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21. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Chad Bogosian Rowe’s Friendly Atheism and the Epistemology of Religious Disagreement
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In this paper, I engage William Rowe’s “Friendly Atheism” to illuminate the discussion of religious disagreement. I argue that his view gives way to an epistemic principle about how two “intellectual peers” might remain steadfast in what they believe their total available evidence supports and thereby reasonably disagree about their religious beliefs (or lack thereof ). I consider a key objection from Uniqueness thesis proponents and show how there are additional epistemic considerations to help fix the proposed problem.
22. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Jon Matheson Religious Disagreement and Divine Hiddenness
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In this paper, I develop and respond to a novel objection to conciliatory views of disagreement. Having first explained conciliationism and the problem of divine hiddenness, I develop an objection that conciliationism exacerbates the problem of divine hiddenness. According to this objection, conciliationism increases God’s hiddenness in both its scope and severity, and is thus incompatible with God’s existence (or at least make God’s existence quite improbable). I respond to this objection by showing that the problem of divine hiddenness is not made any worse by conciliationism.
23. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
John M. DePoe Hold on Loosely, But Don’t Let Go: Evaluating the Evidential Impact of Religious Disagreement
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The problem of peer disagreement represents a growing challenge to justified religious belief. After surveying the state of the dialectic of the problem, I explore three ways for religious believers to remain steadfast in light of religious disagreement. The first two ways focus on the believer’s basing his religious beliefs on a direct awareness of the truth or evidence of his beliefs. The third way considers the virtue of faith as a means for resisting peer disagreement.
24. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Thomas D. Senor The Uniqueness Argument and Religious Rationality Pluralism
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In this paper, I offer a defense of what I dub “religious rationality pluralism”—that is, that people of various religions can be rational in holding a variety of religious perspectives. I distinguish two arguments against this position: the Uniqueness argument and the Disagreement argument. The aims of this essay are to argue (i) that the Uniqueness thesis is ambiguous between two readings, (ii) that while one version of the thesis is quite plausible, it cannot be successfully used to argue against rationality pluralism, and (iii) the version of the thesis that would support the argument is false.
25. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Helen De Cruz Religious Conversion, Transformative Experience, and Disagreement
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Religious conversion gives rise to disagreement with one’s former self and with family and friends. Because religious conversion is personally and epistemically transformative, it is difficult to judge whether a former epistemic peer is still one’s epistemic peer post-conversion, just like it is hard for the convert to assess whether she is now in a better epistemic position than prior to her conversion. Through Augustine’s De Utilitate Credendi (The Usefulness of Belief) I show that reasoned argument should play a crucial role in assessing the evidential value of religious conversions, both for the person who converts and for her (former) peers.
26. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Robert Audi Religious Disagreement: Structure, Content, and Prospects for Resolution
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Religious disagreement is pervasive in contemporary life, both internationally and inside pluralistic societies. Understanding it requires understanding both what constitutes a religion and what constitutes genuine disagreement. To resolve religious disagreements, we need principles for rationally approaching them and standards for law-making that are fair to all citizens. This paper considers what sorts of evidences parties to a religious disagreement should present if they hope for resolution or at least mutual tolerance. The paper suggests some common ground as a basis for communication and partial agreement on issues likely to divide the religious. It concludes with some ethical principles intended to help those who seek peaceful resolution of religious disagreements in the framework of pluralistic democracy.
27. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Bryan Frances The Epistemology of Real-World Religious Disagreement without Peers
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When you learn that a large body of highly intelligent, fair-minded, reasonable, and relatively unbiased thinkers disagree with you, does that give you good reason to think you’re wrong? Should you think, “Wait a minute. Maybe I’ve missed something here”? Should you at least drastically reduce your confidence? There is a general epistemological problem here regarding controversial beliefs, one that has nothing especially to do with religious belief. I argue that applying this discussion to religion transforms the problem in unexpected and interesting ways, and that the religious believer is often epistemically reasonable in sticking with her controversial belief.
28. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Kirk Lougheed The Epistemic Significance of Disagreement
29. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Derek McAllister The Epistemology of Disagreement: New Essays
30. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Winfried Löffler Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief: Disagreement and Evolution
31. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
Paul Copan The Allure of Gentleness: Defending the Faith in the Manner of Jesus
32. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 20 > Issue: 1
News and Announcements
33. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1
Craig J. Hazen Editor’s Introduction
34. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1
Angus Menuge Knowledge of Abstracta: A Challenge to Materialism
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I argue that materialism is unable to account for knowledge deriving from such abstracta as rules of inference, algorithms, and the ideals of infinity, perfection, and eternity. Both reductive and nonreductive materialism subscribe to the causal closure of the physical world, which implies that a creature’s concepts derive exclusively from the interactions of brains with the physical environment. These resources do not explain the acquisition of abstract concepts or the successful use of these concepts in gaining important knowledge about the world. By contrast, if both God and souls exist, we can understand how knowledge based on abstracta is possible.
35. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1
Travis Dumsday Spatial Extension as a Necessary Condition for Being a Physical Object and Why It Matters for Philosophy of Religion
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What is it for an object to be a physical object? Here I provisionally take up the idea that spatial extension is at least a necessary condition for being a physical object, whether or not it is also sufficient. I then argue for the following conditional proposition: if spatial extension is a necessary condition for being a physical object, then metaphysical naturalism is false. Given that all religious systems affirm the falsity of metaphysical naturalism, this conditional carries obvious significance for philosophy of religion. And if it holds, two possible consequences ensue: for those committed to the idea that spatial extension is a necessary condition for being a physical object, a new disproof of metaphysical naturalism results. By contrast, for those committed to metaphysical naturalism, a new disproof of any extension-based account of the physical results. Either way, we obtain a significant conclusion.
36. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1
John R. Gilhooly Angelology and Nonreductive Dualism
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The traditional distinction between the angelic and human nature rests on the corpo­reality of the human nature. In light of this fact, I compare a paradigm case of pure substance dualism (PSD) and a paradigm case of compound substance dualism (CSD) to the standards of angelology. I argue that CSD provides an intuitive ground for the traditional distinction, whereas PSD fails to distinguish between angels and humans. Given these paradigm cases, angelology gives us a theological reason to prefer some version of CSD to PSD.
37. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1
Blake McAllister Divine Command Theory and Moral Supervenience
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Mark Murphy argues that the property identity version of divine command theory, coupled with the doctrine that God has freedom in commanding, violates the supervenience of the moral on the nonmoral. In other words, they permit two situations exactly alike in nonmoral facts to differ in moral facts. I give three arguments to show that a divine command theorist of this sort can consistently affirm moral supervenience. Each argument contends that there are always nonmoral differences between worlds with different divine commands. If there are such nonmoral differences, then there’s no conflict between divine command theory and moral supervenience.
38. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1
Philip A. Reed Pleasing People: A Christian Consideration
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This paper examines and evaluates from a Christian perspective the common Christian presumption against pleasing people, which is roughly the idea that Christians should not be motivated by or delight in the favorable opinion of others. I argue that several ways of saving the idea that Christians can blamelessly care what others think about them are misguided or insufficient. I contend that the most important way to save this idea is by drawing attention to concern for the opinions of others in the context of a social role.
39. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1
Myles Werntz Terrorism and the Peace of Christ: Seeking Pacifism’s Future in Theory and Practice
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Christian pacifism has often been construed as quietist and unconcerned with public order. By using the trifold categories of ad bellum, in bello, and post bellum used by just war theorists, I offer an account of how Christian pacifists might have a more full and active witness to the peace of Christ in times of conflict without abandoning their core convictions.
40. Philosophia Christi: Volume > 18 > Issue: 1
Paul Copan Just War as Deterrence against Terrorism?: Options from Theological Ethics
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The increased terrorist threat troubles all right-thinking persons. Terrorism also raises particular theological and ethical questions for Christians. Is the use of (lethal) force ever permissible? Is there a difference between the individual Christian’s response to personal enemies and the Christian serving in an official capacity (for example, soldiering, policing) to stop (terrorist) threats to a nation or society? Jesus’s commands to “turn the other cheek” and “not resist evil” are understood differently by the just warrior and pacifist camps. This article sets the stage for related articles in this issue by describing the features of “terrorism,” Christian “pacifism,” and the Christian “just war” position as well as some of the attendant tensions and challenges.