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41. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Soon-ok Myong, Byong-soon Chun Cultural Politics of Otherizing Hijabed Muslims in Kazakhstan
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This paper intends to highlight how the Kazakhs, the indigenous ethnic group that emerged as the leading subject of society in Kazakhstan after independencefrom the former Soviet Union, reclassify and remodel their self-culture in the new socio-political context. Despite the craving for resuscitating the Islamic tradition,shrunk under colonial domination, rather the indigenous folklorized Islam came to be classified as a pure national tradition under the fear of radical Islamism,causing the exclusion of the orthodox Muslims. This paper looks at hijabed Muslim women, considered to be outside the reclassified boundary of national tradition, and efficiently controlled and marginalized by the discourse produced by the ruling powers. The authors include field research and interviews from a number of participants, making visible the strategies of exclusion and the political narratives constructed around what people should remember and learn. These narratives recollect forms of imperialism which continue to be, in one way or another.
42. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Maximiliano Korstanje Constructing the Other by Means of Hospitality: the Case of Argentina
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In the hyper-mobile world of today, the industry of tourism and cultural entertainment, witnesses the multiplication of opportunities to travel. According toJohn Urry, we inhabit mobile cultures where being kind to strangers is a positive cultural value. This reality archives the bloody past of hospitality, which from theideological fields facilitated, for instance, the conquest of the Americas. In the present discussion, I delve into the world of literature and explore Viaje a caballo por las provincias Argentinas [Journey on horseback across the provinces of Argentine] a work originally written by William Mac Cann, a British businessman who visited the country between 1947 and 1948. His observations not only reveal the collective patterns of behaviour that have remained part of daily life up to date. The volume describes the attempts of an elite interested in creating a united, but subordinated, image of society, and illuminates the diverse mechanisms of imperial expansion. Hospitality plays a crucial role in the hierarchy of travellers presented in the book, with some belonging to the higher classes of society and others unnamed.
43. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Liudmila Baeva, Anna Romanova Challenges to Frontier Allegories: the Caspian Sea Region in Southern Russia
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This contribution is devoted to frontier theory, the analysis of its conceptual apparatus as well as its topical issues and practical application. We propose a revision of this theory, and confront the usefulness of the term “frontier” with other the similar concepts such as border, boundary and limit. The paper alsoproposes a typology of frontiers characterized by various aspects; civilization, intercultural, religious, and anthropological, among other. From the standpoint ofthis discussion, the authors consider the Southern Russian bordering region of the Caspian Sea, today a much conflicted territory.
44. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Mary Theis Ideal Isolation for the Greater Good: The Hazards of Postcolonial Freedom
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Given the increasing complexity of living in a global village, countries and regions that are parts of larger political entities frequently have considered the optionof separating or seceding an ideal solution to their problems with a larger center of power. Isolation, a form of “freedom from,” has the potential of offering themfree rein or “freedom to” manage their affairs for their own sake. Francophone playwrights and filmmakers have found the dialectical interplay between “freedomfrom” and “freedom to” fertile dramatic soil for plays and films. Some of them work in both of these and other genres. These works seem to ask the same question: Is it desirable or possible to achieve both, even in ideal isolation, without suffering cultural stagnation or repeating the abuse of power on the part of the political center that led to the separation? This article explores the answers to this question given in the plays of Aimée Césaire, Anne Hébert, and Wajdi Mouawad within the greater context for this issue found in J. M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians and Azouz Begag’s Un Mouton dans la baignoire and in francophone films by Raoul Peck, Bertrand Tavernier, Claire Denis, Rachid Bouchareb, Ousmane Sembène, Michael Haneke, and Mathieu Kasovitz.
45. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Nurlykhan Aljanova, Karlygash Borbassova Etiquette Rules and Intercultural Relations in Kazakh Society after Independence from the Soviet Union
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This paper considers Kazakh traditional culture in terms of its etiquette rules. Four main blocks are explored: the etiquette of greeting and farewell, hospitality,family etiquette, and blessings, all of which are mandatory in everyday situations. This study acquires importance in relation to the complicated processes of interethnic relations after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the independence of Kazakhstan. Familiarity with the traditions and norms of behavior in Kazakh society as well a basic knowledge of ethnic etiquette serves to strengthen intercultural relations and to understand the ways of life of neighboring and distant peoples. This topic is of special importance in relation to the study of communication culture among interethnic groups after the collapse of the USSR.
46. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Jinghua Guo The Multi-dimensional Model of Cross-Cultural Interpretation as an Anti-centralist Tool in World Literature Perspectives
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This paper argues for a dialogical approach to the cultural relations between East and West. Recognizing the importance of Edward Said’s 1978 work Orientalism, the paper shows a desire to recover more positive approaches that endeavor to integrate Eastern culture and its influence upon the West, not in terms of power or domination, but in terms of cross-cultural encounters. In order to briefly exemplify the debate, I use two examples from Chinese folk culture in the form of movie adaptations in the West, and mention the multiple opera versions of Shakespeare’s plays in the East.
47. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Simon C. Estok Bull and Barbarity, Feeding the World
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This paper argues that food security is a very important topic in cosmopolitanism, one that has simply not received the kind of attention that it should receive.The paper reveals how global food monopolies destroy possibilities for national self-sufficiency, raises questions about neo-nationalism in an age of terror,and exposes the insidious and invidious corporate neo-imperialism that attends seed patenting. “Food, eating, and ethics” as a topic is rarely seen as a proper or important part of discussions about “the new cosmopolitanism,” let alone as part of literary discussions. This paper examines the violence and barbarity of transnational corporations such as Monsanto. I show what happens in the global supermarket and how lives and livelihoods are at stake, how the new corporate imperialism swallows up traditions and histories, and how dangerous food has become.
48. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 1
Huiyong Wu The Impact of Confucianism on Chinese Representations of Japanese Imperialism as well as on International Relations
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This paper explores the role of Confucian education in the perception and representation of the image of the Japanese soldiers in Chinese cultural products.The paper recognizes that perceptions have been greatly affected by governmental demands as well as by other changing aspects that have evolved alongside societal changes, and traces a brief panorama of Japanese imperialism as reflected in popular cinema across different time periods. Finally, the paper tries to illuminate Sino-Japanese relations in the context of Confucianism and collectivism, extending the argument to include the international community at large.
49. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Tomas Kačerauskas Creative Society: Concepts and Problems
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The article deals with the concepts and problems of creative society. The author analyses the postmodern, post-industrial, post-rational, post-democratic, post-economic, post-capitalistic distinctiveness of creative society. According to the author, creative society has characteristics such as "outstanding-ness" (of both individual and society), creative living, and casual work relations. The paper deals with the creative aspects of entertainment and with the role of technologies in creative society. The author presents the sketches of creative ecology and creative ethics, the difficulties of empirically researching creativity and potential creative indexes as well as the problems regarding their evaluation. The research appeals to different approaches of creative society (including sociological, and philosophical) as well as methods used in different fields of the humanities (communication, media studies, narrative studies, and cultural studies). The author presents the key scholars of creative society and possible avenues of research emerging from this new subject.
50. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Polycarp Ikuenobe Cultural Dynamics, Moral Ignorance, and a Plausible Response to Immoral Acts
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I examine the plausibility that culture may induce moral ignorance to mitigate or vitiate blameworthiness. I show how culturally induced moral ignorance may explain and provide an excuse, but not a justification for, terrorist acts, and how a recognition of their moral ignorance and the basis for it, may indicate the proper moral response to extremist Islamic terrorism. I argue that Moody-Adams' criticisms of culturally induced moral ignorance fail to consider how the brainwashing processes, false beliefs, and the closed nature of oppressive cultures may vitiate an epistemic requirement for blameworthiness. I argue that we cannot assume, as Moody-Adams did, that because relevant moral facts are out there, and because people are rationally capable of knowing those facts and reflecting on their cultural principles as the basis for their actions, when they act immorally, it is because they simply refused to know the relevant moral facts or chose not reflect on their cultural principles.
51. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Rubén Herce Christopher Dawson on Spengler, Toynbee, Eliot and the notion of Culture
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This paper is an approach to the context in which Dawson's work originated as well as to the main critiques of the works by Oswald Spengler, Arnold Toynbee and Thomas S. Eliot, with whom he differed on how to address the study of culture. The contrasts between Dawson and the views of these authors are significant and help to refine the concept of culture Dawson used in his philosophy. The paper highlights both Dawson's perspective and what separates or brings him closer to these authors. Conclusions are drawn about the elements Dawson took from each one of them.
52. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Mahdi Dahmardeh, Hossein Parsazadeh Language and Culture: Can we shape what the future holds?
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The role of culture in a field as vast as applied linguistics is so pronounced and vital that even a highly selective overview might not be sufficient to be comprehensive. What follows might be a synoptic account of the role of culture in the realm of applied linguistics. The enigmatic point which even makes the vast field of applied linguistics goes to unbeaten tracks is the similar nature of culture. Due to the aforementioned point, here the canonical overlap of them is emphasised. Moreover, as culture and language are intrinsically intertwined, we decided to have a more cultural stance rather than a linguistic one. Therefore, first, we go through the major studies in connection with language and culture. These studies might fall into three broad categories, namely those relating to epistemology of culture, those relating to its relation to language, and finally those relating to its presentation through a given language. Then, we touch on the trends, and in the end we try sum up and to unravel, or better to say, to come to grips with this enigmatic riddle, culture. In other words, in conclusion, we attempt to portray what culture will be.
53. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Weilin Fang Anoixism and Its Idealistic Pursuit
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Anoixism is a new contemporary philosophy which has spread from Asia to Europe in recent years. Anoixism lists openness as its first principle, accepting and acknowledging every doctrine and philosophy in the world. Phoenixist liberalism and Anoixist naturalism are two main parts of Phoenixist ethics. It starts from human nature and respects every individual's human rights through Phoenixist Constitutionalism. Phoenixist ethics insists on respecting freedom to the maximum degree through its principle of openness, supporting "ethics with the least amount of norms" and "government with the least amount of control (violence)," although it proposes a non-violent liberalism which places reservations on violence so as to respect the value of nature, life and humanity. With the Anoixist concept of being open to nature, life and humanity, Anoixism achieves Buddhist Non-being, Taoist Tao, Humanist liberty and any other possible ultimate value.
54. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Georg W. Oesterdiekhoff Evolution of Democracy: Psychological Stages and Political Developments in World History
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There has been a long history of discussion whether intellectual or socioeconomic factors caused the rise of constitutional state and democracy, replacing the previous authoritarian forms of government. Some authors emphasized the role developmental psychology could play in illuminating the intellectual causes to these political phenomena. According to Piagetian researches, modern humankind has run through a psychogenetic evolution during the past several centuries. This psychological transformation entails higher forms of socio-moral consciousness decisive to the loss of legitimacy of authoritarian forms and to the erection of more humane political forms such as constitutional state and democracy.
55. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Alexandru Petrescu Cultural - Philosophical Debate concerning the German Origin, the Specificity and the Evolution of Analytical Philosophy
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In the following lines, we consider the current debate concerning the origin, the specificity and evolution of analytical philosophy. We will try to motivate the idea that the origins and evolution of analytical philosophy are not entirely due to the British philosophers; in fact, this problem cannot be properly explained in terms of a single tradition, which would come true by the removal of another one. Regarding the evolution of analytic philosophy, we identify aspects of the German tradition, the British tradition as well as some new elements generated by the interaction between positivism and American pragmatism.
56. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Corneliu C. Simuţ Promoting Ancestry as Ecodomy in Indigenous African Religions
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This paper is an attempt to offer a concrete contribution to the study of indigenous African religions and in particular to the support of creating a set of traditions from whose perspective one could engage in the study of indigenous African religions as well as of African spirituality in general through the unifying theme of ecodomy. Defined in terms of a constructive process, ecodomy seeks to provide families and communities with a common element, that of ancestors, which is not only specific to African spirituality but also potentially capable of strengthening and improving the life of African people. Thus, this methodology based on working with ancestry as economy is applied to four distinct scholars and their specific approaches to indigenous African religions: John S. Mbiti, who believes that ancestors have mainly social, not religious roles; Issiaka P. Laleye, for whom ancestors make a connection between the social and religious aspects of life; Jacob K. Olupona, who restricts ancestors to religion, and Israel Kamudzandu, in whose philosophy ancestors can provide African societies with the possibility of moving beyond their indigenous religions into accepting other religious beliefs, such as those provided by Christianity.
57. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Mariana Momanu, Nicoleta Laura Popa Nationalism and Europeanism in Education: A Critical Analysis of Alternatives
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Nationalism is inextricably connected with the modern history of nations and nationstates, and reflects the axiological sets derived from the aspirations of young nations. However, recent political, economic and social developments at the global level have determined the resurgence of nationalism, and signs of the pheno¬menon are also visible in Europe, although the old continent has enabled principles of cross-border solidarity and cohesion through transnational constructions such as the European Union. Europeanism, European identity and identification with Europe are still fragile, and rather indefinite, and at the same time challenged by new and powerful types of nationalism. The present work argues that national education emerged and developed as a natural response to the formation and affirmation of nationstates, whereas multicultural, respectively intercultural education may answer the needs of contemporary societies, which face pressure to balance complex national and transnational mutations. This paper's contribution is to focus on the European context, and it stresses the necessity of transnational agreement on terms and semantics connected with intercultural education, given its potential role in supporting equity, solidarity and social stability.
58. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Gulbakyt Shashayeva, Zhakhan Z. Moldabekov Hospitality in Kazakhstan: The Empire Sings Back
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The paper inquiries into the changing patterns of national construction and the importance of hospitality and music in Kazakh culture. In particular, the argument presented here unveils the fundamental role of folk cultural practices and Kazakh nomad heritage in the making of the new nation after independence from the Soviet Union. The paper argues that aspects of the Kazakh hospitality and music tradition serve the purpose of postcolonial national construction. Scholars such as Benita Parry (1994), Partha Chatterjee (1986), or David Lloyd (1997) have argued that nationalism may be a strategy of emancipation from colonial rule. This paper takes this perspective.
59. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Cristian Iftode The Ethical Meaning of Foucault's Aesthetics of Existence
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In order to grasp the true ethical meaning of Foucault's aesthetics of existence, I begin by explaining in what sense he was an anti-normativist, arguing that the most important thing about the "final" Foucault is his strong emphasis on the idea of human freedom. I go on with a brief discussion about Foucault's sources of inspiration and a criticism of Rorty's kindred plea for "aesthetic life". I strongly reject the interpretation of Foucault's aesthetics of existence in terms of narcissistic individualism, arguing, on the contrary, that it has a definite communitarian dimension. I also claim that it is rooted in the Socratic and Stoic understanding of "care of the self," at the same time allowing new challenging developments fitted for our "post-duty" historical age, by way of analogy with the process of artistic making. I conclude with some short answers to a few questions regarding the status of this aesthetics of living.
60. Cultura International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Ove Skarpenes, Rune Sakslind, Roger Hestholm National Repertoires of Moral Values
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The aim in this article is to widen the understanding of the significance of morality in the Norwegian social formation by comparing it with the French and the American case. After the introductory discussion of the new sociology of morality, previous findings from a study of the Norwegian middle class are reported. A short presentation of republicanism in France and Americanism in USA is followed by an analysis of the cultural and structural peculiarities of the Norwegian case, arguing that the content of the Norwegian middle class morality should be seen in light of the egalitarian tradition. Finally, by way of comparison the article points to possible ways the different configuration of values might be transferred institutionally.