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21. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
Kate Fitch Public Relations Student Perceptions of Ethics
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Public relations is often perceived as unethical, yet professional associations and educators position the industry as an ethical profession. The aim of this paper is to investigate the perceptions of public relations students (N = 45) in a communication school in Australia towards ethics. Research involving a survey and a focus group found that students perceived public relations ethics depended on a negotiation between practitioners’ responsibilities to stakeholders and theirclient or employer organisation, and broader societal expectations. They perceived professional codes of ethics to be of limited value and the development of ethical understanding as incremental over the course of their studies. The findings suggest ethics should be scaffolded in public relations education, the social impact of public relations activity should be emphasised and the limitations of professional codes highlighted.
22. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
John Schatzel, Claus Dierksmeier Teaching Business Ethics Through Social Audit Simulations
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This paper reports on a preliminary investigation of the pedagogical uses and possibilities of interactive ethics audit simulations. We want to foster experience-based learning in business ethics and examine how simulated social audits of corporations can be useful supplements to traditional textbook-oriented pedagogy. We argue that social audit simulations may offer many benefits for business ethics instruction, especially when it comes to developing ethical literacy for institutionally complex and morally complicated multi-stakeholder scenarios. We conclude that ethics education based on broadly accepted standards of social accountability (SA8000, GRI, ISO 26000, SOX 404) should be advanced through audit-simulation technology. Thus certain decision-making problems, which students might encounter in the real world, can be studied in the classroom. Our research contributes to the field in several ways. It describes a new avenue for self-directed learning that encourages critical thinking about ethical issues and complex stakeholder scenarios in an enjoyable, interesting and safe way. Moreover, it emphasizes “soft” skill development, and empowers students to advance their skills through exploration, practice, and learning from their mistakes. By advancing the pedagogical toolkit of educators, this new interactive technology can improve awareness of how codes of business ethics should work in the real world and inspire further scholarly debate and research.
23. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
Jo Ann Oravec Gaming Google: Some Ethical Issues Involving Online Reputation Management
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Using the search engine Google to locate information linked to individuals and organizations has become part of everyday functioning. This article addresses whether the “gaming” of Internet applications in attempts to modify reputations raises substantial ethical concerns. It analyzes emerging approaches for manipulation of how personally-identifiable information is accessed online as well as critically-important international differences in information handling. Itinvestigates privacy issues involving the data mining of personally-identifiable information with search engines and social media platforms. Notions of “gaming” and “manipulation” have negative connotations as well as instrumental functions, which are distinguished in this article. The article also explores ethical matters engendered by the expanding industry of reputation management services that assist in these detailed technical matters. Ethical dimensions of online reputation are changing in the advent of reputation management, raising issues such as fairness and legitimacy of various information-related practices; the article provides scenarios and questions for classroom deliberation.
24. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
Nava Subramaniam, Lisa McManus, Robyn Cameron Using a Web-Based, Longitudinal Approach for Teaching Accounting Ethics Education
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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of an innovative web-based ethics module that was designed to integrate ethics education across four accounting courses over two years (second and third year courses) in a large Australian tertiary institution. Approach: The approach taken in designing the ethics web-based module was to base the foundations of the module on Rest’s (1976) ethical behavior model with the adoption of a longitudinal approach to thecoverage of financial reporting ethical issues. Practical Implications: The key objectives of the module are to improve students’ awareness and sensitivity to accounting ethics, and to foster student learning in an interesting and stimulating manner, leading to in-depth understanding of accounting ethics. Originality/value of paper: This paper provides a description of an original web-based approach to delivering ethics education to accounting students across four university courses. Its value lies in not only the innovative and interactive ethics education approach but also in providing feedback from students and the profession.
25. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
R. Greg Bell, K. Matthew Gilley, John Médaille Ethics and Institutions: Taking a Closer Look at Rewards
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The ethical culture of any organization is not simply a reflection of its mission statement or even its code of conduct. Rather, the real ethics of institutions are often embedded in their reward systems. We suggest how ethics professors can lead students to develop a greater understanding of rewards by providing a review of various forms of organizational rewards. We also offer insights into how professors can compare reward systems in their classes. We conclude by addressing a number of pedagogical approaches that are useful in equipping ethics students with awareness and understanding of reward systems’ power and influence on employee attitudes and behaviors surrounding ethical decision making.
26. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
Tara L. Ceranic, Ivan Montiel, Wendy S. Cook Grenada Chocolate Company: Big Decisions for a Young Social Enterprise on a Small Island
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Three partners founded the Grenada Chocolate Company (GCC) in 1999: Mott Green, Doug Browne and Edmond Brown. Several years ago Doug passed away of cancer and in June 2013 Mott suffered a fatal electrocution while repairing a piece of equipment. Edmond was now thrust into the leadership position and left to decide what direction GCC should take. The GCC product line was becoming increasingly popular both on the island and internationally and demand was high,but the original vision for the company was to produce bean-to-bar chocolates while providing a fair wage to the local employees and farmers. Expansion could be an option for Edmond and GCC, but was it possible to expand and stay true to the ideas on which GCC was founded?
27. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
Stacie Chappell, Mark G. Edwards, Dave Webb Sustaining Voices: Applying Giving Voice to Values to Sustainability Issues
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We apply an action-oriented approach to business ethics education, Giving Voice to Values (GVV), to the topic of sustainability. The increasingly problematic impact of unsustainable economic activity is demanding actionable responses from business. However, traditional business ethics education has focussed on awareness and decision-making and neglected action-oriented methods. The GVV curriculum offers an applied and process-driven ethics approach thatcomplements more analytical ethics pedagogies. Because of its focus on action and expressing personal values, GVV can be thought of as largely applicable to the micro-level of interpersonal interactions. This paper illustrates GVV’s potential for much broader application by presenting two caselettes spanning the micro-level of workplace refurbishment to the global-level of the mass dumping of electronic waste. Ways of crafting conversations around these sustainability issues are presented and implications of the GVV approach for both the teaching and practice of sustainability ethics are discussed.
28. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
David Ohreen Rationalism and a Vygotskian Alternative to Business Ethics Education
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Studies have shown ethics education has not systematically improved the moral reasoning of business students and professionals and, therefore, its effectiveness should be seen as deeply questionable. Business ethics education has limited effect, in part, because it rests on rationalistic traditions within normative ethics, business theory, and cognitive psychology. Emphasis is usually placed on student’s rationally thinking about issues as a way of improving their critical analysis and reasoning skills. Yet by focusing primarily on its cognitive dimension, ethics education has tended to underdetermine the importance of social interaction in moral development. As an alternative to traditional business ethics education, using the work of the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky, I argue, that peer influence through a dialogical process is a better way to enhance and improve the moral reasoning and judgement of individuals. More specifically, small-group dialogue with peers encourages deep reflection about business dilemmas and has a direct influence on how one thinks about ethics.
29. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
Marlene M. Reed, Rochelle R. Brunson Alleged Board Insider Trading: The Case of Rajat Gupta
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This case recounts the story of Rajat Gupta, a Goldman Sachs board member and seniorpartner emeritus of McKinsey & Co., who was accused by the government of giving critical nonpublicfinancial information to Raj Rajaratnam, Galleon Group founder, during the financial crisisof 2008. The information passed along to Rajaratnam was about a pending $5 billion investment byWarren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway in Goldman Sachs at a time when its stock had been faltering.The government alleged that based on this information, Rajaratnam purchased a large number ofshares in the company and then sold them when the deal became public and Goldman’s stock rose.Rajaratnam purportedly made $18 million on these trades.
30. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
A. Scott Carson A Framework for Business Ethics Education
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Business schools are frequently blamed for corporate ethical scandals by failing to develop integrity and critical ethical thinking skills in managers. What should business schools teach to address this? The paper proposes a framework for the development and evaluation of a business ethics curriculum, which is grounded on the AACSB learning goals of ethical understanding, reasoning abilities, managerial knowledge and ethical capacities. The framework is two building blocks in the form of tests, which together provide quality measures for business ethics content and a definition of the scope and depth of knowledge an ethics curriculum should contain. Overall, the framework is a supplement to the AACSB guidelines and its purpose is to be a curriculum development tool.
31. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
Heather Stewart, Rod Gapp The Complexity of Teaching an Emerging Paradigm: Understanding the University Educator’s View of CSR
32. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
Dennis Wittmer Developing Practical Wisdom in Ethical Decision Making: A Flight Simulator Program for 21st Century Business Students
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I began teaching business ethics over 20 years ago in the hope that I would be out of business in 10 years. Scandals and poor decision making have only continued, most recently with the financial crisis of 2008. The context for ethics and morality is decision making. Those who teach business ethics in this challenging century will be well served to consider the purpose and pedagogy of ethics in a business curriculum. I assess and discuss the purpose of business ethics in a business curriculum. I argue that business ethics education can be conceived as strengthening skills for making good decisions. I relate this to the Greek conception of practical wisdom (“phronesis”). I propose a method for achieving this purpose, based on a flight simulation model, a method that hassignificantly reduced pilot error caused accidents. The characteristics of this program are decision making practice, exhaustive debriefing, and creating an environment for engaging diverse perspectives on problems and solutions.
33. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
John Hasnas Teaching Business Ethics: The Principles Approach
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Business ethics is usually taught either from a philosophical perspective that derives guiding normative principles from abstract theories of philosophical ethics or from an atheoretical perspective that has students analyze cases that present difficult ethical issues and propose solutions on a casuistic basis. This article proposes a third approach—the Principles Approach—that derives guiding normative principles teleologically from the nature of market activity itself. The articledemonstrates how the Principles Approach can meet the four main challenges facing those who teach ethics in business schools—the challenges of definition, abstract, cultural relativism, and integration.
34. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 10
Greg L. Lowhorn, Eric D. Bostwick, Lonnie D. Smith Do Business Students Have an Ethical Blind Spot?
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In this study, undergraduate business students indicated the degree to which three activities were ethical or unethical, how likely they would be to commit each action, and how likely they thought the average student would be to commit each action. Significant declines in ethicality were found between comparisons of the ethical appropriateness of each scenario and the students’ personal intentions to commit the action, and between personal intention and the students’perceptions of other students’ actions. The comparison between self and others was attenuated by academic classification with seniors perceiving their peers’ behavior as similar to their own. This demonstrates that business students do have an ethical blind spot both in acting contrary to their own stated ethical beliefs and in believing that their peers will commit unethical actions while they would not. We encourage faculty to develop reflective curricula that require students to actively engage in ethical decision-making. In addition, ethical training should, when possible, address the entire ethical decision-making process, from awareness, to intention, to actual behavior. Finally, students should be made aware of the unfounded disparities between their perceptions of their own actionsand their perceptions of their peers’ actions.
35. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Robert A. Giacalone, Mark D. Promislo, Daniel E. Goldberg, Elizabeth A. Giacalone Shifting Values, Student Educational Preferences, and Ethics in the Business Curriculum
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In the past 40 years, a global shift has taken place towards a constellation of values known as “expansive values”, which de-emphasize pursuits of money, possessions, and status, and instead focus on quality of life and humanistic goals. This study investigated what students holding expansive values desired in business school course content and student quality of life, and how these preferences differed from students holding materialistic values. Results revealed a number of different factors that were associated only with expansive values, though on a few factors the two student values cohorts shared similar preferences or had inverse preferences. One clear implication of this study is that business schools need to consider offering more ethics classes in order to satisfy the growing number of students with expansive values.
36. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Manuel Wörsdörfer Inside the “Homo Oeconomicus Brain”: Towards a Reform of the Economics Curriculum?
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Economics students and economists have—grosso modo—a bad societal reputation. This is, roughly speaking, the provocative result of the majority of empirical studies on economic education. On average, economists and economics students behave in a more self-interested way than others; they are more prone to deviate from the moral good; they tend to free-ride more often and invest less in public goods games; they are more corrupt and less honest in lost letterexperiments, less cooperative in solidarity games, and accept less and keep more in ultimatum bargaining games. In short: they seem to behave more in accordance with the predictions of the rational or self-interest model of standard economics, the Homo oeconomicus model. What might be the reasons that the degree of anti-social and uncooperative behavior is on average significantly more pronounced among economics students compared to other student groups? Can these empirical findings be explained by the self-selection effect and/or the indoctrination effect? What are the implications of these empirical results for economic ethics and economic education? Which roles do the economics curriculum and economic textbooks play? Do they have any effect on everyday behavior? Is the way economics is taught at (business) schools, colleges and universities co-responsible for the considerable behavioral differences? And what can be done in order to reverse these trends and to foster other-regarding preferences and pro-social behavior? The paper analyzes these and other questions with the help of experimental economics, behavioral economics and neuroeconomics. It also draws on recent findings of brain physiology research in general and neuroplasticity in particular.
37. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Lydia Barza, Marc Cohen Culture, Moral Reasoning and Teaching Business Ethics: A Snapshot of United Arab Emirates Female Business Students
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The aim of this study is to examine moral reasoning in a cross cultural Islamic context. The moral reasoning of female business students in the United Arab Emirates is described based on Kohlberg’s theory of Cognitive Moral Development (CMD). Business students were asked to participate in a brief individual interview which involved reading three moral dilemmas and answering open-ended questions. Results were analyzed based on each dilemma as well as acrossall three. Most students made their decisions at the first two levels of Kohlberg’s stages, prioritizing how their decision would secure rewards for themselves and compliance with rules to maintain the social order. However, a fairly large percentage also scored at the highest stage of reasoning. Results are explored based on the sociocultural context and implications for ethics education are outlined, including an emphasis on examining conflicting cultural values and the use of context-specific dilemmas for teaching ethics.
38. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Gerald L. Plumlee, T. Gregory Barrett, L. Carolyn Pearson An Examination of Business Ethics Curriculum in AACSB-Accredited Business Schools
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American businesses, their leaders, and the business schools that developed these leaders find themselves under public scrutiny. As a result, business programs have placed increased emphasis on developing and implementing curriculum to address business ethics, which presents practitioners with the issue of how to define, measure, and evaluate business ethics curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the business ethics curriculum in AACSB-accredited business schools in the U.S. A framework for defining and examining the curriculum was developed using Lattuca and Stark’s (2009) Academic Plan, and other variables from the literature relevant to the business ethics curriculum were examined. The results indicated that the current business ethics curriculum in most business schools has all of the academic plan elements: an ethics-related learning goal; content in a variety of subjects and at a variety of levels; a sequence that has been applied to it; learners’ needs addressed; appropriate and even innovative learning processes; the necessary resources including faculty; assurance of learning at the program level; and has been adjusted an average of 2.6 times in the last five years. Commonly, business ethics is integrated throughout the business curriculum in addition to having an ethics class available, whether elective or required. Faculty generally create and support an ethical culture and the program’s efforts to include business ethics in the curriculum.
39. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Kimberly Carbo Pellegrino, Robert Pellegrino, Debra Perkins “Call of Duty” in the Classroom: Can Gamification Improve Ethical Student Learning Outcomes? A Pilot Study
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Increased emphasis has been placed on teaching ethics in business schools. A recent meta-analysis of business ethics instruction indicated that instructional programs have a minimal impact on improving ethical behaviors (Waples et al. 2008). One of the newest trends in MBA education is gamification which allows instructors to employ video game concepts to engage students in serious business problems. Educators are attempting to harness a similar sort of power exhibited by games like FarmVille or Call of Duty and translate this power into improved educational outcomes. This trend leads to the question; can gamification improve ethical learning outcomes? Using a single cohort of MBA students, ethics instruction in the MBA program was gamified and then operationalized in the students’ first required class and last required class. Although the sample was limited to a single cohort of students, results were promising, indicating improvement in ethical decision making and warranting further study.
40. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 11
Sohyoun Shin, Vincent Aleccia Students’ Academic Misconduct and Attitude Toward Business Ethics
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This paper expands the current business ethics research area by empirically testing the relationships between students’ misconduct including academic dishonesty (i.e., plagiarism/fabrication and/or exam cheating) and undesirable academic behaviors (i.e., disrespectful behaviors and/or slacker behaviors) and their perception of business ethics. Based on 133 surveys from the students in a northwestern regional comprehensive university business program, this study reveals that students who have reported higher frequencies of engaging in exam cheating, disrespectful behavior, or slacker behavior have perceived the given questionable, unethical employee practices as more acceptable conducts than the students who have reported lower frequencies. Students who have more frequently engaged in plagiarism/fabrication are found to be more accepting of both questionable, unethical business operations and employee practices. Gender, age, and cumulative GPA have been additionally explored and found to have correlations with business ethics perception. For ethically-sensitive future practitioners, this paper calls for institutions of higher education (IHEs) to provide clear guidelines on academic conduct/misconduct along with business ethics education in curriculum.