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201. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Kati Lindström Author, landscape and communication in Estonian haiku
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Present article tries to give insight into the ways in which Estonian haiku models its author and communicates with the reader. The author thinks that while Japanese haiku is a predominantly autocommunicative piece of literature, where even a fixed point of view is not recommended, Estonian literary conventions are oriented towards openly communicational texts, which convey a fixed axiology and rely on abundant use of pronouns and rhetorical questions, addresses and apostrophes. While there is a considerable amount of Estonian haiku that depend on Estonian literary conventions, most of the Estonian haiku texts, however, are oriented to the Japanese model. These texts have been labelled “the catalogues of landscape”, as they are constituted by naming different landscape objects without developing a line of narration. Thereby every landscape element in poetry is granted its own voice, and through this multitude of voices inside the text, the reader is forced to enter an autocommunicative process of remodelling him/herself.
202. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Stephen Pain Bioretoorika: Sissejuhatus rakenduslikku retoorikasse. Kokkuvõte
203. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Massimo Leone Piirid ja identiteedid religioosse pöördumise puhul: peegel. Kokkuvõte
204. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Elize Bisanz Esteetilise märgi abstraktne struktuur. Kokkuvõte
205. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Peeter Torop Tõlge kui tõlkimine kui kultuur. Kokkuvõte
206. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Ülle Pärli, Eleonora Rudakovskaja Juri Lotman on proper name
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The article treats the concept of proper name in Juri Lotman’s semiotics, taking into account also studies in the same field by other authors of the Tartu-Moscow school (V. Ivanov, B. Ogibenin, V. Toporov, B. Uspenski). Focus is laid at three sub-topics: name and myth, name and text, name and artistic creation. One of the sources of treating proper name for both the program article by J. Lotman and B. Uspenski (“Myth — Name — Culture”), and works by several other semioticians of the Tartu–Moscow school is confidence in the connection between proper name and mythical (a-semiotic) thought: semiosis equals here with nomination. Proper name plurality, different re-namings affirm the continuing importance of mythical thinking in later culture. Proper names (such as personal names, place names) belong, in addition to natural language, also into a certain individual system, forming thus an interlinguistic layer located on the boundary of language. J. Lotmanstresses that art has a specific power of uniting general and proper name (proper name characterized here by individuality, explosiveness). An artistic work is even doubly of proper name character: both the act of creation and its reception are by nature individual and unrepeated. In the opinion of the authors the treatment of proper name by the Tartu-Moscow school contains fruitful and promising standpoints for the analysis of contemporary culture that, however, have been applied unjustifiably little.
207. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Linnar Priimägi Puhtvisuaalne metafoorsus: Juri Lotmani retoorikakontseptsioon kujutavkunstis. Kokkuvõte
208. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Andreas Schönle Juri Lotman ja Cultural Studies: vastastikuse rikastamise võimalused. Kokkuvõte
209. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Mihhail Lotman Atomistlik ja holistlik semiootika. Kokkuvõte
210. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Sadeq Rahimi Is cultural logic an appropriate concept? A semiotic perspective on the study of culture and logic
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It is argued that (a) the question of ‘cultural logic’ is a valid inquiry for disciplines seeking to comprehend and compare mental processes across cultures, and (b) semiotics, as the science of studying signs and signification, is an appropriate means of approaching the question of cultural logic. It is suggested that a shift needs to be made in studying reasoning across cultures from the traditional value-oriented methods of judgment to a meaning-oriented assessment. Traditional methods of cross-cultural comparison are suggested to be flawed in their attempt to develop a psychological account of why different cultural societies can draw different conclusions from ‘similar’ data, because they typically do not take into account the culturally-specific processes of ‘meaning’ and semiosis. These processes, it is argued, cause input data to develop differentially from one semiotic context to another. In other words, before reaching the cognitive processing level data is already shaped by the semiotic context, thus what is processed cognitively by two individuals in two cultural/semiotic contexts is no longer ‘the same.’ A semiotically conceived notion of cultural logic is therefore a crucial factor in any cross-cultural study of cognitive and psychological systems.
211. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Sadeq Rahimi Kas kultuuriloogika on asjakohane mõiste? Semiootiline lähenemine kultuuri ja loogika uurimisele. Kokkuvõte
212. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Peeter Torop Introduction: Re-reading of cultural semiotics
213. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Stefano Garzonio Mechanisms of adaptation “to our (Russian) customs” of Italian opera librettos
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Stefano Garzonio. Mechanisms of adaptation “to our (Russian) customs” of Italian opera librettos. The paper deals with the history of poetical translation of Italian musical poetry in the 18th century Russia. In particular, it is focused on the question of pereloženie na russkie nravy, the adaptation to national Russian customs, of Italian opera librettos, cantatas, arias, songs and so on. The author points out three different phases of this process. The first phase, in the 1730s, coincides with the reign of Anna Ioannovna and it is linked to Trediakovsky’s translations of Italian intermezzos, comedies and to the first opera seria, La forza dell’amore e dell’odio (‘The force of love and hate’, 1736) by F. Araja and F. Prata; the second phase, in the period 1740–1770s, is characterized by a very varied production of translations and imitations, which undoubtedly influenced the general developing of Russian musical and dramatic poetry. It is during this periodthat pereloženie na russkie nravy is introduced into dramatic genres and sometimes it is findable in musical poetry as well. The third phase, in the 1780–1790s, is linked with the activity of such poets-translators as Ivan Dmitrevskij, Michail Popov, Vasilij Levšin and is characterized by the new practice of performing operas in Russian translations. In the paper the different forms of pereloženie na russkie nravy are pointed out, starting from the formal niveau of metrics and stylistics up to the adaptation of themes, places and realia.
214. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Massimo Leone Boundaries and identities in religious conversion: The mirror
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Religious conversion revolutions the boundaries which delimit personal identity. Therefore, the main semiotic problem of mental and cultural representations of this religious phenomenon is to convey simultaneously a feeling of sameness and otherness, identity and change. In the present paper, mirrors are analysed as cultural mechanisms which enable representations to accomplish this paradoxical task. After a brief survey concerning literature on mirrors, some early-modern religious texts using these optical instruments as representative devices are analysed in-depth: a painting of the Magdalene’s conversion by Artemisia Gentileschi, an engraving representing conversion from a 17th-century French book, a fragment from Sainte Theresa’s spiritual autobiography, a passage from John Calvin’s Institution de la religion chrétienne. In its conclusion, the paper underlines the importance of Saint Paul’s metaphoric conception of mirrors for the cultural history of these objects, and tries to define the role which cultural semiotics should play concerning this kind of representative mechanisms.
215. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Marcello Barbieri Orgaanilised koodid: metafoorid või tõelused? Kokkuvõte
216. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Mikhail Gasparov Intertextual analysis today
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Mikhail L. Gasparov. Intertextual analysis today. The paper provides a discussion about recent results and perspectives of intertextual analysis — the method that has been a contemporary with Tartu-Moscow school. The connections between the classical philological methods and intertextual analysis are described, together with specifying the concept of intertext and emphasizing the need for the correctness of a researcher, because such an analysis always carries a danger of overinterpretation. Several examples are used to illustrate how the imagination of a researcher can create arbitrary allusions that are not based on the original text and are usually misleading. As a result, the text under study will not become more clear, vice versa, it turns to be less understandable.
217. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Juri Lotman Mask in an artistic world of Gogol, and the masks of Anatoli Kaplan
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Juri Lotman. Mask in an artistic world of Gogol, and the masks of Anatoli Kaplan. The paper deals with an intersemiotic problem — how it is possible to represent a verbal image by the means of sculpture. It was written as an afterword for a German edition of N. Gogol’s Dead Souls (illustrated by photos on mask-sculpures by Anatoli Kaplan) thus using a style meant for general reader. However, it includes a deep analysis and several important conclusions about the fancy worlds of Gogol and Kaplan, and about the possibilities to create connections between them. It is stressed that the very artistic illustration is possible only due to its independence, due to the subjective seeing of the author.
218. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 30 > Issue: 2
Stephen Pain Biorhetorics: An introduction to applied rhetoric
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This paper is an introduction to the new field of biorhetorics. Biorhetorics is an applied form of rhetoric that evolved from the study of classical rhetoric, particularly Aristotelian. The author illustrates the stages of development necessary for the creation of a species-specific rhetoric: by (1) formalising rhetoric so as to create a functional rhetoric, (2) then reducing this to a symbolic rhetoric that can be used in conjunction with the collected data of an organism’s Umwelt (including its genome) to form (3) a species-specific rhetoric. The paper draws upon the latest research on bacterial and viral communication to show the possibilities of biorhetorics. In the course of discussing the nature of biorhetorics the author distinguishes it from argumentation theory and rhetoric/s of biology, and positions alongside other fields used in the life sciences such as biosemiotics, information theory, game theory, etc.
219. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 31 > Issue: 1
Maria del Mar Llera Прагматический подход к межкультурной этике: Основные черты развития коммуникации между национальными группами. Резюме
220. Sign Systems Studies: Volume > 31 > Issue: 1
Bruno Osimo Veider, väga veider, nagu unenäos: piirid ja tõlked filmis “Strogij Junosha” (“Range noormees”). Kokkuvõte