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21. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
DongKai Li 自由的自然受限是道 德和法律的伦理基础
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As per my new ontology and cognition theory, in my this paper, I demonstrate theory about Moral and Law, point out, the naturally limited freedom is the basis of moral and law. Following is my new ontology and cognition: New ontology: The onto is the uniform contradiction being. The essence of people: The uniformcontrast body within people’s body, is “ego and nonego”. New Cognition: Cognition course moves by the force from the contrast between the Ego and Nonego within an exist being live body. Above ontology and cognition is the theory basis of my this paper.
22. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 3
Jian Wang, Dong Ming Cao 现代技术伦理规约的困境及其消解
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With the rapid development of modern technology, people has stepped into an risky era. Ethical stipulation is the important means to reduce the risks. But in reality, ethical stipulation of technology always face some kind of dilemma which mainly come from two aspects: one is that when we try to regulate the subject oftechnology, we find that it always difficult to distinguish the responsibilities. The other aspect is that when we try to limit the result of technology, we often have to give up because of lacking feasibility, which means we sink into the famous “Collingridge dilemma”. Are we able to get out of the dilemma? What should we doif we want to got out of it? First, in the modern technological system, individual’s action is taken over by group’s action according to the technological criterion. Any part of the modern technology need multiple subjects finish his job during the course. Therefore a new form of responsibility named group responsibility has been formed. Like Johnas said, in this ethics, ‘I’ will be replaced by ‘we’ and decision will be the business of a group. So it is difficult for us to find out that “I” from “us” once the technological risks happened. We lost the object of ethical stipulation as the result of no convinced standard and principals of prescribing the group responsibility. Second, when we try to stimulate some certain results of technology, we find we lack not only the wisdom of precisely judging or assessingtechnology itself, but also the ability of correcting the bad results if it has. Here again do we fall into the dilemma. This make it difficult for us to stipulate technology with ethic. From above discussion we can see, the stipulation, no matter from the aspect of technological responsibility or from aspect of the application of technology, has been sure to meet the dilemma. If the conflicts between a hypothesis and experiment cannot be eliminated, we have to rethink the theoryand come back again to technology itself and pursue the essence of technology again. Technology is a process from inventing, designing to forming material technological products; is a process from invisible technology to visible technology; is a process potential technology to real-life technology or intellective technology to reallife technology. Technology exists in process. The essential and innate characteristic is it’s process and dynamics. The transition oftechnological form involves many factors of economic, social, historical, constitutional and cultural. Technological creation of intellectual form is the duty of inventor or technologist. And it is entrepreneur’s job to use the technology or invention, and make them in large quantity, apply them in reality or get economic or other profit. Although there need be interaction, understanding, cooperation, support, coordination among scientist, technologist and enterpriser, they have different responsibility and delimitation. Technology exists in process, no doubt, so does modern technology. This decides that the ethical stipulation of modern technology should be a process stipulation . The essence of modern technological is not only the limitation of subject of technology either not only controlthe object of technology. It is the ethical stipulation in the unity of subject and object of technological dynamic process. This is basic point of understanding ethical stipulation of modern technology. Responsibility ethics consider that the group responsibility as the premise of technological stipulation .It noticed the static structure of modern technological system, but neglect the dynamic linkage between factors. And it only analysed the special construction, neglected the evolution of system of technological responsibility and the inter relationship between space dimension and time dimension. If we unfold the group responsibility along with the process of technology, we will see the different responsibility belong to different subject in different stage of the process. We can also see that different actors obey different norm or criteria according to their task. In this case, we can distinct the distribution of the group responsibility. Collingridge fixed the effective control on the two points of “before ”and ”after” the process of the technological action, namely, the stipulation for the staring point and stipulation of terminal point. But the whole process was neglected. According to the point of view of process stipulation .it is not the sudden occurrence for technology from “nothing ”to “having”. There are time and space during the process. From middle experiment to industrial experiment, the most characters of the result of technology will havebeen shown gradually, so will the social results. So we can give the small quantity an ethical evaluation and ethical choice which is possible and feasible. Over all, if we confirm the ethical stipulation of modern technology is a process regulation, we can delimitate the responsibility of the subjects of technology and also settle the prestipulation of the application of technology. At the end, we can eliminate the dilemma of ethical regulation of modern technology.
23. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Jisheng Bi 论黑格尔“本质性或反思规定”的形而上学实质
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Hegel "Science of Logic essential theory "Thereunto” essential” Adv of Excoriate target "Sham essential”, with matter together method Identity, so serves as concact” sham Essential” The "Reflection" "Ground”, ” Contradiction” as well as its ” Identity", "Difference” etc. Also Necessarily false doubtless, currently fad make believe becomes reality of viewpoint, by the root perversion speculative philosophy, must be corrected.
24. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 30
Jisheng Bi 黑格尔《逻辑学〈本质论〉》 中范畴过渡之谜
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Hegel oneself indicate “essential theory " Thereunto category transition, large orientation yes as best as one can in accord with cognize course process of, to this aspect ought earnest comprehend, but history with logicality improbable Absolute coherent, More Plus For the sake of fabricate institutions of demand, additionally have to pray in aid of imaginary, To this aspect ought to appropriate comment critically, though never be able to use dot supplant bodily general denial.
25. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 34
DongKai Li 黑格尔认识论和本体论的根本错 误以及我的新的本体论和认识论
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Almost all think Hegel’s Ontology and Cognition is wrong. Yeah, his is wrong. But, what mistake? What mistake is the essential one? How to demonstrate Hegel’s this essential mistake in his great Ontology and Cognition system? This section is Ontology. But, Ontology can not be there without the Cognition. Hegel’s great achievement in philosophy history is his Cognition. While, His main mistake is also in his Cognition, and, his that mistake in Cognition is at the basis of hisOntology, his wrong Ontology. So, before point out Hegel’s mistake in Ontology, we must take out his Cognition, point out his that essential mistake in his Cognition. By law of contradiction, Hegel ever study the Cognition, demonstrated that the Cognition course moves by the force of contradiction from the contrast between the object and knowledge. This was really a great achievement and big progress on the development of Cognition, clear up Kant’s confusion in Kant’sstudy of Cognition. But, now, I ask, is that contradiction from the contrast between the object and knowledge the force to move the Cognition course? Pls be kindly noted, this is the place where Hegel’s essential mistake in Cognition rooted. Pls your attention, how does the contrast between the object and knowledge produce a kind of contradiction force, while the object is external exist, the knowledge is another exist? By law of contradiction, only when a pair of contrast exist in a samebody, that contrast could produce the force. the object and the knowledge, obviously are not in a same being body, so, even though there is the contrast between the object and knowledge, that contrast can not produce the force to more the Cognition. For example, the tree is there as a kind of exist being, the knowledge about the tree is there also as a kind of exist being, or, this knowledge about the tree could be regarded as that in people’s mind, in book. Of course, betweenthe tree and the knowledge about that tree there is the contrast, pls be kindly asked, does this contrast produce the force to move your Cognition about the tree? Can you get? Can you feel that force? of course, the answer is NO. So, the force to move the Cognition course is not from the contrast between the object and knowledge! This is Hegel’s essential mistake in Cognition. So, the force moves the Cognition course must come from one same exist being body, in which a pair of contrast exist. In my this Paper, besides point out above mentioned Hegel’s mistake in Cognition, I already present the pair of contrast, existing in one same exist being body, to produce the force to move the Cognition. The contrast to produce the force is demonstrated out by following steps: Firstly, find out Hegel’s mistake in Ontology, because, his wrong Cognition is on basis of his Ontology. Secondly, demonstrate what is the Ontology. I demonstrated successfully that theuniform contradiction body is just the noumenon, the ONTO, which is the root for everything. Then, people, as a kind of external exist, exist also as per the law of uniform contradiction, is a kind of specific uniform contradiction body, in which, a pair of contrast exist, produce the force to control people’s exist, move. Then, I study this uniform contrast in people’s body, finally, I found out this uniform contrast body within people’s body, it is ego and nonego. Ego, refers to the people’s live body, include the body and the instinct, the desire in mind, etc. Nonego, refers to the Idea in people’s mind, the idea reflects the external exist being. For one person, one live body, the Ego and Nonego is a kind of contrast, producing the force to make this live body move. Cognition is a kind of movement of human, so, Cognition course moves by the force from the contrast between the Ego and Nonego within an exist being live body. Following is the Cognition move course way: “EGO”+“Nonego” →→ Force to move (N times) → → Feeling (N times) → → Idea (N numbers)+ thinking (N times) →→ Knowledge (N numbers) ≈ Object →→=Object
26. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Yan Yin 论个体自我认同危机
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Self-identity of Individual-subject is evaluative knowledge and factive confirmation on basic of an evaluative knowledge on “who am I”. Crisis of Self-identity of Individual-subject is a extremely stern reality which Individual-subject is confronted with in modern sociality. The paper researches the essence of self-identity of individual-subject, and analyzes the characteristics and reasons of crisis of self-identity of individual-subject from the point of view of theory of evaluation. The paper hold that crisis of self-identity of individual-subject is a difficult position of self-evaluation of individual-subject in modern sociality, and arrives at conclusion that crisis of self-identity of individual-subject can be overcome and prevented by modeling positive self and building a reasonable mechanism of self-evaluation of individual-subject.
27. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Ziyi Feng 全球化条件下的民族文化发展
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In view of previous discussions about national culture were limited in the framework of “traditional-modern”, this essay attempts to re-exam this framework in a wider field of “globalization-nationalization”, and treats the development of national culture under the condition of globalization. Since globalization has become an important background and inner essential factor, no matter maintenance, inheritance, accumulation or development of culture cannot be separated fromglobalization, the new frame of reference. Under the condition of globalization, development of culture has its own new characteristics and inner logic, so development of national culture has to be advanced on basis of following these points and law. If a developing country wants to advance the development of national culture, it has to raise cultural consciousness, adjust cultural mind, strengthen cultural transform, and push cultural conformity and innovation.
28. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 36
Yan Zhao On Transformation of Historical Forms of Globalization
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As an objective tendency in social development, globalization has experienced three different historical forms. They are globalization as communication survival purposes, globalization for capital expansion and globalization in amalgamation of cultures. The thesis point out that globalization does not equally mean capitalization. The capital expansion, however, is only one of the forms of globalization process. In the era of the new globalization, both the developed and the developing countries have to coordinate and make active and positive use of the favorite conditions as well as opportunities for further development. The developed and developing countries must learn to respect each other and open up more channels of communication to understand each other better in an effort to better serve their own interests and create a win-win situation despite of their different cultures and stages of development. This is the only way to bring about harmonious coexistence for peoples of various countries around the world.
29. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
DongKai Li 根据最新的本体论和认识论, 我们应该有怎样的教育理论
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As per my new theory in ontology and cognition, the theory of education could be demonstrated. My this paper is to demonstrate the theory of education as per my new ontology and cognition. Following is my new theory in ontology and cognition: New ontology: The Onto is the uniform contradiction being. The essence of people: The uniform contrast body within people’s body, is “ego and nonego. “New Cognition: Cognition course moves by the force from the contrast between the Ego and Nonego within an exist being live body. Following is the Cognition move course way : “EGO” + “Nonego”→→ Force to move (N times)→→ Feeling(N times)→→Idea (N numbers) + thinking (N times)→→Knowledge (N numbers) ≈ Object →→ = Object As per above new ontology and cognition, Theory ofeducation is demonstrated in my this paper.
30. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 37
Yong-ping Dou 数学教育整体思路导言
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This paper represents an introduction to whole approach of mathematics education and takes an example for wholeness principle by area. It is also an introduction to whole approach of education.
31. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 39
Daqiang Li 对象、可能世界与必然性 —《逻辑哲学论》的本体论分析
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This article focuses on several important but obscure concepts in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. In order to clarify the concept of “object”, I compare it with “atom”. The analysis of the two concepts explains two important questions which have confused Wittgenstein’s reviewers for long: why is the world not the totality of things? Is object substance? “Logical space” is an important concept in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, although it only appears several times. If a proposition serves as the coordinates in the logical space, what are the coordinate axes? Is a possible world a point in the logical space, or a set of points in it? Based on symbolic transformations, I suggest that possible worlds serve as coordinate axes in the logical space. The concept of “possible worlds” contradicts with “necessity”. In Wittgenstein’s theory, all possible worlds are “accessible” to one another. This is why Wittgenstein fails to cope with the conflict between “possibility” and “necessity”.
32. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 4
DongKai Li 明确哲学的研究对象
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From the daily life, how to get the access to philosophy, what is the approaches to philosophy? Regarding the big topics /big affair in the world, are they related to the philosophy? what and how shall the philosophy do? About some concept, word, have we already fully confirmed their meaning? What shall the philosophy do to make their meaning clear and confirmed? Refers to the philosophy itself, have we already confirmed its study object? What is Philosophy? what is the main study object for the philosophy? It is the pity that till now, for the whole world philosophy field, the main study object for the philosophy have not been confirmed. There are various kinds of answer, this means philosophy, from the past one hundred years, till now, has not work out the state of downturn and confusion. Since the philosophy itself is not clear, then no wonder from the late of 19 century to now, philosophy seems did litting achievement for the human being, for the civilization, for the progress, its glory looks gray, compared with Science, which is in fact born by philosophy although. So, before the philosophy could work well for the civilization, firstly, we should make the philosophy clear, confirm the main object of philosophy, target the correct object for philosophy! Only after this firstwork, we could expect philosophy do well on its tasks and function. For my this paper, its essential point is to present an answer for the target object belongs to the philosophy. Through demonstrate as per scientific logic and philosophy’s whole history, this answer, namely, the only target object belongs to philosophy is the Ontology and Cognition. Let philosophy go back to its correct place, its correct way. then, it could move ahead. only after we get new progress on the study of Ontology and Cognition, and with the help of this new achievement of Ontology and Cognition, we can get progress on the study of the fields related to the human being and progress of civilization. As far as what is the Ontology and Cognition, which kind new achievement of Ontology and Cognition we could expect, that is the next step.
33. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 41
FangWen Yuan Query the Triple Loophole of the Proof of Gödel Incompleteness Theorem
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Kurt Godel’s “Incompleteness Theorem” is generally seen as one of the three main achievements of modern logic in philosophy. However, in this article, three fundamental flaws in the theorem will be exposed about its concept, judgment and reasoning parts by analyzing the setting of the theorem, the process of demonstration and the extension of its conclusions. Thus through the analysis of the essence significance of the theorem, I think the theorem should be classified as "liar paradox" or something like that. Therefore, the theorem is not reliable and then the content of the theorem itself is questionable. At the same time, please note, the root of the problem exposed in Godel's “Incompleteness Theorem” is a typical example o f existing loopholes in traditional logic.
34. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 42
Xinyan Zhang The Interaction between Mental Energy and Memory
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In his paper, From Everything Outside Mind To Those Inside, submitted also to WCP 2008, the author put forward an idea that the existence of a human mind might generally be understood as either the interaction between circulating mental energies and living memories or results of the interaction. A further discussion on the details of this interaction is presented in this paper. The interaction may be divided into instinctive activities and intellective activities that may be further divided into basic activities such as memory’s forming and forgetting, and advanced activities such as simulating. Three different kinds of simulating activities are described and their general principles are discussed, which is called by the author as “Inforeactor”.
35. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 42
Zihu Liu 人类精神的结构体系和层面性发展解析
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Whenever we analyze the issue of spiritual activities, we can never lay aside of the macro-background of “spirit service to life”. Spirit is” software” of life. It is essentially to carry out determination of self life and a nervous system which make the information processing and feedback between self life and outside world. It has reasonable structure system and systematical work mechanism. The basic structure system of the spirit of human beings is like this: self is the core and leading of spirit running, which has properties in three aspects which are will, needs and motility. These properties formed a unity. Will mainly shows theessential property of self, which is in the domination and core position. Needs mainly shows the main part of life requesting and demanding for objective outside, which is in the conditional and secondary position. If we put the Needs in the key position, it will blaspheme the meaning of life and lose the value of life. Motility is a centralized reflection of life activity, which could be a means for the implementation of self Will and acquisition of self needs. In the tangible world, it is displayed as colorful life activity. In the intangible spiritual world, it is displayed as the information processing ability and information feedback ability of self life. Motility has four different levels: emotion, subconsciousness, consciousness, cognition. Correspondingly, the development of spirit could also be divided as four levels. In each level, self, activity, requested development degree, property characteristics and main content have certain of differences. In structure system of spirit, there is a correlation among each part and each element, which will interact with own characteristics to form an organic whole. In fact, it is an essential sublimation of tangible body and an intangible life existed with information form. The following figure shows the relationship of each element:[*Electronic Editor's Note: Figure in PDF of article*]This structure system of spirit, which isn’t a simple frame but an abstract mechanism of spirit running, is life active system of informatization. This system and mechanism make the changeable spiritual activity clear and orderly, and make the abundant and various life activities systematic and vivid. This system’s self isdeveloping, whose development still comply with the law of life development, symbolizing the development and extension of vitality. This development could be considered as continuance of life progress. In the low-grade life, it is mainly displayed as biological stress stage of promoting the favorable and avoiding the unfavorable as well as blind and instinctive affective response stage; in the highgrade animals, it is gradually displayed certain of psychological activity ability and study cognition ability. In human beings, it is gradually displayed awake of consciousness and mature of reason, making human beings to control themselves and change all things to become the soul of the world. Through this structure system and running mechanism, we could get a systematical explanation for theessence of emotion, mystery of psychological activity, process of consciousness awake, occurrence mechanism of dream. Meantime, we put forth that human beings must experience the second awakerational awake to become the true society human when human beings become the humans with souls after consciousness awake.
36. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Zhānghàn Zhōng 真气科学
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科学追求真理,古希腊哲学家柏拉图认为精确的理念和数学就是 真理。本文对现代科学和数学进行了深入的反思,论证了理念和数学不 是真理。与真气同在的理念和数学是真理,与骄气同在的理念和数学是 谬误,人所得到的理念和数学只不过是在真气和骄气之间的模糊值。本 文试图在耶稣的真气中,建立三位一体的真气科学,让自然科学和社会 科学在真气的本形耶稣里得以贯通。本文的目的是通过这三位一体的真 气科学,让人在真气本形耶稣里自由地追求各自的真理。尽管各自的真理是模糊值,但模糊真理胜过精确谬误。真气和道,阴阳一体,是中华 文明的根基。《圣经》讲:“上帝是灵。”《圣经》所讲的“灵”的希 伯来字是ruagh。ruagh 的原意有气、风、生命力、等等含义。所以根据 希伯来字原意,这“灵”可以直译为中国古老的《黄帝内经》所述的 “真气”,上帝就是真气。耶稣就是道,是真气的本形,与真气同在。真气看不见,属阳;真气的形看得见,属阴。真气和真气的形,阴阳互 根,合为一体,在不同的时空彰显,就是道。真气、耶稣、道,三位一 体,是宇宙的独一真神。中国道家所述的阴阳关系,是宇宙万物的根本 关系,是超对称关系。万物都与耶稣的真气,构成阴阳关系。耶稣是真 气的本形,耶稣就是真气,万物始于他,归于他,依靠他。一切神学、哲学、科学、经济学、医学、等等,也始于他,归于他,依靠他。
37. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
B. J. Zeng 结构论: 生物系统泛进化理论
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Modern science developed in the interflow of culture between west and east. Combing of pratice technology with philosophic thoughts formed experimental method. Holistic views contacting atomism produced system theory. System thoughts are applicated in the science and engineering of biosystems, and the cencepts of system biomedicine (Kamada T.1992), systems biology (Zieglgansberger W, Tolle TR.1993), system bioengineering and system genetics (Zeng BJ. 1994) were established. From positive to synthetic thoughts, philosophy have been developed ontology, cosmology, organism theories. Structurity is structure logic system founded on entity, develop, exist axioms, tolerance, adaptation, fluctuate, interweave, transform theorems and integrate, adaptation, construct laws. Structurity be discussed on the cosmos, life, culture system, creation, hologram theories of structure ontology, construct mutation, simi-structure organism and entity emergence, symbol implication. From the relation of structure, function and development, the structurity put forward the cycle, spiral, triangle structure stability patterns of self-organization in structure complement each other and stratification, functional couple and interflow bounds growth, coordinativetransformation and holographic symmetry.
38. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 43
Wang Guozheng Nature Science and “Three Changes”
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Once Zheng Xuan, a man of Han dynasty, made notations of “Yiwei”, he said: “The word ‘change’ contains three meanings: the first is simplifying, the second is transformation, and the third is unchanging ”, thus called to “three changes”. The wording “three changes” is able to be the different explanations of “Zhouyi”, and also can be understand to three meanings of the word “change” in “Zhouyi”. Everywhere in the nature, and in nature science, there are incalculable examples about “three changes”. The process of “simplifying”, it is that nature science obtains the principles by means of summing up the multitudinous complex spontaneous phenomena. There is “the fundamental of thinking economy”, and “Aucum razor” in the west, then they emphasize to wipe off the miscellaneous and keep up the simple, and to eliminate the false and retain the true. Therefore, it can say where there is no “simplifying”, there is no nature science. “Transformation” means movement and change. This is the essentiality of the nature. From the biggest such as the universe to the smallest such as cells, all these are the outcomes of evolution, and are changing continueously. Physics researching from static objects to dynamic objects, and mathematics calculation from the constant to the variable, all of these studies are closing up to the essentiality of the natural “transformation” nearer and nearer. If there is no “transformation”, nature science world stop, and the nature world be deathly stillness. “Unchanging” means that the static state exists in the dynamic state, and the constant exists in the variation. The various theorems and laws, such as the theorem of constant of light velocity and the law of conservation of energy, are the summation and accumulation of the regularities of which the relative stabilization is kept in changeable movement. Various kinds of equation are all linked by equal-sign, and based on the condition recognizing which the two sides is equal constantly. Therefore the calculation of the relations between matter characteristics can be set up. Otherwise, not only the nature world be disorder and unsystematic, but also the science world have no laws to go by.
39. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 44
Xiao Ming Wang 生命的哲学 ‐后基因时代药物筛选策略与传统中药学理论
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Using logic analysis method with contemporary philosophy conception, made the definition of a life. Analyzing the reason of a disease and characteristics of drug, explained the Chinese traditional theory of materia medica. Demonstrated the best drug contain the function of Monarch drug, Minister drug, serviceman drug and missioner drug, instructed human drug reseach in future.
40. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 45
Liang Kun Inquiry in to the Russian Ecological Eschatology Ideology
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Compared with the related western studies, Russian ecological philosophy has paid more attention to Eschatology and represented a unique path of thinking, that is, an intense rational conception and a religious consciousness. In the era of globalization, Russian ecological Eschatology, as an active response of Russian ideology to the world ecosystem crisis, contains a strong eschatological emotion and a spirit of salvation. It mainly deals with the sin and punishment between the nature and human being as well as the endeavor of atoning humanity. The first part of the essay traces back the origin and evolution of eschatology and ecology in the two systems of Russian philosophy—humanism and cosmism, with a trimming of the original relationship between the ecological eschatology and the traditional eschatology. The second part explores the way of salvation for the human being in crisis directed by Russian ecological philosophy, which is nourished by the profound spiritual tradition. For the human being, the way of civilization lies in a rebuild of rationality by faith. The goal of faith is to achieve a self-completeness in morality by a heart-open through God. In this way, the destiny of the world may be changed. This is the only hope of the human being and, therefore, a new chapter of salvation for our times.