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21. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 49 > Issue: 3
Olga Koshovets, Taras Varkhotov О.Б. Кошовец
Experiments without Concrete: The Case of Economics
Эксперименты без материи

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The article examines the question whether the economic discipline can be regarded as a kind of natural science it strives to be, taking into consideration the interpretation of an economic model as a kind of a thought experiment and closer connection between thought experiment and experimentation. The authors turn to epistemological analysis of thought experiments both in natural sciences and in economics and consider the historical background of this research tool and its relations with the experimentation practice. The study shows that the use of thought experiments in the economic theory and in natural sciences are fundamentally different. In natural science the thought experiment has never been detached from the material experimentation. On contrary, in economics it is used as an isolated procedure. However, isolated thought experiment is not a full-fledged research tool for studying the reality, as in that case it will affect some troubles with realism and practical efficiency of the research results. Rather, it constitutes the instrument for structuring or «mapping» the field of inquiry and can give results with social-constructive capacities.
22. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 50 > Issue: 4
Enrique Villanueva Э. Вильянуэва
Argument and metaphysics
Рассуждение и метафизика

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This paper explores the idea of linguistic meaning in the case of metaphysical referents or entities, quoting Plato's view assumed by Wittgenstein that there couldn't be a language for metaphysical referents like the Good or God. In order to expose the conceptual situation recourse is made to the thesis of a Logical Proper Name and to the thesis of Private Names as contrasting views of the nature of names and language. Furthermore, it is surmised that the Wittgenstein view helps to realise why there cannot be metaphysical arguments. But all of that is presented in a very sketchy way and has to wait for further development.
23. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 50 > Issue: 4
Daniel Tiskin Д.Б. Тискин
Conditional attitude ascription
Условное приписывание пропозициональных установок

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Many theories of the de dicto / de re ambiguity for quantifiers and descriptions follow the tradition started by Kaplan and Lewis in that they make use of notions that are epistemic in nature, such as the notion of acquaintance. This may create the impression that the question about de re in affitude report semantics should always be resolved by looking at the reported affitude; if the latter qualifies as de re according to some epistemological criteria, then also the affitude report may be true de re. The present paper aims to provide an argument to the contrary. The argument proceeds in several steps. First, we point out the existence of a wide range of de re readings (mostly already known from the literature), some of which do not target referential or quantificational expressions at all. Second, we show that the existing analyses either give wrong predictions for such cases, or are incomplete, or at least inelegant. Third, we offer a new analysis (which, as it turns out, has predecessors not united by any single tradition) whose main ingredient is the observation that the right predictions result from modifying the Context Set of the conversation in certain intuitive ways before the affitude report is added to the Common Ground. This is the semantic contribution of the paper. The philosophical upshot is that the reasons for an affitude report being de re at least in some cases have little to do with the grounds on which the corresponding mental state - the affitude itself - qualifies as de re. We also speculate as to how the proposed analysis, which divorces de re'ness from epistemic rapport, may be extended onto more traditional cases.
24. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 50 > Issue: 4
Evgeny Blinov Е.Н. Блинов
“Social engineering of the future”: Evgeniy Polivanov on the principles of early Soviet language building
«Социальная инженерия будущего»

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The article analyzes the project of scientific justification of language Reforms, realized by the Soviet regime in 20s and 30s, elaborated by Russian and Soviet linguist Evgenij Polivanov (1891-1938). Polivanov claims that a Soviet linguist should not limit his interests to the “general linguistics" and become an active “language builder" and “language politician". The reforms should be carefully planned by the experts in language sciences who master as well the methodology of dialectical materialism. In the polemics against Nikolai Marr's Japhetidology Polivanov argued that linguistics is a strict science and its deductions are not contradictory to Marxism, as the latter is primarily a materialist philosophy. His minimal program consisted in explaining his views on the evolution of language in the Marxist terms. The evolution of language is explained by the influence of internal and external factors. The socio-economical factors are not influencing the language in a direct manner, but their analysis allows to change the channel of language evolution. According to Polivanov, the introduction of Marxism into linguistics will make possible to explain the relationship between intralinguistic and extralinguistic factors and will transform the sciences of language into “social engineering of the future".
25. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Walter Schweidler В. Швайдлер
On the sociocultural body of knowledge: Aspects of phenomenological approach to the social philosophy of science
О социокультурном теле знания

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The author defends the anti-representationalist claim that the formation of the proper names (and as a consequence – scientific terms or notions) cannot happen through certain ostensive pointing at some objects given here and now (like in B. Russell’s theory) or through perceptions which are generalized inductively or by means of Kantian apperception or Anschauung. In order to answer the question about the concepts formation we have to take into account the historical and socio-cultural background of the genesis of proper names which form the foundation and boundary of all classifications including the scientific ones. The author claims that there is an important difference between a personal belief or propositional knowledge and some implicit or background knowledge of the language community in its historical development. The first one could be evaluated on its truth / falseness. The second one however – being the foundation for the first one – cannot be evaluated in this manner. It simply is as it is.
26. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 51 > Issue: 1
Alexander Antonovski А.Ю. Антоновский
Social philosophy of science as the guardian of the “incarnation of truth in the world”
Социальная философия науки

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In his paper the author establishes some arguments against the thesis of professor Walter Schweidler. The later defends the anti-representationalist claim that not every kind of knowledge is to evaluate on its truth and falsehood. The author maintains the opposite thesis that the all knowledge including the one about social premises of any kind of science may be evaluated (although not eventually proved) on their truth or falseness.
27. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 54 > Issue: 4
Robert E. Sears Р. Сирс
The Naturalness of Religious Ideas: Soundings from the Cognitive Science of Religion
Естественность религиозных идей

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This paper offers a brief introduction, summary, and commentary on the cognitive science of religion (CSR), a burgeoning, interdisciplinary field of study that examines the way mental resources and predispositions facilitate religious beliefs and behavior. This presentation of CSR devotes special attention to research on teleological bias, agency detection, and counterintuitive concepts; moreover, critical discussions of mystical experience and god concepts ensue from treatments of the latter two topics. Research on teleological bias, agency detection, and counterintuitiveness supports the basic position that religious cognition is natural, although distinctive rationales are associated with each topic of investigation. While the major focus of this article is epistemological – how religious thought develops and is sustained – the conclusion briefly addresses the ontological significance of basic CSR findings.
28. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Amanda Machin, Nico Stehr Аманда Мэчин
On the power of scientific knowledge: Interview with Nico Stehr
О власти научного знания

29. Epistemology & Philosophy of Science: Volume > 55 > Issue: 1
Yulia V. Shaposhnikova, Lada V. Shipovalova Юлия Владимировна Шапошникова
The demarcation problem in the history of science, or what historical epistemology has to say about cultural identification
Проблема демаркации в истории науки, или что может сказать историческая эпистемология о культурной идентификации

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This article discusses mechanisms of demarcation in science, as a case of establishing identity – one of the topical problems of contemporary cultural studies. Evidently, the quality of cultural interaction depends on the status of the other in relation to one’s identity. Contemporary cultural studies distinguish two types of this interaction: exclusion, i.e. suppression of the other as a condi­tion for the formation of one’s identity; and inclusion, a retrieval of the excluded, leading to the transformation of one’s identity. This article claims that the historical epistemology, as a special ap­proach to the history of science, has elaborated a number of strat­egies regulating the relationship of science and non-science in the form of an attitude of present science towards its past. The article examines four of these strategies – three of them construct the identity of science through establishing boundaries and by exclud­ing the other; the fourth presupposes acknowledging the other and endowing it with actuality. The last strategy demonstrates the dialogue between science and its other in action and, more importantly, identifies the necessary condition for the successful interaction – the destruction of a homogeneous scientific identity and allowance of self-identification to continue with­out end. Consequently, study­ing the types of interaction between scientific and non-scientific views in the field of historical epistemology allows one to conceptualize the gen­eral procedure of establishing cultural identification.
30. The Monist: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
31. The Monist: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Philosophy in American Colleges and Universities
32. The Monist: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Alfred Binet The Immortality of Infusoria
33. The Monist: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Lucien Arréat France
34. The Monist: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Max Dessoir The Magic Mirror
35. The Monist: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Book Reviews
36. The Monist: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Ernst Mach The Analysis of the Sensations: Antimetaphysical
37. The Monist: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
George J. Romanes Mr. A. R. Wallace on Physiological Selection
38. The Monist: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
W. M. Salter Höffding on the Relation of the Mind to the Body
39. The Monist: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
Paul Carus The Origin of Mind
40. The Monist: Volume > 1 > Issue: 1
E. D. Cope On the Material Relations of Sex in Human Society