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Displaying: 41-60 of 115 documents

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41. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 4
Michael Dunne A Being-towards-Death — the Vado mori
42. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 4
Harry McCauley Red, Riotous and Wrong: Is the Secondary Quality Analogy an Unpalatable Doctrine?
43. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 4
Cyril McDonnell Understanding and Assessing Heidegger’s Topic in Phenomenology in Light of His Appropriation of Dilthey’ s Hermeneutic Manner of Thinking
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This paper analyses Heidegger’s controversial advancement of Husserl’s idea of philosophy and phenomenological research towards ‘the Being-Question’ and its relation to ‘Dasein’. It concentrates on Heidegger’s elision of Dilthey and Husserl’s different concepts of ‘Descriptive Psychology’ in his 1925 Summer Semester lecture-course, with Husserl’s concept losing out in the competition, as background to the formulation of ‘the Being-Question’ in Being and Time (1927). It argues that Heidegger establishes his own position within phenomenology on the basis of a partial appropriation of Dilthey’s hermeneutical manner of thinking, an appropriation that was later radically called into question by Levinas on Diltheyean-hermeneutical-philosophical grounds.
44. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 4
Edith Stein, Mette Lebech Martin Heidegger’s Existential Philosophy Translation by Mette Lebech
45. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 4
Denise Ryan Jean de La Rochelle’s Formulation of the Distinction between Being and Essence
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The distinction between ‘being’ and ‘essence’ arose in the elaboration of the theory of universal hylomorphism, defended by the Franciscans, which maintained that there is a composition of matter and form in all beings other than the First cause. This paper focuses on a formula which Jean de La Rochelle (1190/ 1200-1245) borrows from Boethius (c. 480-524) to explain how the ‘being’ of the soul is distinct from the ‘essence’ of the soul. It concludes by raising the question whether Jean’s formulation anticipates that of St Thomas Aquinas’s (1224-1274) in his early writings on De Ente et Essentia.
46. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 4
John Haydn Gurmin Edith Stein and Tania Singer: A Comparison of Phenomenological and Neurological Approaches to the Problem of Empathy
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This paper compares Edith Stein’s phenomenological approach to empathy in On the Problem of Empathy (1917) with that of more recent neurological explanations of empathy, broadly exemplified by Tania Singer’s (2006) work. Given that we are dealing with two different methodologies that reflect the general debate that exists between phenomenology and natural science (neurology), a consideration of ‘method’ will be discussed prior to our comparative analysis of Stein and Singer’s account of empathy. In conclusion, we argue that Stein’s phenomenological understanding of empathy provides the most comprehensive description of the act of empathy to date for neurologists to ‘reflect ’ on.
47. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 5
Michael Dunne Foreword
48. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 5
Patrick Gorevan Philippa Foot’s ‘Natural Goodness’
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Philippa Foot, with the help of her friend and colleague Elizabeth Anscombe, discovered that Summa Theologiae, II-II of Thomas Aquinas was a powerful resource in seeking objectivism in ethics. Foot’s aim was to produce an ethics of natural goodness, in which moral evil, for example, came to be seen as a ‘natural defect’ rather than the expression of a taste or preference. This brought her to develop a concrete ethics of virtue with a broad sweep, dealing with the individual and communal needs and goods of human beings, and particularly with their central moral quality of acting for a reason, with a practical rationality. This has helped her to return to an Aristotelian meaning of virtue, as simply one kind of excellence among others.
49. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 5
Simon F. Nolan Issue Editor's Introduction
50. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 5
Michael Dunne Aodh Mac Aingil (Hugo Cavellus, 1571—1626) on Doubt, Evidence and Certitude
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When John Duns Scotus died at the young age of 42, seven centuries ago in 1308, he did not leave behind a completed body of work which would present his mature philosophical thought. Thus, the followers of Scotus were faced with the challenging task of interpreting the texts of the Subtle Docotr. Since Scotism became one of the most important schools of thought by the early modern period, the synthesis elaborated by the most famous of the commentators on Scotus’s philosophy Hugo Cavellus (1571-1626), Irish Franciscan and Archbishop of Armagh is of capital importance. Cavellus dedicated a considerable part of his commentary on the De Anima of Duns Scotus to the problems relating to the theory of the knowledge. Because of Cavellus’s central importance in seventeenth-century Scotism, his writings on doubt, evidence and certitude are noteworthy in terms of developments in modern thought.
51. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 5
Simon Nolan Teaching and Learning in the Summa theologiae of Gerard of Bologna (d. 1317)
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Gerard of Bologna (d. 1317) was the first Carmelite master at the University of Paris in the Middle Ages. In Quaestio 6, article 1 of his incomplete Summa theologiae, Gerard discusses the issue of teaching and learning. During the course of his discussion he summarises his understanding of the process of cognition in human beings and he considers God, angels and human beings as teachers. Gerard insists on the necessity of the teacher-student relationship in the handing on of human knowledge.
52. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 5
Cyril McDonnell Why Punish the Guilty?: Towards a Philosophical Analysis of the State’s Justification of Punishment
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There is general acceptance that those who break the law must be punished; however, not all agree as to why this is necessary. Some argue punishment is necessary to reform criminals, others to deter criminals, and others because you deserve it, whether punishment reforms or deters. Stripped of metaphors, this paper argues that punishment is retribution, but that a distinction must be made between the definition of punishment as retribution and its justification, if a case is to be made for its moral justification. Thus the most important question the paper raises relates to the justification of punishment as retribution.
53. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 5
Mette Lebech Stein’s Phenomenology of the Body: The constitution of the human being between description of experience and social construction
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Stein’s phenomenology is one that is particularly sensitive to intersubjective constitution, and thus her constitutional analysis of the body is one that allows for an analysis of the body as ‘socially constructed’ (in so far as one understands this term to mean the same as ‘inter-subjectively constituted’). The purpose of this paper is to give an account of Stein’s phenomenology of the body as it appears in On the Problem of Empathy, her constitutional analysis being explicitly articulated in this work as including both subjective and intersubjective layers.
54. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 5
Susan Byrne Remarks on Ludwig Wittgenstein and Behaviourism
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Ludwig Wittgenstein’s systematic rejection of cognitive analysis undoubtedly leads one to interpret his work as being fundamentally influenced by behaviourism. However, despite his private language argument, his views on ostensive definition, and his investigation into psychological concepts and psychology as an empirical science, this paper will show that Wittgenstein’s behaviourist influences were both relevant and limited and thus his tentative link to methodological behaviourism should not facilitate any distortion or misrepresentation of his philosophy or be confused with his own assertions as a logical behaviourist.
55. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 5
Conleth Loonan The De mixtione elementorum of Thomas Aquinas
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In this article Aquinas’s three accounts of how the elements combine — those of Avicenna, Averroes and Aquinas himself — are considered. An attempt is then made to reinterpret these accounts in the light of our contemporary understanding of the manner in which the modern elements behave in combination. This follows Bobik’s lead in restating Aquinas’s own account of how the Aristotelian elements combine, using present-day insights into the behaviour of the modern elements.
56. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 5
John Haydn Gurmin A Bibliography of English Language Commentaries on the Philosophy of Edith Stein
57. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 5
Wayne Waxman Universality and the Analytic Unity of Apperception in Kant: a reading of CPR B133-4n
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I situate historically, analyze, and examine some of the implications of Kant’s thesis that the analytic unity of apperception — the representation of the identity of the I think — is what transforms any representation to which it is attached into a universal (conceptus communis).
58. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 8
Michael Dunne Evil and Indifference
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This article is a personal reflection on the question of the importance of human experience regarding suffering and death. It is also a reflection on the paradoxical indifference that many feel with regard to the suffering of others. It concludes, after an examination of some of the major thinkers on the topic, that we may well be forced to concede that to this question we may possibly be unable to give an answer.
59. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 8
Michael W. Dunne General Editor’s Foreword
60. Maynooth Philosophical Papers: Volume > 8
Notes on Contributors