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21. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 1
Miloš Dokulil Sémantika a překlad (nejen Lockova „understanding“)
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Terms do not always cover the same meaning all the time. While translating into another language we have to take care of possible shifts in meaning in each of both languages. Some examples have been shown here from the new translation of Locke‘s Essay into Czech.
22. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 2
Karel Říha Rozvoj akce na individuálně-personální úrovni dva komentáře k l’action Maurice Blondela
23. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 2
Ivana Holzbachová Tainovo pojetí vědy
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Ačkoli je Taine znám především jako estetik a historik umění i politiky, zabývá se autorka spíš metodologickým předpokladem Tainova díla, a to jeho pojetím vědy. Ukazuje, že v Tainově díle nacházíme Hegelův vliv, který se však silně mísí s odlesky Comtových názorů, i když v oblasti ontologické lze spatřovat podobnost i s E. Machem. Taine chtěl aplikovat na duchovní vědy metody věd přírodních, i když si byl vědom zásadního rozdílu – nekvantifikovatelnosti v duchovních vědách. Podobnost spočívala ve snaze vysvětlit duchovní díla z jejich skutečných příčin. Ty Taine viděl především v oblasti psychologické. I ona je však pojata nikoli jako introspekce, ale jako věda, která má formulovat zákony a předvídat. Fakta hledá v literárních dokumentech. Zkoumání začíná od jednotlivých faktů, pokračuje přes zobecnění k jejich hlubšímu pochopení (vytváření zákonů) a pak se opět k jednotlivinám vrací a pomocí nalezených zákonů je vysvětluje. Konečné příčiny Taine nehledá. V rozboru aplikace tohoto obecného pojetí na dějiny umění a politickou historii se do popředí autorčina zájmu dostává známá Tainova teorie rasy, momentu a prostředí. Rozbor se věnuje především jeho pojetí rasy. Zabývá se i jeho pojetím vztahu mas a velkých osobností. V závěru připomíná reakce dobových i nynějších autorů na Taina.Although Taine is primarily known as an aesthetician and historian of art and politics, the author focuses on the methodology of Taine’s work, particularly on his conception of science. She shows one can trace Hegel’s influence in Taine’s work, which nevertheless mingles with reflections of Comte’s views, even though one can find similarities with E. Mach’s views in ontology. Taine attempted to apply the methodology of natural sciences to spiritual sciences, even though he was aware of a major difference – the unquantifiability in spiritual sciences. This involved an attempt to explain spiritual works on the basis of their real causes, which Taine mainly thought of as psychological. Psychology was not taken as introspection, though, but as a science the goal of which was to formulate laws and predict. Taine sought facts in literary documents. He began his investigation with particular facts, went on to generalize and state laws and then returned to the particular facts to explain them by the discovered laws. Taine did not seek final causes. In analyzing the application of this general approach to the history of art and politics, the author emphasizes Taine’s conception of race, moment and environment. She particularly focuses on the concept of race and also considers the relation of masses and great figures. In the conclusion the author adds the reactions of Taines contemporar­ies and current authors.
24. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 2
Jindřich Veselý Jan Patočka a křesťanství
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In many of his writings Jan Patočka dealt with christianity. This article presents his meditation as it developed since beginnings of his work till the famous texts he wrote in last period of his thinking. We interpret the whole philosophical move as the way from polemic to interpretation and from periphery to center. In his first writings Patočka mostly argues with theologians about mainly marginal themes, but soon he turns to the core of christianity and tries to interpret it according to his phenomenological philosophy. In his last works Patočka considers the strictly demythologized christianity as one of the most potent forms of care for the soul, which for him meant the tradition of european spiritual life. So the christianity, especially the idea of sacrifice, gets into the very center of Patočka’s thinking. Our article advises of the crucial, but probably also the weak point of Patočka’s approach: his reluctancy to ideas of personal god and revelation.
25. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 60 > Issue: 2
Veronika Ježková Genealogie diagnostiky. Michel Foucault a Zrození kliniky
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Text se věnuje genealogii metod diagnostiky podle Michela Foucaulta, s využitím interpretace několika jeho hlavních děl, zejména Zrození kliniky, Abnormal: Lectures at the College de France 1974–1975, Archeologie vědění, Dějiny šílenství v době osvícenství a dalších. Je rozdělen do několika částí: první analyzuje Foucaultovu archeologickou a genealogickou metodu zkoumání historie, část druhá se zaměřuje na tři medicínské diskurzy existující ve Francii od konce osmnáctého století do poloviny století devatenáctého tak, jak je Foucault popisuje ve Zrození kliniky. Jsou jimi medicína druhů/klasifikační medicína, medicína symptomů a medicína orgánů. Přestože Foucault uvádí jednotlivé diskurzy v chronologické následnosti, jsou ve skutečnosti propojeny a společně tvoří základ současného medicínského diskuru. Třetí část textu rozvíjí Foucaultovu koncepci normálního a nenormálního jedince v kontextu zdraví a nemoci a zvláštní pozornost je věnována fenoménu stigmatizace těch, kteří jsou společností považováni za nenormální či nemocné. Foucault ve Zrození kliniky popisuje mnoho diagnostických metod, které vedou ke zjištění pravdy o nemoci. Současné lékařské usuzování a diagnostika sestávají podle Foucaulta z analyzování prostorových aspektů nemoci, analýzy významu jednotlivých symptomů, techniky interview s pacientem a dalších, a tyto techniky nelze chápat jako nadčasové a univerzální, ale naopak je nutné je nahlížet v širších souvislostech diskurzů minulých. Poslední část textu zkoumá vztah medicíny a psychiatrie u Foucaulta, zejména historické začleňování psychiatrie do medicíny. V závěru textu se pokouším odpovědět na otázku, zda je toto začlenění legitimní a zda může být příčinou stigmatizace duševně nemocných, či naopak může napomoci toto stigma sejmout.
26. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Takashi Kato Filozof pod půlnočním sluncem
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To celebrate the 85th birthday of the Czech-American philosopher Professor Rudolph W. Krejci, the founder of the first Department of Philosophy and Humanities at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks, we bring a paper by his student, currently an associate professor in California, Takashi Kato, who shows how respected Professor Krejci is even by people far away from his homeland.
27. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Břetislav Horyna Když nás vesmír začal brát na vědomí. Příspěvek k lepšímu pochopení metaforologie Hanse Blumenberga
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The goal of this work is to popularize the philosophy of the German philosopher Hans Blumenberg (1920–1999) in Czech context. Even though he is gradually becoming one of the most discussed authors in the Anglo-Saxon world, Blumenberg is still largely ignored here. This work focuses on a key theme from Blumenberg’s theory of metaphorology and analyzes the history and development of human defensive reactions against alleged expressions of cosmic powers and their impact on human lives: heavenly signs, unnatural signs at birth or death of important figures, religious miracles, etc. In order to defend themselves against absolute forces of the universe, people have developed magic (homo magus occurred in human history) as a tool of prevention from cosmic interference, created new myths and escaped into their mythical shelters by means of further metaphors. In the final part, the work deals with the phenomenology of the metaphor of „stream“, used by E. Husserl.
28. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Hana Řehulková Literatura a poznání
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The goal of the paper is to reconsider two incompatible stances on a possible cogni­tive gain from belles-lettres stories. Cognitivism is based on the fundamental state that a value of work of art is proportional to the degree of knowledge it brings. It is presupposed that a reader´s mental state before reading such stories is, in a way, poorer then thereafter. What kind of properties does such cognitive gain have? Is it a moral piece of knowledge? Or is it a piece of knowledge at all? A role of truth is mentioned. Two pros et cons arguments – namely Graham’s (argument about the cognitive value of the arts) and Stolnitz´s ones (argument about cognitive triviality of art) – are briefly examined. In the last part, a natural view of a literary cognitive gain is offered.
29. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 1
Ivana Holzbachová Tainovo pojetí společnosti a státu
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The author presents Hippolyte Taine´s conception of society and state, which are, in her interpretation as well as Taine´s theory, deeply interconnected. It is quite obvious, however, that Taine was a committed liberal. This follows from his explicit ideas on the function of the state, his ruthless criticism of the Jacobin phase of French Revolution and Napoleonic conception of state as well as the state in which he lived, because that state stemmed from the Napoleonic conception. In the second part the author focuses on Taine´s description of the English system. Taine sees both its advantages and drawbacks. Generally speaking, he finds the English system preferable to the French one. However, on the basis of the theory of race, moment and environment, it was not possible to imple­ment the English model in France.
30. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 2
Ivana Holzbachová Tainova kritika společenské smlouvy
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Taine devoted his whole work to the French Revolution. He was very critical of it. Part of the criticism focused on the role that the revolution played in the theory of social contract. This aspect of Taine’s work Původ současné Francie (The Beginnings of Contemporary France) is the focus of this paper. The autor analyzes Taine’s critique in general, above all the assumption of (mathematical) equality of people, and then focuses on the way that Taine assessed the application of social contract theory by revolutionary governments. The author claimes that Taine, in fact, only dealt with Rousseau’s version of the theory and when analyzing people’s equality ofter referred to a general habit of the French to think in abstraction. In some aspects his ideas resemble those of Tocqueville. In the final part the author focuses on Lacombe’s analysis of Taine’s views.
31. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 2
Tereza Kunešová Recepce Dialektiky konkrétního v Československu mezi léty 1963–1969
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The aim of this contribution is to acquaint readers with responses to Karel Kosík’s most influential work, the Dialectics of the Concrete, that were published in former Czechoslovakia by philosophers and other thinkers between the years 1963 and 1969 with an emphasis on the journals Filosofický časopis, Kulturní tvorba, Literární noviny and Plamen. This paper also outlines a criticism of Kosík and his book by the Commu­nist Party of Czechoslovakia.
32. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 2
Petr Jemelka Výročí, odpůrci a disidenti
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This text is an attempt to reflect a discourse on the problem of the role of opposition in history. On the background of the “Velvet Revolution“ anniversary, it deals with the question of the necessity to analyse deeply the dissent phenomenon as part of opposition structures. It represents an important aspect of the critical study of our latest history.
33. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 2
Marek Picha, Dagmar Pichová Představivost, poznávací cíl a Platónova Jeskyně
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In the review of 100 myšlenkových experimentů ve filozofii (2013) Jakub Mácha raises several questions concerning our approach to thought experiment analysis. We address all of his remarks; particularly, we answer three questions: Which type of imagination do we use in our definition of thought experiments? How is the cognitive aim of thought experiments related to their cognitive value? Is the analysis of Plato’s Cave proposed in our book appropriate?
34. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 61 > Issue: 2
Martin Kovář Byl Berkeley skutečně imaterialista?
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In this work I attempt to provide a materialist interpretation of Berkeley’s view of the world. In my opinion, we can already see this view in his early writings A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) and Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous (1713). My belief is based on Berkeley’s emphasis on common sense and the concept of God as the guarantor of the recognizability of the world. I also show that Berkeley understands the concepts of real and material as synonyms. I explain why Berkeley refers to things as ‘ideas‘ in his two main metaphysical writings and how to understand Berkeley’s notion that God imprints ideas of the world into our minds. The main question is to how understand the material substance, which Berkeley rejects. Through the rejection of philosophical material substance Berkeley is trying to avoid scepticism in which, according to him, philosophy must fall and at the same time he is trying to re-create a plain view of the world.
35. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 62 > Issue: 2
Michal Chabada Michal Chabada
Odsúdenia z roku 1277 a filozofia Jána Dunsa Scota
Condemnation of 1277 and the Philosophy of John Duns Scotus

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Odsúdenia z roku 1277 predstavovali zásah do vedeckého výskumu mnohých scholas­tických autorov. Duns Scotus tvoril po roku 1277. Cieľom tohto príspevku je preto iden­tifikovať filozofické motívy, v ktorých sa filozofia Dunsa Scota a Odsúdení z roku 1277 prelínajú, a preskúmať, či Scotovo myslenie bolo pod priamym vplyvom Odsúdení, alebo nie. Autor príspevku tvrdí, že hlavná príčina Scotovej filozofie je v samotnej františkánskej tradícii a že vplyv Odsúdení z roku 1277 bol na Scotovo myslenie nepodstatný.
36. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 66 > Issue: 1
Josef Petrželka Editorial
37. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 66 > Issue: 2
Josef Petrželka Editorial
38. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 67 > Issue: 1
Josef Petrželka Editorial
39. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 67 > Issue: 2
Josef Petrželka Editorial
40. Studia Philosophica: Volume > 68 > Issue: 1
Josef Petrželka Josef Petrželka
Editorial
Editorial