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61. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 3 > Issue: Part 1
Valentina Gueorguieva Phenomenology on the Verge: Alfred Schütz’s Phenomenology of Common-Sense World
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The essay explores the thought of Alfred Schutz with regard to his position on Husserlian transcendentalism. Comparing the “paradox of communication” formulated by Schutz in 1945 with Husserl’s treatment of the life-world in §34 of the Crisis, it arrives at the question of practicing the phenomenological method (the reduction) in the field of the social sciences. As this problem pushes the phenomenological paradigm to its limits, Schutz is seen as a borderline figure between the paradigm of perception and the paradigm of action. Th e transition is illustrated in the example of his idea of “stock of knowledge.”
62. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 3 > Issue: Part 1
Domenico Jervolino The Gift of Languages: Towards a Philosophy of Translation
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On the route towards a philosophy of translation inspired by Paul Ricoeur’s phenomenological hermeneutics, my working hypothesis is that thinking about translation is fertile for a deeper understanding of the meaning of interpretation and of phenomenology. Language, languages, and translation enter into the very heart of the constitution of sense. The free gift of language and of languages permits us to have access to the world and to meet the other. In this way a phenomenological hermeneutics of translation can help us to realize that humanity, just like language, exists only in the plural mode.
63. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 3 > Issue: Part 1
Pavlos Kontos Phenomenology of Moral Action after Heidegger
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This essay suggests that it is possible to develop a phenomenology of moral action modeled upon Aristotelian ethics. Focusing on the debt owed by phenomenology to Heidegger and his hermeneutics of Aristotelian ethics, we will argue for the two following theses: a) One of the main contributions of Aristotelian ethics is that it provides an account of moral action in terms of perception; b) Heidegger pointed out this contribution, but to the extent that he concealed its perceptual character, he did not prove faithful to the project of a phenomenology of moral action.
64. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 3 > Issue: Part 1
Danielle Lories From Aesthetic Judgment to Aesthetic Attitude: Kant and Husserl
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It is sometimes claimed that Husserl’s writings provide an inspiration for considering art today. More specifically we ask here whether Husserl’s description of the aesthetic attitude is rich and original. The comparisons he draws between the aesthetic attitude and the phenomenological attitude always aim to clarify the phenomenological attitude and thus take it for granted that the typical features of the aesthetic attitude are well known. In this way Husserl presupposes and retrieves the teaching of Kant, although in certain working notes he clarifies and intensifies the formal characteristics of Kant’s description of the aesthetic judgment.
65. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 3 > Issue: Part 1
César Moreno Phenomena and Manifestos: Phenomenology at the Horizon of Vanguardism
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Th e aim of this contribution is to think about contemporary phenomenology in comparison to its vanguard between 1910 and 1935. This encounter would have been fruitful and possibly transgressive for Husserl’s Phenomenology and that of others. Husserl and Heidegger provided an immense “openness of phenomenality,” the consequences of which were not noticed by themselves with enough lucidity. For this reason, today it would be interesting to think that this encounter, which in fact never took place, between contemporary phenomenology and its vanguard, that is, between phenomena and manifestos, is an attempt to pay an historical debt.
66. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 3 > Issue: Part 1
Jesús M. Díaz Álvarez Transcendental Phenomenology and the Psychological-Phenomenological Reduction in Aron Gurwitsch
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This article tries to explain the relationship between transcendental phenomenology and psychology, particularly phenomenological psychology, in the work of Aron Gurwitsch. Following Husserl, Gurwitsch shows the paradoxes of phenomenological psychology and the necessity to perform the transcendental reduction in order to overcome them. This technical issue will help us to see in a very clear way why Gurwitsch is a transcendental phenomenologist and why, from a Husserlian and Gurwitschean point of view, every philosophy that remains in the natural attitude—and for the author of The Field of Consciousness this is the case of the philosophy of existence (Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty)—is not philosophy in the more radical sense of the word.
67. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Musubu Ohtaki The Phases of the Unconscious
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From The Structure of Behavior to his later philosophy, Merleau-Ponty reflected on the unconscious. This paper first points out the topological concepts in Merleau-Ponty’s later philosophy. Then, the paper traces how Merleau-Ponty defines the unconscious. In this regard, concepts concerning “negativity” plays an important role in his topological way of thinking. Freud’s and Heidegger’s ideas will also be examined with regard to this negativity. We will recognize that the key concepts in Merleau-Ponty’s later philosophy such as flesh, hinge, and hollowness result from the topological structures created by reversibility between negation and non-negation. Finally, the paper confirms that the structures found in the unconscious and dreams should be understood based on structural ontology in Merleau-Ponty’s last writings.
68. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Wei-Lun Lee Contacting and Enacting “Self for being Ethical”: A Model for Psychotherapy Practiced in Taiwan
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The local healing modes in Taiwan for psychological suffering can be called as “ethical care,” i.e., they emphasize people’s suffering in their ethical predicaments and, therefore, find ways to re-order the interpersonal constellations. In accordance with ethical care, psychotherapy practiced in Taiwan should focus on the “self for being ethical,” the acting agent concerned mostly with the interpersonal ordering in its life. To advance the significance of ethical care, the assumption of the individuality of the most dominant theories of psychotherapy, which mostly target on ego functioning, is discussed, and an illustration of psychotherapy as ethical care is also provided.
69. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Notes on Contributors
70. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Ping-Keung Lui Social Structure as Otherness
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The idea of the Other is mainly a phenomenological invention. Its significance in ontology, ethics, and political philosophy has come to be recognized generally. In theoretical sociology, such recognition is yet to be established. As a first attempt, the paper treats social structure as an otherness. Bayesian duality and Simmelian formalism will be invoked in the course of argument. It is hoped that the sociological demand for technicalities does not suffocate an appreciation of its phenomenological comportment.
71. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Wen-Sheng Wang Art as a Way of the Recovery from Techne to Ethos: Phenomenological Approach to Indigenous Mental Healing in Taiwan
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In this article, I will discuss, regarding the concept of intentionality, Husserl’s and Heidegger’s conception of “natural” and “man-made” parallel to the conception of ethos and techne, and the way from techne to ethos as art. The concept of art in Husserl will be shown in relation to Kant’s conception of “Reflective Judgment.” I have applied this thesis to my research in a mental institution in Taiwan. Heidegger’s position the phenomenological meaning of healing and nursing as ethos, and the way of recovery of ethos from techne, especially from technology, as art are explicated.
72. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Yusuke Miyazaki The Sublime of Judgment: Kant’s Aesthetics in Deconstruction
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One cannot make a judgment without following any law. Nevertheless, or for this very reason, it is essential that all judgments must be made in the absence of their law. For, in order to follow the law in a proper sense, a judgment needs the absence of law as its own constitutive moment, that is, the freedom which makes this act possible at the very moment that it relates itself to the law in the first place. Faced with this absence, therefore, one must make a judgment by inventing at the same time, as it were, (the relation to) the law which the same judgment is to follow. In “Force of Law,” Derrida (re)opened the ethico-political thinking of deconstruction by taking his departure from this aporetic structure of judgment. The aim of this essay is to recast the question of this aporetic structure of judgment by inquiring into the problematic of Kant’s Critique of Judgment, with which Derrida has not been suffi ciently concerned, and to carve out the aesthetico-political problematic of deconstruction.
73. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Cheng-yun Tsai Phenomenological Psychology in Taiwan: A Genealogical Approach
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Th is paper is to discuss the idea of genealogical phenomenology by analyzing Taiwanese works of phenomenological psychology, which was brought out by an interdisciplinary project of a group of scholars from both theoretical and practical fields. In contrast to its transcendental turn or hermeneutical turn, phenomenology turns its focus of description from consciousness, or phenomenon, to material condition in the constitution of objective knowledge. And its objectivity becomes genealogical, insofar as the universal form of phenomenology is considered with cultural diversity.
74. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Shoichi Matsuba From Miscarried Phenomenology to Intuitive Ontology: Merleau-Ponty’s Reading of Bergson
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It is clear that the philosophy of Bergson influenced Merleau-Ponty. In fact, Merleau-Ponty refers consistently to Bergson from his initial book review until the last drafts. Nevertheless, there are several aspects of the influence of Bergson’s philosophy: from which part, how much, and in which way was it carried out? We will examine the influence of Bergson’s philosophy on Merleau-Ponty, and affirm the following suggestions:First, Merleau-Ponty consistently took an ambivalent position towards Bergson. In other words, his evaluation did not change from positive to negative, or from negative to positive. Nevertheless, he changed the balance of evaluation in Bergson’s work. In his early period, a few comments on Bergson were critical. In contrast, after his middle period, the comments increased and he started to take a more positive position. The peak can be found in “Bergson in the Making,” though still there are some negative estimates.Second, there are surely consistent themes to be picked up: the theory of perception, that of duration, and that of intuition. But the way of picking them up differs in each period. In the early period, he mainly took the theory of perception and body. In the middle period, he considered the theory of history and language. In the latter period, again he took up the theory of intuition and deepened it.Finally, in the early period, the criterion depends on phenomenology whether the evaluation is positive or negative. The point of the critique is that Bergson took the naturalistic attitude, that he did not mention the intentionality, and that he confuses consciousness with the object of consciousness. The point of appreciation is that Bergson was no longer biased and intended the “immediately given things for consciousness,” that he tried to overcome the ready-made conflict between realism and idealism, and that he was meaning to go back to the “lived world.”
75. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Sung Tae Lee The Geophilosophy of WATSUJI Tetsuro and Cultural Plurality
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Put in the perspective of diff erences and identities, culture matters for any attempts to seek ways to “live together, equal yet different” in the age of globalization. WATSUJI Tetsuro, decades ago, had a kin image of globalization when he understands that the “International transportation has become remarkably easier” and, as a result, “all kinds of culture are mutually blending dyeing, echoing.” This essay is an attempt to approach the question of culture in the age of globalization focusing on how WATSUJI interpreted cultural “blending, dyeing, echoing” and what his or his Japanese contemporaries’ responses to the Westernization meant or still mean to Asian Others.
76. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Kwok-ying Lau Non-Familiarity and Otherness: Derrida’s Hermeneutics of Friendship and its Political Implications
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This essay retraces the essentials of Derrida’s hermeneutics of friendship. It concerns a conception of friendship which is oriented towards the future, something which is to come. It requires us not to understand friendship from the model of brotherhood, a mode of relation which priorities blood and kinship, i.e. a relation which is always already familiar and familial, even androcentric. At the time of globalization we should prepare ourselves for the encounter of foreigners and strangers who, different from us, incarnate figures of the unforeseen and the unexpected. This novel conception of friendship promises to provide the basis for a new politics of international relations.
77. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Nam-In Lee Husserl’s View of Metaphysics: The Role of Genuine Metaphysics in Phenomenological Philosophy
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It is the aim of this essay to flesh out the claim that Husserl’s phenomenology is not merely a neutral method, but has metaphysics as one of its constitutive parts. What I will show is that Husserl has the same view of metaphysics from the Logical Investigations to his later phenomenology. More specifically, he makes a distinction between a false metaphysics and a true one, and considers it to be the aim of his phenomenology to cope with the limitations of false metaphysics and to establish a true metaphysics on a genuinely phenomenological foundation.
78. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Chung-Chi Yu On Schutz’s Way of Doing Phenomenology: The Phenomenological Psychology of Husserl as a Clue
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Schutz read Husserl and used the latter’s concepts to deal with problems that concerned him. In this essay the questions are raised of how his phenomenology is to be characterized and what is his position in the phenomenological movement? One interpretation views the Schutzian position as contrasting with that of Husserl, while another holds the mundane phenomenology may have nothing to do with Husserl and can only founded on social interaction. According to the second point of view Schutz has more enterprising philosophical anthropology than a phenomenology. Dissatisfied with both directions I turn to Husserl’s phenomenological psychology as a clue to deal with this problem.
79. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Zhihua Yao Dharmakīrti and Husserl on Negative Judgments
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Dharmakīrti’s theory of negative judgments grew out of extensive discussions and debates on the cognition of nonexistent objects (asad-ālambana-vijnāna) among various Buddhist and Indian philosophical schools. As is well-known, a similar debate on the objectless presentations (gegenstandslose Vorstellungen) happened in the early development of phenomenology and analytic philosophy. Among various opinions on this controversial issue, I find that Dharmakīrti and Husserl hold similar views. Both of them have less interest in redefining the ontological status of non-existent objects than Russell and Meinong. Rather they engage themselves in analyzing the experiential structure of negative cognition and come up with a similar conclusion that negative judgments presuppose affirmative perceptions. This study will enrich our understanding of both thinkers.
80. Phenomenology 2005: Volume > 1 > Issue: Part 2
Kwok-ying Lau, Jung-Sun Han Heuer, Toru Tani Chronicle of Phenomenological Organizations in East-Asia