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21. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 10
David Concepción An Uncommon Decade: Letter from the Managing Editor
22. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 10
Juli K. Thorson, Sarah E. Vitale Learning From Experience: Letter from the Managing Editors of Stance X
23. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 11
Julian Rome Trans Men & Trans Women: The Role of the Personal History in Self-Identification
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This paper addresses one of the ways in which transgender individuals identify with respect to personal history, living “stealth,” whereby transgender individuals do not disclose their transgender status (that is, they present themselves as cisgender), oftentimes no longer considering themselves transgender. Individuals who live stealth are often criticized for inauthenticity; thus, this paper analyses Sartrean notions of authenticity and personal history, thereby arguing that the person who lives stealth is not living inauthentically but rather is constituting their conception of self through their past, present, and future projects.
24. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 11
Peter Heft When Language Breaks: A Heideggerian Analysis of Grice's Cooperative Principle
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In “Logic and Conversation,” H. P. Grice posits that in conversations, we are “always-already” implying certain things about the subjects of our words while abiding by certain rules to aid in understanding. It is my view, however, that Grice’s so-called “cooperative principle” can be analyzed under the traditional Heideggerian dichotomy of ready-to-hand and present-at-hand wherein language can be viewed as a “mere” tool that sometimes breaks. Ultimately, I contend that the likening of language to a tool allows for a more robust understanding of it and conversational failures, while ontologically recategorizing language as an object of sorts.
25. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 11
Daniel Saunders Durkheim’s Relational Account Of Social Ontology
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Secondary commentators on Emile Durkheim have interpreted his ontology in conflicting and contradictory ways. Some have claimed that he treats social entities as mysterious substances which exist over and above individuals. Others claim he is ontologically committed to exactly nothing more than individuals. Few studies have carefully analyzed his ontological commitments in detail, and the conventional wisdom on the issue leaves much to be desired. I argue Durkheim holds neither a substance nor an individualist view of social ontology. Instead, he is committed to the reality of emergent social relations which form the proper subject matter of sociology
26. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 11
Dallas Jokic Critique And Intersubjectivity
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In light of the allegations of sexual misconduct and harassment made against Harvey Weinstein and other powerful men in recent months, this paper will examine how men might take on responsibility for themselves and a culture that enables these patterns of abuse. It will draw primarily on the work of Judith Butler, Luce Irigaray, and Emmanuel Levinas to develop a model of responsibility that has three primary stages: taking ownership of past actions, critiquing gendered power relations, and learning how to foster relationships that are “intersubjective.”
27. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 11
Emily Mastragostino Ceci N’est Pas Une Atheist: A Nietzschean Analysis Of “Atheism” In Memes
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In The Gay Science Nietzsche famously writes that “God is dead.” Modern atheists, including “Internet Atheists,” have taken this as their epithet. I argue that the perpetuation of the statement “God is dead” contradicts the atheistic core, such that Internet Atheists parallel theists in identity construction. Insights from Nietzsche, Jean Luc Nancy, Sigmund Freud, and Christopher Hitchens allow for an exploration of the theistic underpinnings of Internet Atheists. The doctrine of Internet Atheism, as it is represented in humorous online depictions of God, suggests an inability to confront the consequences of the death of God, an inability which Nietzsche warns against in the Parable of the Madman.
28. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 11
Benjamin M. Slightom The House Has Eyes: Or How Objects Haunt Our Present
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Human beings cannot bear the thought of no longer being the center of the universe; Martin Heidegger’s ontology validates the construction of a world that subjugates non-human objects to a role which reinforces our own position. In this paper, two personal experiences of objects which contradict traditional construals of “subjectivity” will be explored and analyzed in light of contemporary uncertainty around Heidegger’s ontology. Ultimately, I seek to complicate and show the radical dependence humans have on the constructed—or, “second”—subjectivity of objects and how we use them to validate the world as we wish it to be seen.
29. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 11
Sam Traylor Living with the Dying, Being With the Dead
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Though Heidegger largely informs his conceptions of being and time through an analytic of the phenomenology of death, he treats death as an entirely personal experience. Through Robert Pogue Harrison’s Dominion of the Dead, and Tolstoy’s The Death of Ivan Ilyich, this essay examines the death of others, and how the experience of another’s death informs the life of the living. The death of others is the possibility of a shift in the world of the living; this possibility for the living arises primarily through relationship with the corpse.
30. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 11
Christopher Humphreys On Methodologies of Resisting Testimonial Injustice
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Testimonial injustice, in its most pernicious form, subjects a speaker to identity-prejudicial deficits in the credibility that is rightly due their testimony. This paper compares two prominent accounts of testimonial injustice to determine which achieves the best understanding of the phenomenon and how it can be combatted. Where Fricker’s focus is limited to strictly epistemic wrongs, Medina’s analysis extends to the pertinent non-epistemic elements central to the injustice. Thus, Medina’s methodology is better-suited to the task of phenomenological analysis, and positions us to achieve a more complete understanding of what injustice has been perpetrated, and of how to resist it.
31. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 11
Kate Kennedy Ideal Cognition: A Narrowly Constrained Relative Pragmatism
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Both the nature and aim of human cognition are philosophically divisive topics. On one side, there are the evidentialists who believe that the sole purpose of cognition is to seek and find truths. In contrast, pragmatists appeal to cognition solely as a tool, something that helps people achieve their goals. In this paper, I put forward an account of cognition and its aims fundamentally based on a pragmatic viewpoint. Crucially, however, I claim that an evolutionary pragmatic picture of cognition must assert rationality as a core tenant of human thought, mooring a relative pragmatism within a system logic and rationality.
32. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 11
Gerald Nelson The Diversity Initiative as Anti-Revolutionary Project
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Through diversity initiatives, academia and business have recruited many new talented individuals from historically underrepresented communities. These institutions are now in the position of possessing, managing, and deploying a massive amount of diverse talent. We examine what we may expect from these institutions as they continue to absorb diverse talent, as well as what we can expect from these talented individuals as they become a newly established class.
33. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 11
David Chalmers Thinking Just Happens: An Interview with David Chalmers, PhD
34. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 2
Jason Huber Rethinking the Binary of Pure Objectivity and Relativistic Chaos
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This paper seeks to refute some of the common presuppositions of traditional Western epistemologies, which center on the claim that subjectivity cannot be as truth-yielding as "objectivity." This paper argues that aspects of the subjective can effectively be utilized in a valid epistemology attempting to approach an understanding of the truth of lived human experience—i.e. that subjectivity can in certain circumstances be as truth-yielding as, or even more so than, the epistemic ideal of objectivity. Ultimately, this paper concludes that the objective-subjective epistemic binary is artificial and disadvantageous in that neither pure objectivity nor absolute relativity are possible.
35. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 2
Amanda Anais Ruiz Generation Lobotomy: Kinase Inhibition Therapy, Memory Erasure and Identity Loss
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This paper primarily explores the ethical debate surrounding the use of memory erasure for therapeutic ends. It argues that procedures such as kinase inhibition therapy, which can entail memory erasure in the individual, incur a high cost in terms of the integrity of our individual identities, thus jeopardizing our claim to individual rights and accountability. Therefore, we should reserve such therapies for the extreme cases in which the procedures have the potential to actually restore a person’s autonomy. Furthermore, this paper goes on to explore which situations might fit this criterion, while still accounting for the cost of memory erasure in each instance.
36. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 2
Benjamin Holvey The Skeptic’s Guide to the Genealogy
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This paper seeks to evaluate Nietzsche’s positive ethical vision through a focus on the plausibility of his moral-historical account as it appears in On the Genealogy of Morals. It is then argued that Nietzsche’s account of the “slave revolt in morality” contains shortcomings that necessitate further inquiry into Nietzsche’s consequent ethical vision. Furthermore, the paper goes on to demonstrate that if a proper historical context for the “slave revolt in morality” cannot be identified, or if it cannot be shown that Nietzsche’s ethical vision can stand without such a context, then a neo-Nietzschean ethic must be set aside.
37. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 2
Beth Mendenhall The Environmental Crises: Why We Need Anthropocentrism
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In the face of an ensuing environmental crisis, this paper suggests that currently accepted modes of environmentalist thought have not been effective enough in enacting positive change. Anthropocentrism provides something that environmental philosophy needs – wide acceptance and public appeal. This paper argues that an environmental ethic that is weakly anthropocentric, in that it finds value in the environment via human values, can be both internally consistent and highly pragmatic. It goes on to examine some pitfalls of Deep Ecological environmental philosophy, which could be avoided if a weakly anthropocentric environmental ethic were adopted now.
38. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 2
Desiree Valentine Visualizing a Critical Mixed-Race Theory
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In this paper, questions regarding the cultural understanding of mixed race are explored, which have the ability to complicate the accepted portrayal of race in society as a black/white binary system. Thus, the acknowledgement of something other than this binary system offers new ways of theorizing about race, particularly concerning the sociopolitical implications of mixed-race designation. This paper argues that the visually mixed-race person has a certain direct ability to challenge the binary and its racist logic. Furthermore, this paper goes on to offer a unique interpretation of where power for working against a racially oppressive system lies within critical mixed-race theory.
39. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 2
Allison Glasscock A Consistent Consolation: True Happiness in Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy
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This paper seeks to defend Philosophy’s account of true happiness in Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy. Although philosopher John Marenbon claims that Philosophy provides Boethius with two conflicting accounts of happiness, this paper argues that she consistently advocates a single account of true happiness. Ultimately, the paper claims that Marenbon is mistaken in his interpretation of Philosophy account of true happiness. What Marenbon interprets as an alternate account of the nature of true happiness is actually a component of Philosophy’s dialectical method and not a separate account.
40. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 2
Douglas Romney Morality with an Accent
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In this paper, the difficulties inherent in the debate between moral nativists and antinativists, who differ in their beliefs on the nature of systems of morality, are shown to exemplify the need for philosophers to support their views with empirical data. Furthermore, it proposes that an empirical study of first-generation immigrant populations has the potential to resolve the debate over moral nativism, as it would allow researchers to observe the moral “critical period.” Based on the recent philosophical advances made through experimental evidence, this paper goes on to argue that empirical data is a valuable source of information from which philosophers ought to draw.