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61. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 12
Magnus Frostenson Teaching Issues-Driven Stakeholder Theory
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Teaching stakeholder theory may be difficult because of the constant calls for real-life relevance and application. The article argues that one way of overcoming the difficulty is to focus more on stakeholder issues than on stakeholders as actors. In education, materiality analyses, like the ones often present in sustainability reports, are probably a better way of approaching stakeholder theory than actor-centered approaches that end up in the identification of foreseeable groups ofstakeholders. Focusing on specific stakeholder issues also gives better possibilities to identify relationships and dependencies between stakeholders, which is of high relevance to managerial decision-making.
62. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 12
Kristian Høyer Toft Teaching Business Ethics to Critical Students—Adopting the Stance of Political CSR
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This paper provides ways of responding to critical students when teaching business ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR). A common premise of teaching pedagogy is to approach students from their “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky 1978). To get an understanding of students’ critical prior conceptions, the ideal type of the “liberal communist” (Žižek 2008) is invoked as suggestive of how students might think about business ethics and CSR. Two pedagogical approaches are suggested to address students’ a priori scepticism of business ethics and CSR. First, a framework of political views on CSR is presented. Second, approaching CSR by means of “problem based learning” is discussed. Finally, the paper reflects on the role of the business ethics teacher in light of tendencies towards commodification of education in the global economy.
63. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 12
Jacob Dahl Rendtorff An Interactive Method for Teaching Business Ethics, Stakeholder Management and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
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This paper presents a theoretical and practical approach to teaching business ethics, stakeholder management and CSR within the framework of the thematic seminar on business ethics and corporate social responsibility at Roskilde University. Within our programs in English of business studies and Economics and Business Administration the author of this article is responsible for this seminar that integrates issues of CSR and the ethics of innovation into the teaching ofcorporate social responsibility, stakeholder management and business ethics. This research oriented seminar provides a unique possibility for teaching CSR with an integration of methodological, theoretical and practical dimensions of business ethics (Rendtorff 2009). The idea is that the thematic seminar represents a tutor supported frame for extended studies of business ethics, stakeholder management and the social aspects of business and entrepreneurship. Each student shall present a paper on the basis of a collection of articles on the topic of ethics and social dimension of business. Moreover, it is required that the student is discussant of two other papers during the course. In addition, students shall prepare interactive participation in discussion of each paper. The sessions begin with a short introduction to the topic by the professor, then student presentations, after this discussant remarks, and finally general discussion followed by an evaluative assessment by the professor. During the seminar the student shall present both theory and case discussion so that we find a close interaction between theory and practice in the presentation. In the following, the paper elaborates on this development, in particular in the relation between theory presentation and case studies.
64. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 12
Maxim A. Storchevoy A Model for Identifying and Teaching Moral Issues in Stakeholder Relations
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The paper demonstrates how a typology of moral issues may be used to systematically analyze and discuss ethical problems in stakeholder relations. The suggested typology is based mostly on economic theory and represents a universal and comprehensive matrix of moral issues in business. We analyze its compatibility with other stakeholder management models and demonstrate how it may be applied as a tool for identifying relevant ethical issues in relations with any stakeholder, or to build instruments for measuring corporate social performance. In the conclusion we discuss other ways of application and future directions of research.
65. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 12
Kristian Alm Chains of Trust or Control? A Stakeholder Dilemma
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This paper discusses trust between stakeholders, with special emphasis on a new theory from the social sciences and ends up by focusing on a multidimensional dilemma between trust and control. Harald Grimen (1945-2011), an influential philosopher, social scientist and ethicist in Norway, defined trust as a communicative action between a trust-giver and a trust-receiver, characterized by the giver taking few precautions. This first part of his theory provides the basis for a specified interpretation of trust as a collective undertaking among stakeholders in modern organizations, such as financial companies, constituting chains of trust. The phenomenon of cooperation is fundamental in such chains. Grimen’s theoretical focus on trust as a single action, and on the chain of cooperation as several interconnected actions, represents a corrective to the psychological and individualistic profile of mainstream research on trust (Rousseau et al. 1998) and converges toward principal-agent theories. The paper uses Grimen’s theory to work out a hypothesis about a chain of trust between stakeholders in the financial industry, promoting a multi-efficient cooperation between them. The multi-efficiency of chains of trust is also discussed in connection with the risk of violating different ethical norms. The risk brings to focus the corresponding need for chains of control as a means to reduce the risk of violations of norms. But the chain of control has not only this advantage, but also a disadvantage. The inefficiency of chains of control is a severe hindrance to the efficiency of the chain of trust, even if it reduces the risk of violation of norms. The paper ends by underscoring a multidimensional dilemma typical for cooperation between stakeholders in modern organizations, i.e. the fundamental dilemma between the advantages and disadvantages of both chains of trust and chains of control.
66. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
John Hooker Editor's Forward
67. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Usang, John Eno Agbor, Kabiru Isa Dandago The Case for Accounting Ethics Education in Nigerian Universities
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In view of the consequences of the unethical behaviour of accountants as witnessed in the collapse of banks and near collapse of the capital market in Nigeria, the study examined the knowledge, awareness, and perceived importance students attached to accounting ethics education. The curriculum content of the Bachelor of Science degree programme in accounting of the selected federal universities was also examined to assess whether accounting ethics was offered as a standalone course or not. The survey method was used to solicit responses from 113 third and final year accounting students of two Federal Universities in the South-South geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The result of the independent samples t-test conducted showed no difference in the importance attached to accounting ethics education by the respondents. Also, results indicate that some students are aware of accounting ethics as part of an auditing course but more than half of the sampled population of students got the knowledge elsewhere other than the classroom. The results also suggest that the teaching of accounting ethics has potentials of producing ethically sensitive future accountants for the Nigerian economy. The paper, therefore, recommends that accounting ethics should be taught as a separate course unit at an appropriate level of the Bachelor’s degree programme, preferably from the first year of entry. This would go a long way in preparing them on how to respond to ethical dilemmas in the future.
68. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Denni Arli, Andre Pekerti The Role of Cultural Attributes on Consumer Ethics: Does It Matter?
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The total number of international migrants has increased significantly in the last 10 years such that people are faced with various ethical situations in their new host country, which challenge their previous moral philosophies. Studies have found that culture is one of the most important variables influencing ethical decision-making. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of self-concept (i.e. independent and interdependent) and cultural intelligence on consumer ethics in two cultures, Australia and Indonesia. With a total sample of 1,142 respondents, the analyses showed that the interdependent self-concept influenced all dimensions of consumer ethics while cultural intelligence had an effect on attitudes toward “recycling” and “doing good” toward others. The findings have important implications for businesses, marketers, and policymakers to develop better strategies to include consumers’ ethical characteristics.
69. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Nicki Marquardt An Experimental Approach to the Evaluation of Business Ethics Training: Explaining Mixed Results and Implications for Future Designs of Business Ethics Training Programs
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This article reports an experimental study aimed at evaluating the change of cognitive processes in ethical decision making before and after business ethics training. An experimental design (Solomon Four-Group Design) was used to test the effectiveness of the training within a German university undergraduate business-oriented student sample. The cognitive processes in decision making (implicit and explicit moral attitudes, selective attention, moral awareness, moral judgment, moral intention, and moral behavior) were measured by using different direct instruments (e.g. questionnaire items for moral judgments and explicit moral attitude scales) as well as indirect measures such as eye-tracking and the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The study yielded mixed results. On the one hand, significant changes in explicit attitudes, moral awareness, moral judgments, moral intention, and moral behavior in the pre-post-measurements of the training group have been revealed. On the other hand, there were no significant differences between the pre-post-measurements of the first training and control group as well as between the posttest-only-measures of the second training and control group. In addition, the implicit measures did not show any significant training effect. Implications with an emphasis on methodological aspects for future research on business ethics training are discussed.
70. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
William F. Miller, Tara J. Shawver The Potential Impact of Education on Whistleblowing Behavior: Benefits of an Intervention in Advanced Financial Accounting
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Accounting fraud and workplace misconduct has had dramatic economic and societal effects. Research suggests that most observations of workplace misconduct go unreported. We suggest that before graduating from an accounting program, students should be exposed to ethics interventions that prepare them to deal with whistleblowing situations they may encounter as future accounting professionals. This study finds that an ethics intervention increases students’ understanding of how accountants have manipulated information to complete an accounting fraud and increases their understanding of whistleblowing, its consequences, and protections for whistleblowers under the Sarbanes Oxley Act. Further, this study finds that an ethics intervention not only increases the students’ level of ethical sensitivity and judgment, but also positively impacts the likelihood that an accounting student would intend to blow the whistle for situations involving accounting manipulations. This study also provides empirical evidence that analyzing cases and participating in class discussions are effective ways of meeting specific course goals related to whistleblowing.
71. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Ali Intezari, David Pauleen, David Rooney Rediscovering Philosophia: The PhD as a Path to Enhancing Knowledge, Wisdom and Creating a Better World
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With the excessive emphasis that modern PhD training places on the epistemological contribution of the thesis, a question that arises is: do PhD programmes help PhD students achieve philosophia – “love of wisdom”, or do the programmes just facilitate deepening and developing students’ knowledge? This paper challenges the modern approach to PhD training and by extension all academic research, and considers phronesiology, a wisdom-based approach to research design, to add value to traditional epistemic methodologies. In illustration, we use phronesiology and social practice wisdom principles to reflect on the merits of a recently completed empirical study of wise managerial decision-making. Through a reflective analysis, this paper demonstrates that phronesiology not only allows for contributions to knowledge, but can, as a matter of principle and choice, also increase research practitioner wisdom. In doing so, this may enable researchers to implement better and more comprehensive intellectual and practical outcomes that deal effectively with the economic, social, political, and environmental complexities of the contemporary world. Further, we argue that such a wisdom approach is more “practical” than further instrumentalizing PhD training. The paper offers a series of phronetic reflective questions for PhD researchers in social sciences, especially in organizational and management fields, to consider when designing and carrying out research.
72. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Charles M. Vance, Judith A. White, Kevin S. Groves, Yongsun Paik, Lin Guo Comparing Thinking Style and Ethical Decision-Making Between Chinese and U.S. Students: Potential for Future Clash?
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This study provides a comparison of thinking style and ethical decision-making patterns between 386 U.S. students and 506 students from the People’s Republic of China enrolled in undergraduate business education in their respective countries. Contrary to our expectations, the Chinese students demonstrated a significantly greater linear thinking style compared to American students. As hypothesized, both Chinese and U.S. students possessing a balanced linear and nonlinear thinking style profile demonstrated greater ethical intent across a series of ethics vignettes. Chinese students also were more likely to adopt an act utilitarian rationale, an ethical philosophy that in practice may violate government regulations or social rules to benefit one’s family instead of society for explaining their decisions across the vignettes. We conclude with a discussion of important theoretical as well as practical and potential future implications based on this comparative study.
73. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Jodyanne Kirkwood, Melissa Baucus, Kirsty Dwyer Ethics in Entrepreneurship Education: The Case of a Student Start-Up Entrepreneur
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Ethics researchers focus on moral awareness as a precursor to ethical decision making, but they pay little attention to framing processes that precede moral awareness. This study addresses this gap in the literature to examine how a student entrepreneur starting a venture while completing an assignment frames issues and how these frames affect moral awareness (i.e., whether or not the entrepreneur considers ethical dimensions). Framing does not occur in isolation but is part of a sensemaking process involving others. Using a single case study method, we capture an entrepreneur’s framing process over time as the new venture emerges and our data reveals frames that may preclude consideration of ethical dimensions, including some frames developed and reinforced through entrepreneurship education. We make a contribution to the entrepreneurship education literature by suggesting ways to incorporate ethics into entrepreneurship courses.
74. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Brad A. Weaver, Stephen B. Castleberry Increasing Ethical and Legal Awareness Through Community Outreach Programs Utilizing White-Collar Prisoners
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A prisoner community outreach program, in which businesspeople and college business students have conversations with current white-collar inmates, has shown to be an effective tool in helping students and businesspeople realize the consequences of unethical behavior and breaking the law. A prisoner community awareness program is described and used as an example of how the practical application of positive principles can promote and empower ethical behavior, moral courage, and virtuousness. Audience’s reactions to this technique were positive, with listeners reporting heightened awareness and saliency of ethical and legal issues in business as well as a positive influence on their inclinations towards being an ethical member of society and businessperson.
75. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Jessica McManus Warnell, Joan Elise Dubinsky Business Students and Faculty on the Same Side of the Desk: Engaged Students and Collaborative Faculty Present Three New International Business Ethics Case Studies
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We describe the project narrative and resulting case studies as an example of a successful engagement in business ethics education for two reasons: 1) to present an example of a pedagogical approach that engages business students in thoughtful research and consideration of complex ethical issues through a case writing exercise in collaboration with faculty, and 2) to provide three new cases and teaching notes suitable for use in multidisciplinary courses. We present a description of our experience along with the fruits of our project—three new case studies accompanied by analyses and teaching notes—with the hope that other faculty will find the pedagogical approach inspiring and the cases stimulating and teachable. A group of undergraduate business students working with faculty members and practitioners helped research and write case studies on topics of the students’ choosing. The resulting case studies and teaching notes can be shared with faculty from diverse business disciplines who can readily incorporate them into their curricula. The pedagogical approach of collaborative research and writing offers an example of engaged student learning and hands-on teaching for other scholars and instructors.
76. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Jeananne Nicholls, Charles Ragland, Kurt Schimmel, Joseph F. Hair, Jr. The Relevance of Ethics, CSR, and Sustainability Topics in the Business School and Marketing Curricula: Dean and Department Head Opinions
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Based on a survey of deans and marketing department chairs, this study explores the business and marketing curriculum in the areas of ethics, corporate social responsibility (CSR), and sustainability. The findings indicate that there was limited support for providing students with an understanding of these topics, in believing the concepts provide a competitive advantage in the job market, or would be utilized by students at a later point in their education. Finally, the value placed on research in these areas was considerably less than on theory development or applied and pedagogical research.
77. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Casey J. Frid, Imran Chowdhury, Claudia G. Green An Experiential Field Study in Social Entrepreneurship
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Research has shown social entrepreneurs are less likely to abandon their efforts when they develop skills to operate in situations where both social and economic demands must be balanced. However, students may have difficulty grasping the process by which such skills are acquired. They may also have only a vague understanding of how these skills are applied during both the creation and operation of new social ventures. This paper presents a theoretical and practical approach to teaching new venture creation and stakeholder management vis-à-vis the specific actions and behaviors undertaken by social entrepreneurs. During a 10-day, experiential field study, students personally engage social entrepreneurs to understand how they manage the oft-conflicting demands of financial, organizational, community, and environmental stakeholders. The objective is for students to discover the process of new venture creation and management. The field study itself is a process of self-directed, interactive discovery whereby students develop and administer an interview protocol, observe an entrepreneur operating his or her venture, and write a case study addressing a particular challenge in the area of stakeholder management and social entrepreneurship. After reviewing the literature on education in social entrepreneurship and experiential learning, this paper describes how to implement the exercise. Learning outcomes from student interviews and the case study are discussed.
78. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Joseph M. Goebel, Manoj Athavale Business Ethics Through the Medium of Film
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We present an inventory of business ethics-related content to supplement and reinforce classroom education. The 23 films and documentaries introduced here allow the instructor to illustrate ethical issues in a manner which resonates with students. While sixteen of these selections involve fictitious plots, three selections (The Corporation, Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room, and Inside Job) are documentaries, and four selections (Barbarians at the Gate, Rogue Trader, The Pursuit of Happyness, and Too Big to Fail) are based on a dramatization of actual events. For each selection, we present a contextual synopsis and leading questions to help instructors demonstrate the existence of ethical issues so that students may gain a better understanding of the need for ethical behavior and practices in business. We also categorize various ethical breaches by functional business areas.
79. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Belinda Gibbons, Mario Fernando, Trevor Spedding Teaching and Learning Responsible Decision-Making in Business: A Qualitative Research Evaluation of a Simulation-Based Approach
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Practitioner and academic literature document serious concerns about the current approach to business higher education. Two key issues frequently noted are the silo disciplinary focus and the lack of exposure to responsible decision-making. Scholars and practitioners have proposed that the issues with the current undergraduate business education approach warrant the rethinking of traditional business teaching and learning models. This study proposes an alternate to teaching and learning responsible decision-making in undergraduate business education and reports the findings on the implementation of a web-based simulation using a systems approach to teaching and learning responsible decision-making. Using teaching observations and student reflections surveys, this paper explains the impact of this teaching approach on final-year undergraduate business students. The key findings suggest that a web-based simulation using a holistic systems approach to teach responsible decision-making using collaborative engagement fosters a valuable and unique student learning experience.
80. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
A. Erin Bass, Erin G. Pleggenkuhle-Miles The Tower Building Challenge: Introducing Stakeholder Management to MBA Students
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The ability to consider and analyze different stakeholder interests is a skill required of today’s business students. This paper describes a 35-minute experiential exercise using Tinkertoys® or Legos® to demonstrate and reinforce the concept of stakeholder management. The exercise, the Tower Building Challenge (TBC), is targeted toward classes in business ethics, strategy, or decision-making and requires students to work in groups to build a tower with the underpinning challenge that each group member has a different interest in how the tower should be built. Student feedback reflects on the difficulty of satisfying all stakeholders when making business decisions, the importance of making the interests of stakeholders transparent to enhance cooperation and the effectiveness of the decision-making process, and the need for stakeholder management when considering business decisions that impact stakeholders. Following this experiential exercise, students’ preliminary understanding presents an opportunity for a deeper discussion of stakeholder management. Specifically, students are prompted to consider stakeholder interests as joint, rather than opposed, when engaged in stakeholder management.