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201. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Simona Modreanu A Different Approach to the “Theater of the Absurd” With Special Reference to Eugene Ionesco
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The well-known label of “theater of the absurd” is based on the Aristotelian logic of the nonincluded middle, the common interpretation being that of the chaotic and irrational character of the universe, human destiny, and language. However, we propose another view on the subject, relying on the discoveries of quantum physics, the main principles of transdisciplinarity, and the literary theory of the possible worlds. We applied these ideas to some of Eugene Ionesco’s fa-mousplays, concluding that absurd becomes an irrelevant notion if analyzed in this perspective.
202. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Jacob Ale Aigbodioh Stigmatization in African Communalistic Societies and Habermas’ Theory of Rationality
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The phenomenon of widespread stigmatization of victims of deadly, or previously incurable, diseases in African traditional societies would appear to pragmatically contradict the humanistic values of communalism associated with those societies. However, the implied contradiction of the phenomenon, which borders on irrationality and injustice, seems amenable to a rational explanation when one considers the thick ontological underpinnings of African traditional communalism along with their epistemic significance. The justification of the proffered explanation, the paper avers, is made clearer when it is taken as a paradigm of Jurgen Habermas’ theory of (communicative) rationality and action. Against this background, the paper argues that such global social problemsas terrorism and internet scams may well be justifiable if Habermas’ strategic and contextual models of rationality and action are communicatively valid.
203. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Nicolito A. Gianan Delving into the Ethical Dimension of Ubuntu Philosophy
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The article aims to delve into the ethical dimension of Ubuntu philosophy, which is an African philosophy that reverberates in other cultures and in various forms, thus exemplifying its universality and universalizability. In this dimension, it tries to re-examine the notion of ethics in relation to morals/morality, including “is” and “ought”, with reference to the human person. Moreover, Ubuntu philosophy is articulated and communicated in the maxim that is an essential component inthe lived experiences of the Bantu-speaking African community: “A person is a person through other persons.” With this, the article integrates some related European and Asian philosophies, considering the fact that Ubuntu philosophy endures as it is tenaciously upheld and edified alongside its implications.
204. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Uyi-Ekpen Ogbeide, Lambert Uyi Edigin Military Establishments and The Stability Of Nigeria’s Fourth Republic: Toward The Realization Of Vision 2020
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Based on the fact that military establishments have historically played a major role in the transformation of societies, this paper argues that the Nigerian Armed Forces need to be credible and modernized in order to be able to fulfil their constitutional responsibilities. They can do this by providing the necessary support, in terms of professional expertise and administrative efficiency, for the successful implementation of Nigeria’s Vision 2020 and its strategic Seven-Point Agenda. By supporting the democratic institutions in the successful implementation of Vision 2020, the armed forces would have quickened the transformation of Nigeria intoan industrialized democratic nation that could compete favourably with its counterparts in the Americas, Europe and Asia.
205. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Solomon A. Laleye Democracy in Conflict and Conflicts in Democracy: The Nigerian Experience
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This paper focuses on the problem of conflicts that are sociopolitical in nature. It thus agrees that conflict is a product of human interaction, but its degeneration into violence is avoidable and consequently detestable. The repressive, depressive and destructive functions of socio-political conflict are seen as products of the tension that exists between personal values and social values among the different individuals and groups that make up the nation of Nigeria, especially in the veryattempt at defining national security, social peace and political stability. This contretemps undermines the success of democracy in Nigeria; it is more problematic when democracy as a form of government is discovered to harbour conflict in its very attempts at ensuring an enduring social order. The paper thus advocates for a fundamental socio-political reconstruction based on the cherished values of African traditional thought that promotes social cohesion, respect for the dignity of the human person, social justice and economic growth. The philosophical methods of analysis and conceptual clarification, in addition to empirical methods, are employed.
206. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Mario Perniola Impossible, yet Real!
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In order to properly understand the period which begins at the end of the '60s last century, this must not be described anymore using the traditional categories of culture and politics. Facing events like those in May '68 in France, the Italian revolution in 1979, the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, the attack against the Twin Towers from New York in September 2001, we are all tempted to say “impossible, yet real”. These events had immense consequences upon the individual and collective life, provoking radical upturns of traditional values and of the way people relate to these values. Thus, a new form of historicity was born, having as characteristics the perception of some phenomena both as miracles and traumas, because they seem impossible to explain rationally. In this text both the axiological mutations that occurred in the history of the last decades and the meanings of these mutations are presented in a personal way.
207. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Justina O. Ehiakhamen The Practice of Inheritance in Esan: the Place of the Female Child
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The act of discrimination against the female sex is an undeniable phenomenon in virtually all human societies, though the severity varies from one society to another. It is against this backdrop that this paper is aimed at exposing the inadequate nature of the primogeniture rule of inheritance towards the female, as practised by the Esan people. The paper tests the validity of the logic on which the disinheritance of females rests, and discovers that it is invalid as it violates such moral principles as the categorical imperative and utilitarianism, among others. It therefore advocates for possessive right for females for the sake of justice and equity.
208. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Seungbae Park Defence of Cultural Relativism
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I attempt to rebut the following standard objections against cultural relativism: 1. It is self-defeating for a cultural relativist to take the principle of tolerance as absolute; 2. There are universal moral rules, contrary to what cultural relativism claims; 3. If cultural relativism were true, Hitler’s genocidal actions would be right, social reformers would be wrong to go against their own culture, moral progress would be impossible, and an atrocious crime could be made moral by forming aculture which approves of it; 4. Cultural relativism is silent about how large a group must be in order to be a culture, and which culture we should follow when we belong to two cultures with conflicting moralities.
209. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 1
Simona Mitroiu To Collect in Order to Survive: Benjamin and the Necessity of Collecting
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Following the distinctions made by Susan Pearce between souvenir collections, fetishism collections and systematic collections, the present study will underline the idea that, for Walter Benjamin, collection was a way to reconnect with the past and to reconstruct an image of what was destroyed. Every object collected by Benjamin was for him a souvenir of the European cultural identity.
210. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Petru Iluţ, Laura Nistor Some Aspects of the Relationship between Basic Human Values and Religiosity in Romania
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The article provides a summary of the analysis of the associations between Schwartz’s basic human values and religiosity in Romania, using the data of thefourth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS). Previous cross-cultural research has suggested that religiosity is positively and significantly associated withconservativeness and self-transcendence. On the other hand, negative associations were reported between religiosity and openness to change, while the association between religiosity and self-enhancement was less consistent. Our results succeeded in only marginally confirming these results in the case of Romania. Based on our data, religiosity is positively and significantly, but not extremely strongly, associated with conservativeness and self-transcendence; while the correlations between religiosity and openness to change, as well as between religiosity and self-enhancement values, although negative, are not statistically significant. These results suggest that, contrary to the findings of the mainstream literature, religious Romanians, while more conservative than their less religious counterparts, are not less concerned with values of self-gratification than the less religious respondents. These findings can be explained, probably, through the transition process, during which there occurs not only a macro-social departure from traditionalism to modernism, but also a transition in the individuals’ value priorities, which produces a nearly hazardous association between religiosity and values of self-gratification. Other possible reasons might be due to religious hypocrisy or to methodological bias associated with self-reported data.
211. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Nicolae Râmbu Iconostrophia of the Spirit
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Regarded from a different perspective, the same values appear somewhat reversed. This phenomenon was explained by the authors who, following OswaldSpengler, associated culture with space more strongly by resorting to the terminology of optics and, also, by analogies with certain optical phenomena. This essay goes on the same path. The reversed image of the values regarded through a certain “Lebensgefühl” represents an iconostrophia of the spirit.
212. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Irina Polyakova Drama of Life: Philosophical Biography as an Event in Russian Culture
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This article discusses attempts of Russian philosophers of the 19th and 20th centuries (e.g. Vladimir Solovyev, Vladimir Ern, Nikolay Berdyaev) to suggest thegenre of “philosophical biography” as a special kind of philosophical work. So, philosophical biography is treated as an understanding of life. The most important features of philosophical biography in Russian thinkers’ interpretation are as follows: the focus on comprehension of life-drama, in which thoughts and senses act as personal events; the demand of spiritual affinity as a condition for understanding; and the creation of spiritual image as the main task of biography.
213. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Constantin Stoenescu The Ethos of Modern Science and the “Religious Melting Pot”: About the Topicality of Merton’s Thesis
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My aim in this paper is to discuss the topicality of Merton’s thesis with a twofold meaning: as an idea which has its own place in the sociology of science and as an idea which is currently in its area of research. Merton asserts that the development of science in 17th century England was aided by the Puritan ethic. This does not means that science was caused by Puritanism, but only that Puritanism provided major support for the scientific activity. Because secularization and integration were two complementary processes, the relationship between science and religion was not simple. I connect Merton’s thesis with Weber’s thesisabout Protestantism and capitalism and try to see it in the light of the cultural climate of its time. Finally, I argue that Merton offers a unified analysis of scienceas a social institution.
214. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Wei Zhang Rational a priori or Emotional a priori? Husserl and Scheler’s Criticisms of Kant Regarding the Foundation of Ethics
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Based on the dispute between Protagoras and Socrates on the origin of ethics, one can ask the question of whether the principle of ethics is reason orfeeling/emotion, or whether ethics is grounded on reason or feeling/emotion. The development of Kant’s thoughts on ethics shows the tension between reason and feeling/emotion. In Kant’s final critical ethics, he held to a principle of “rational a priori.” On the one hand, this is presented as the rational a priori principle being the binding principle of judgment. On the other hand, it is presented as the doctrine of “rational fact” as the ultimate argument of his ethics. Husserl believed that Kant’s doctrine of a rational a priori totally disregarded the a priori essential laws of feeling. Like Husserl, Scheler criticized Kant’s doctrine of a rational a priori, and therefore developed his own theory of an “emotional a priori”. Both of them focused their critiques on the grounding level of ethics. Scheler, however, did not follow Husserl all the way, but criticized him and reflected on his thoughts. At last, he revealed the primary status of a phenomenological material ethics of value.
215. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Isaac E. Ukpokolo Between Group Mind and Common Good: Interrogating the African Socio-Political Condition
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The paper is challenged with the seeming contradiction resulting from the prevalent conception of the group mind and common good in African and Westerncultures or societies. Many African scholars have theorized about the communalistic nature of African communities which leads to the flourishing of group consciousness as opposed to individualistic attitudes. This is often discussed against the background of the liberalism of Western societies which tend to elevate individual consciousness and self-realization over that of the group. With this picture in mind, one would expect the common good to flourish in the former more than the latter. Present African socio-political conditions examined against similar scenarios in the West makes it glaringly obvious that the exact opposite is the case. Being that the group mind principle needed for the attainment of the common good seems absent in contemporary African states, the paper therefore recommends that a critical self-examination is needed by the African states in order to develop a genuinely African group consciousness for the attainment of the common good.
216. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Mohd Faizal Musa Javanese Sufism and Prophetic Literature
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Part of the “Islamic literature” furore in Indonesia is the discourse of “Prophetic Literature,” founded by Abdul Hadi W.M. The background of “PropheticLiterature” is Sufism. Other ingredients that formulated “Prophetic Literature” are mysticism, “Javanese Sufism” and perennial philosophies concerned withspiritual experience and human effort to gain the love of God. The ambitious objective of “Prophetic Literature” is to form a healthy environment in society throughthe purification of the souls of the readers. It also aims to energize the spirit of the colonized people in the East through promoting good deeds and kindness whilst preventing corruption and wickedness. “Prophetic Literature” prioritized the human and re-positioned man as the Caliph of Allah. The fundamental and dominant theme of “Prophetic Literature” is monotheism. “Prophetic Literature” is not interested in any particular form, but it emphasizes traditional elements, such as the return to the “roots of local culture,” including “Javanese Sufism,” as it core sources. Similar to “Sufi literature,” the appearance of “Prophetic Literature” is shown through the use of symbols. Authors are measured by their ability to compose symbols, and to send hidden meanings in their works.
217. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Maximiliano E. Korstanje, Geoffrey Skoll Breaking the Symbolic Alienation: The New Role and Chalenges of Critical Philosophy in Next Millennium
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Many scholars in recent years have focused their efforts on revealing the connection of philosophy and authority. Basically, from Nietzsche onwards, philosophyhas witnessed ongoing efforts for “will to power” by some philosophers and of course this motivated many philosophers to take part in politics. Nonetheless, thismoot point engendered a serious risk and not only contrasted with the Socratic contributions, but also paved the way for the advent of a new way of making politics where philosophy and scientific prestige are being manipulated following certain interests. By comparing the US and Argentinian climates, this paper explores to what extent philosophy can and must remain independent of politics. Even though one might think of Heidegger as a clear example of this relationship, there are many other philosophers who were interested in politics and committed to political parties. One of the aspects that characterizes this new way of politics is the theatrification of reality, and philosophers are part of this process. To some extent, the prestige given to scholars for their contribution to society is being conferred to some privileged groups to gain more legitimacy, precisely in a world where the classical institutions are gradually declining.
218. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Asunción López-Varela Azcárate Intertextuality and Intermediality as Cross-cultural Comunication Tools: A Critical Inquiry
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Cross-cultural communication is about generating dialogical positions across cultural barriers. Communication is achieved when participants are able to construct meaning across varied sign systems. Oral communication makes use of a wide range of signs that contribute to make meaning, from eye contact to gestures and speech. In written/printed communication, together with the reproduction of visual images through painting, photography, etc., the most important resource is the textual format. Texts are grounded on a cognitive deictic basis and work alongside the cause-effect relationship that links events in human working memory. This relationship frequently posits a hierarchical dependency between the understanding of visual images, textuality and narrativity. Although texts are vehicles of contextualized information and cultural positions are often presented in a historiographical way, culture is not just about textuality; it is also about multimodality, that is, the use of symbolic forms that employ simultaneously several material-semiotic resources to create a kind of common framework of socially acceptable behaviours and customs which arise both from individual personal experiences and from shared cultural and ethical values. Signs areused to represent these values and, in turn, these representations affect their further emotional interiorization. This creates particular strong moments of remembrance and recollection in human memory. In addition, the production, distribution and reception of culture has always been dependent on changing material formats and technologies, from manuscripts to printed books, from mural painting to photography, and from architecture to virtual recreations on a computer screen. In recent years, the interest in intertextual and intermedial configurations is mostly due to the growth of hypermedia paradigms, and is reflected in the increasing number of disciplinary publications and conferences devoted to the topic. This paper shall explore the reasons behind a renewed interest in intertextual and intermedial manifestations in cross-cultural communication.
219. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Giuseppe Cacciatore Intercultural Ethics and “Critical” Universalism
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The aim of this article is the analysis of a new model of intercultural ethics. In this way I propose a “creative” and dynamic version of universalism, which canbe used as a model for the construction of a pluralistic and intercultural philosophical perspective.
220. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 8 > Issue: 2
Scott H. Boyd Considering a Theory of Autopoietic Culture
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This article questions the predominance of pragmatism and fixed points of reference in academic paradigms regarding culture and proposes a theory of autopoietic culture based on a theory of living forms developed by the biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela. The central part of the theory of autopoietic culture is that culture, something originating with humanity and reflected upon by the same, is an autonomous and autonomic unity that is a network of processes and production of components that are continuously generated and “recursively participate through their interactions in the generation and realization of the network of process of production of components which produced them” (Maturana, 1999: 149, 153). This article briefly refers to the theories of Thomas Sebeok, Juri Lotman, Niklas Luhmann and Pierre Bourdieu, which have similar components to the theory of autopoietic culture. The article concludes that within autopoietic culture whatever we would consider describing as a cultural element is not as significant as the processes within which it is part in the construction of its own boundary of discernment; our description of the process is always conducted with other observers in a linguistic domain; our existence carries its own ontogeny and creates perturbations in the structure (elements) which we distinguish; and there are an unknown number of elements and processes continuing in time within the unity that define the unity and are beyond our ability to distinguish.