smoldering strife between radical and catholic circles, freedom from the brutal Russian regime being the chief common issue. During his second visit he lectured on Polish literature, though only knowing it through translations. This demonstration of solidarity was received with enthusiasm.In his book Impressions from Poland—Danish 1888, in English, German and Polish 1898—he gives a vivid description of the Polish passion for freedom, not hiding more negative sides of the national character as he found them, such as improvidence and bohemianism. The book was understood as an act of solidarity, and during a visit to Krakow in 1898 he was hailed as the spokesman of freedom and one of the few West-European supporters of the Polish cause.When, by November 1914, Brandes learned about Polish religious pogroms he did not hesitate to condemn them in two articles born by indignation. The articles, immediately published in many languages, aroused much attention worldwide, at the same time costing him most of his Polish popularity.
184. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 5/6
Kacper Sokołowski On Andrzej Trzebiński’s Literary Output
185. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 5/6
Olga Dmitrievna Bazhenova, Lena Sisking, Beata Elwich, Krystyna Gutowska The Reconstruction of the Corpus Christi Interior in Nieśwież as an Example of European Cultural Space Continuity
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The paper reports on the state of Polish and Belarusian scientists’ research on eighteenth century reconstruction and pictorial decorations of the Corpus Christ Church in Nieśwież. On the basis of the inquiry conducted based on Belarusian, Polish and American archives, the author forms a new hypothesis that the reconstruction and church decoration was done by a North Italian architect, Maurizio Pedetti. This hypothesis reveals the network of European artistic and ideological connections, part of which became Nieśwież through the artistic patronage of the Radziwiłł family.
186. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 5/6
Henri Bartoli La S.E.C. aujourd’hui et demain
187. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 7/8
Yu Xuanmeng An Ordinary Man with an Exceptional Ideal for Our Time: An Appreciation
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This essay was contributed to the celebration of Father Mclean’s 75th birth day in a volume To the Mountain—essay in honor of Professor George F. Mclean (Fu Jen Catholic University Press, Taiwan, 2004.) In this essay I recalled what I knew of him by personal contact. As I wrote this essay, I was moved myself by his personality. Just as it says on the preface of the volume, “Over the past 40 years, George Mclean has helped to establish contacts and build relations with philosophers in most of the countries of the world, and hundreds—indeed, thousands—of scholars are in his debt”, I am one of those hundreds, or thousands scholars in his debt. I am sure people may tell their own story about Professor George Mclean as they know themselves.
188. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 7/8
Tadeusz Tołłoczko “HOMO HOMINI RES SACRA”
189. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 7/8
Marek Nowak Poznanian School of Dialogue
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Theological Faculty of the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań organized a series of sessions devoted to problems of dialogue. Professor Baniak, the main organizer of those meetings, invited philosophers, theologians, pedagogues, psychologists and other intellectuals/scientists, whose area of interest was dialogue. The first conference took place in June 2001, the last in June 2007, and organizers have a hope that the endeavor would be continued. Lectures given at conferences were devoted to many subjects—classical philosophy of dialogue, dialogue in theological thought, interreligious dialogue etc.
190. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 7/8
Wacław Hryniewicz “BUT THE PROBLEM REMAINS”. John Paul II and the universalism of the hope for salvation
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This article shows that Christianity in its perception of eschatological events has early on given up the concept of therapeutic and corrective punishment, turning to the idea of vindictive and retributive punishment. Similarly to other Churches, the Roman Catholic Church in its teachings does not officially support the hope for universal salvation. Pope John Paul II developed his eschatological thinking in a careful way; he did not close the way to further search. The Pope reminded that former councils discarded the theory of apokatastasis (teaching that all creature would be saved), but admitted that “the problem remains”. He attempted at retaining the tension existing between the New Testament statement on the general intention of God to save all humankind and Christ’s words on the “eternal punishment” awaiting people lost through their own egoism and insensitivity to others. In the Pope’s teachings, traditional concepts are interwoven with new accents which correct the false idea of God as the cause of damnation and the creator of eternal hell. Hell is not a punishment imposed by God, but a state of final self-exclusion from communion with God. According to Pope, hell is above all a moral postulate, a requirement of justice in view of terrible human crimes which must not go unpunished. A final punishment is to serve the retention of moral balance in the history of humanity.The author of this article argues that all those in favor of the hope for universal salvation do not, by any means, preach impunity or mandatory amnesty. One has to bear the consequence of one’s evil actions. Moral consciousness is saved. Salvation is not a necessity or a compulsion but a God’s gift that has to be accepted freely. God does not remain entirely helpless in view of human freedom. He can attract it to Himself, purify it and transform it through His patient and boundless love. This can happen only through unimaginable suffering and terrible torment which, in human terms, can be even called eternal, taking whole centuries due to their quality and intensity, as suggested by the very Greek term aiōnios. It is a torment directed at correction and healing, which is prompted by the Greek term kólasis in Christ’s parable on the final judgment. The position of John Paul II betrays his internal split between the hope for universal salvation and the reality of eternal damnation. The studies instigated by the Church’s great minds caused also his anxiety, but as a pope and a teacher he wanted to keep faith with the teachings of councils and the traditional interpretation of biblical texts. The author of the article is convinced that the Christianity of the future will at some pointachieve greater courage in its attitude to eschatological issues. The pedagogics of hope and mercy might then take the place of pedagogics of fear of God and eternal hell.
191. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 7/8
Hu Yeping George Francis McLean: A Philosopher in the Service of Humanity
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The paper presents George McLean’s life and his extraneously rich activities in various fields, but first and foremost his endeavors to create conditions for dialogue, communication, and cooperation in philosophy and in all social life.
192. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 7/8
Zbigniew Wendland The Rise and Essence of Universalism as a Metaphilosophy and Social Movement
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This paper discusses how Universalism came into being as a metaphilosophy and social movement, and outlines its main characteristics, meaning and content. The paper’s central theme is the accentuation of the two main aspects of Universalism. The first aspect is the key role of dialogue in Universalism. The second is the belief that Universalism is first and foremost a social movement, rather than a philosophical doctrine. In outlining the origins of Universalism, the invaluable role of Professor Kuczyński as its originator is emphasized. The rest of the paper discusses Universalism’s other important characteristics, namely: (1) the quest for truth, (2) the principle of dialogue, (3) a practical approach to scientific knowledge and philosophy, (4) its interdisciplinary nature, (5) patriotism, (6) Europeanism, (7) concern over ecological issues, (8) concern for human beings, (9) a permanent alliance between Universalism, Catholic social science and Christian personalism.
193. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 7/8
Piotr Bołtuć Global Learning Environment in Philosophy
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In this paper I present my thesis stated numerous times at APA and NACAP meetings, that the current shortage of online programs in philosophy presents adanger to the profession. I also show how this danger could be averted. I give a snapshot of what teaching philosophy online, and doing it well, looks like. I am a very partial spectator in this debate since the example I am referring to is the program at UIS which I designed and, with my colleagues, led to successful implementation. Finally, I draw a broad brush picture of what an inter-campus, international online program in philosophy may look like (as well as some implications for online learning in Poland).
194. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 7/8
George F. McLean In Search of the Complementarity of the Secular and the Sacred
195. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 7/8
Napoleon Ono Imaah The Unity of Opposites in Architecture: John Paul II in Laborem Exercens
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The epic life of Pope John Paul II touches virtually all aspects of the human being in time and space. His successful world outreach achieves unprecedented superlative proportions in his search for universal harmonies among peoples, cultures and religions. Significantly, his death confirms the success of his positive mission on the Earth as his death caused an extraordinary unity of people, cultures, and religions during his funeral. No one else has unified such opposing opposites in a memorial service in a millennium! Thus, Pope John Paul II by his calling served the sacred; his deeds achieve a synchronized symphony of the sacred and secular. This paper examines the views of Pope John Paul II, as expressed in Laborem Excercens, through the concept of the unity of oppositesin sacred and secular architecture.
196. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 17 > Issue: 7/8
Johannes Paulus PP. II Laborem exercens – 1981.09.14
197. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1/3
Józef Dębowski Global, Fundamental… and Rational? On Jan Srzednicki’s New Epistemological Perspective
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I analyze only few elements of Srzednicki’s “new epistemology”. I especially appreciate the thesis of transcendentalism and of demanding of the depersonalization of epistemology. In my opinion, the trial of founding cognition on non-cognitive factors is an irrelevant. It leads to irrationalism, as in the case of praxism, Marxism, psychoanalysis, or cognitive sociology. In this lies a critical difficulty of Srzednicki’s “new epistemology”. The main difficulty was acceptance the narrow, analytical idea of knowledge. It implicates the acceptance of a field of evidence (intuition, experience) as a noncognitive one. Another problem with “new epistemology” is propositionalism, and idea that all cognition is external to its object.
198. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1/3
Maciej Soin Epistemology after Wittgenstein
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Following Grażyna Żurkowska’s work presenting Jan Srzednicki’s views on Wittgenstein’s philosophy (Epistemologia po Wittgensteinie. Nowa perspektywa epistemologiczna Jana Srzednickiego, Wydawnictwo UMCS, Lublin 2006) [Epistemology after Wittgenstein. A New Epistemological Perspective by Jan Srzednicki], the author of this paper ponders the effect of Wittgenstein’s conception upon the domain of epistemology. According to Srzednicki, such an effect is in having posed a skeptical challenge which opened a new epistemological perspective. The author is critical toward this approach and argues that the most genuine intention behind Wittgenstein’s investigations was to draw attention to the diversity of such our concepts as cognition, knowledge, truth, etc. Such diversity is not a challenge but a fact which needs to be accounted for in epistemological studies.
199. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1/3
Maciej Chlewicki What the Skeptic Doubts
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The paper offers a critical analysis of the skeptic’s conviction that his doubts about the truth of thought on existence of the world outside the mind are not equivalent to real the doubts about existence of the world alone, but they are only a theoretical and speculative problem of knowledge. The main case of this criticism is based on the Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz’s philosophy, precisely, on his theory of truth.
200. Dialogue and Universalism: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1/3
Rafał Patryn An Aspect of Philosophy of Law in Wittgenstein’s Theory of the Meaning
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Wittgenstein’s philosophy endeavored to define the role of language as communicative. Language became an original “code” of multifarious meanings and designations but it is also a code which entails emotions and different sorts of internal and external reactions of an individual. The mechanism of penalty and the notion of penalty have invariably raised emotions and meaningful reactions. The analysis focuses on a short derivation of the notion of penalty. It considers its functions, basic tasks and external impact—a short word revealing so many actions and social behaviors.