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201. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Jonathan Hook The Pursuit of Ecotopia: Lessons from Traditional and Indigenous Societies for the Human Ecology of Our Modern World
202. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Chris Cuomo Healing Natures, Repairing Relationships: New Perspectives on Restoring Ecological Spaces and Consciousness
203. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Robert Melchior Figueroa Editorial Preface
204. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Evan Selinger, Kevin Outterson The Ethics of Poverty Tourism
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Poverty tours—actual visits as well as literary and cinematic versions—are characterized as morally controversial trips and condemned in the press as voyeuristic endeavors. In this collaborative essay, we draw from personal experience, legal expertise, and phenomenological philosophy and introduce a conceptual taxonomy that clarifies the circumstances in which observing others has been construed as an immoral use of the gaze. We appeal to this taxonomy to determine which observational circumstances are ethically relevant to the poverty tourism debate. While we do not defend all or even most poverty tourism practices, we do conclude that categorical condemnation of poverty tourism is unjustified.
205. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Hans-Georg Erney Wilderness into Civilized Shapes
206. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
William Edelglass Getting Back into Place: Toward a Renewed Understanding of the Place-World
207. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Erik Anderson Ethics Commands, Aesthetics Demands: Environmental Aesthetics for Environmental Justice in Newark
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I identify a commonly held position in environmental philosophy, “the received view,” and argue that its proponents beg the question when challenged to demonstrate the relevance of environmental aesthetics for environmental justice. I call this “the inference problem,” and I go on to argue that an alternative to the received view, Arnold Berleant’s participatory engagement model, is better equipped to meet the challenge it poses. By adopting an alternative metaphysics, the engagement model supplies a solution to the inference problem and thereby provides a more useful theoretical framework for application to pressing concernsin environmental justice, such as the plight of the historical Ironbound District of Newark, New Jersey.
208. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Steve Vanderheiden, Melanie Sisson Ethically Responsible Leisure? Promoting Social and Environmental Justice Through Ecotourism
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Ecotourism has been lauded as a potentially effective means for raising revenue for nature conservation, and certification schemes likewise promise to help to “sustain the well-being of local people” in ecotourist destinations. In this paper, we consider the social and environmental justice dimensions of ecotourism through the certification schemes that define the industry, treating the desire to engage in ethically responsible travel as a necessary but insufficient condition for bringing about these desired ends, and one that requires accurate and trustworthy information in order to effectively realize ecotourism’s potential to engage normative concerns through leisure activities.
209. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
James Hatley If Creation is a Gift
210. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Kyle Powys Whyte An Ethics of Recognition for Environmental Tourism Practices
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Environmental tourism is a growing practice in indigenous communities worldwide. As members of indigenous communities, what environmental justice framework should we use to evaluate these practices? I argue that, while some of the most relevant and commonly discussed norms are fair compensation and participative justice, we should also follow Robert Figueroa’s claim that “recognition justice” is relevant for environmental justice. I claim that from Figueroa’s analysis there is a “norm of direct participation,” which requires all environmental tourism practices to feature a forum for meaningful representation andconsideration. This claim motivates a distinction between practices that should be termed “mutually advantageous exploitation” and those that should be termed “environmental coalition development.” We need to ask ourselves whether we should continue to tolerate mutually advantageous exploitation and how we can increase the number of practices that develop coalitions.
211. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Chelsea Snelgrove Nested Ecology: The Place of Humans in the Ecological Hierarchy
212. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 7 > Issue: 2
Keith Bosak Ecotourism as Environmental Justice? Discourse and the Politics of Scale in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India
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This paper uses the case of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve to illustrate how ecotourism can be a vehicle for environmental justice. I use discourse analysis and the politics of scale to argue that an expanded notion of environmental justice does account for the myriad movements for resource rights occurring all over the world. In this case, framing the struggle through ecotourism with a focus on social justice provided local people a way to engage the mainstream environmental movement and address the injustices of its exclusionary and biocentric practices while providing for themselves a viable livelihood option.
213. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
David Storey Nietzsche’s Anti-Darwinism
214. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Mark Coeckelbergh Environmental Virtue: Motivation, Skill, and (In)formation Technology
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Environmental virtue ethics faces the problem of motivation: there is a gap between knowledge and action. This paper first analyzes the roots of this problem and discusses possible solutions that require the use of imagination and information technology. Then it reformulates the problem of motivation and the question concerning environmental virtue by using the notion of skill. It sketches the contours of a non-Romantic and non-Stoic virtue ethics that attempts to move beyond dualist assumptions concerning the relations between humans, nature, and technology. In this way, the paper shows how environmental philosophy can benefit from a dialogue with philosophy of technology.
215. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Samantha Noll Bioregionalism and Global Ethics: A Transactional Approach to Achieving Ecological Sustainability, Social Justice, and Human Well-being
216. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Pierluigi Barrotta James Lovelock, Gaia Theory, and the Rejection of Fact/Value Dualism
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In this paper the relationship between Gaia theory and fact/value dualism must be understood from two angles: I shall use Gaia as a case study to show the philosophical limits of dualism, and I shall also use the discussion of fact/value dualism to clarify the contents of Gaia theory. My basic thesis is that Lovelock is right when rejecting the suggestion that he should clear his theory of evaluative considerations. He is right because in his theory facts and moral values are strictly interwoven and therefore cannot be conceptually separated. I shall show this point by arguing that if we dropped the evaluative components from Gaia theory we would not have the same theory cleared of those evaluative components. Instead we would have a theory with a different empirical meaning and different explanatory characteristics.
217. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Meg Mott Wild Dog Dreaming: Love and Extinction
218. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Philip Rose Spatio-Temporal Facticity and the Dissymmetry of Nature: A Peircean-Based Defense of Some Essential Distinctions of Nature
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This is an attempt to work the ground in the philosophy of nature by trying to articulate in a clear and rigorous philosophical sense what Nature is. This will involve pressing the question of nature to the point of essential distinctions in the hope of disclosing conditions that mark Nature as a distinct conception and general mode of being. Drawing and building upon Peirce’s account of “facts,” time and space, and the “dissymmetry” of nature, I will suggest some ways in which the essential distinctness of Nature can be framed. I will end by offering a parting glance at some of the implications that might follow from the distinctions constructed.
219. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Andrew Gibson Ideas and Practices in the Critique of Consumerism
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Drawing on the works of philosophers Charles Taylor and Joseph Heath, this paper argues that the critique of consumerism is too often separated into an emphasis on “ideas” or “practices.” Taylor’s critique is set against the backdrop of his interpretation of the ideas and values that are constitutive of Western selfhood. To engage in excessive consumption, on this view, is to betray the ideals underlying one’s cultural identity. Heath, by contrast, argues that critics of consumerism must avoid this kind of ideas-based social criticism because it is not only unproductive, but also illiberal and elitist. The phenomenon of consumerism must be approached, rather, by way of an institutional critique that treats excessive consumption as a collective action problem arising within the context of the market economy. The paper argues that while Heath makes an invaluable contribution to the critique of consumerism, his misunderstanding of the importance of ideas is such that his critique ultimately lacks vigor and persuasiveness.
220. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Kumi Kato, Simon Wearne Folding Screen of Whaling at Kishū Kumano Bay