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61. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
João Maria André As Artes do Corpo e o Corpo como Arte
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Dans ce texte, en partant du double sens de l’expression «arts du corps» et après un parcours bref sur la présence du corps dans la culture occidentale, on essaye de caractériser, premièrement, les arts du corps qui font du corps son objet ou instrument (génitif objectif) de travail, exposition et manipulation, tels que la chirurgie esthétique, les marques du piercing et du tatouage (elles-mêmes de double sens), le «body building», quelques excès du «body art», les divers types de prothèses mécaniques qui font du corps un cyborg et, finalement, ce qu’on peut appeler les prothèses chimiques qui modèlent le désir et le tempérament et qui sont administrés par une médicine psychiatrique au service d’un bien-être normalisé. Dans un second moment notre regard se tourne vers les arts du corps dans lesquels le corps se présente en tant que sujet de création artistique (génitif subjectif), en relevant surtout les arts de la scène et, en spécial, la danse et le théâtre: on essaye, ainsi, de montrer dans quel sens on peut parler du corps en tant que sujet, tant dans la danse classique que dans la danse contemporaine, et on traverse aussi le développement du théâtre, surtout après Artaud, en passant par Grotowski, Barbas et Peter Brook, pour souligner le passage du corps au premier plan de la scène. Nous concluons en soulignant le rapport intrinsèque entre ces arts, le corps et le mouvement, ce qui nous permet de dire que, s’ils sont sont les plus éphémères de tous les arts, c’est parce que dans ces arts tout se passe comme si on faisait l’amour avec le temps.
62. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
José M. Miranda Justo Os Faróis dos Automóveis: (Sobre Linguagem e Arte em Sentido Extra-Moral)
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«The head-lights of your car are there not to show you the way but rather to make you be seen...» The non-empirical, foundational relevance of such a proposition is used as an instructive analogon for the following discussion. It seems theoretically inconsistent to assume that we have aesthetical objects on one hand and on the other, in parallel with those objects or after them, discoursive occurrences legitimating those objects. In Order to give a brief outline of the intimate relation between aesthetical experience and human language this paper argues (1.) that language is not primarily a means of designation, expression or communication but rather an activity of organization of our experience, of production of sense, of constitutive mediation of our world or worlds, and (2.) that aesthetical objects do not cover the whole range of aesthetical relations, that subject-object aesthetical relations do not depend on inter-personal aesthetic relations and that subject-object aesthetical relations play an organizational role in several ways similar to that of language and necessarily interwoven with it.
63. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Carlos Gonçalves A Filosofia da Arte, a Filosofia da Arte de Massas, e o Exílio da Avaliação
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The aim of this paper is to elucidate confusions that are as frequent in the common language as in philosophical writing. The first part of it examines the concept of “mass art” involved in my heading. After showing that it is art in the descriptive sense of the word, on the second part I proceed to the explanation of how the honorific use of this concept induces confusion between criticism and philosophy of art. Interested in the consequences of these confusions, I advocate that the lack of attention to mass art encourages the exile of evaluation from the philosophy of art and compromises the progress in the understanding of the problem.
64. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
José Quaresma A Gravidade do Consenso sob Suspeita
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In this article we share the conviction that any aesthetic judgement is compounded of extreme spontaneity (I); communicated share (and not a presumed share) - the demands set by the Other of the communication and the conflict of two distinct claims (II); the personal synthesis between the individual spontaneity and the results of the share done with the Other of the aesthetic communication (III). We also admit that these three aesthetic occurrences are equally needed to the aesthetic communication, but we lay stress on the first occurrence - extreme spontaneity - as the “touch stone” of both aesthetic experience and judgement’s communication. What we corne to emphasize is that the occurrence “extreme spontaneity” is not just the very basis of the aesthetic experience, but as well, the “touch stone” of the aesthetic communication that never fades away of the discussion, even when the most rational arguments are present. As a mater of fact, this occurrence is there at the very first moment, persists secretly and strategically at the second one - moment of the communicated share - and reappears openly at the synthetic occurrence. We also defend that the “extreme spontaneity” is the occurrence that generates the suspicion’s exercise about the excesses of the communication’s rationality; that makes the suspicion something permanent (sometimes visible others latent); and finally, allows us to say that without its craft and the sensitive suspecting power the communication of the aesthetic judgement loses its authenticity and becomes empty in its universal claiming and tensional life.
65. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Ângela Delfino Estética e Paisagem - Algumas Referências Legais
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This paper analyses the legal treatment of the concepts of “aesthetics” and “landscape” in the areas of Zoning, Planning and Environmental Law, both in domestic and public international law. References are made to the World Charter for Nature, Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty on Environmental Protection, European Landscape Convention and several Portuguese Statutes. In the absence of a common agreed definition of the terms, several proposals of interpretation are provided and discussed taking into account the relevant values of law, i.e. justice and certainty.
66. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Leonel Ribeiro dos Santos O Espírit o da Letra: Sobre o Conflito entre Fichte Eschiller a Respeito da Linguagem da Filosofia e da Natureza do Estético
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En essayant de comprendre les raisons qui ont amené Schiller, en juin de 1795, à refuser la publication de l’essai de Fichte “Sur l’esprit et la lettre en Philosophie”, dans la revue Die Horen, on va du conflit personnel et des raisons du conflit entre les deux philosophes au conflit même de leurs raisons. On reconnaît, certes, la dette de Schiller à l’auteur de la Doctrine de la Science et, quand même, la dette du philosophe du Moi pur et de l’idéalisme de la liberté à l’auteur des Lettres sur l'éducation esthétique de l'homme dans ceci qui, grâce à lui, celui-là se penche sur l’“impulsion esthétique” de l’esprit et ouvre une place subordonnée pour l’esthétique dans son système. Mais surtout on arrive à l’évidence de l’incompatibilité de nature qui existe entre leurs philosophies, pas seulement à propos du langage qui convient à la philosophie, mais aussi dans ce qui concerne la nature et la portée de la dimension esthétique dans la vie de l’esprit, le rôle de l’imagination et la solution qui chacun d’eux entend apporter au problème kantien de la réconciliation entre la raison et la sensibilité.
67. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Maria de Lurdes Pequito Hegel: Sobre o Prosaico e o Poético
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À partir de l’image du chevalier de laver tu exposée dans la Phénoménologie de l'esprit de Hegel, on s’interroge sur le sens du prosaïque et de la prose du monde dans sa pensée, surtout dans le contexte des Leçons d'esthétique. Le chevalier de la vertu, sa noblesse et son aveuglement permettent de apercevoir un cours du monde dynamique dont la résolution est indifférente à la volonté singulière. Dans ses Leçons d'esthétique Hegel montre une autre dimension de cette prose du monde enregardant la peinture hollandaise comme expression d’un monde plein de sérénité et de secrets, une poésie du quotidien présente dans les détails des objects traversés par la lumière. On explore dans cet article cette apparente ambiguïté dans la pensée de Hegel.
68. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Ana Anahory Leituras do Sublime : Lyotard e Derrida
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In the 80’s, the situation after the reception of kantian philosophy was suddenly shaken by Jean-François Lyotard’s and Jacques Derrida’s approaches to the Critique of Judgement. These were so massively decisive that they reorganized the bounderies of modernity in projecting the Analytique of the sublime as the ground of legitimation of our aesthetical, ethical and political experience. For Lyotard, the sublime subject contained not only the necessary categories to think the avant-garde art but it could also offer kernels of resistance towards the political model of neocontractualism. Derrida changes the topic of negative representation of the impossible into the theorical coordinates of a new way of thinking such different themes as the hospitality, the responsibility, the justice, the decision, the gift or the death. In both authors, Kant becomes too close, so close that he is almost out of focus, especially regarding what can be unthinkable in his work.
69. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Inês Barahona de Almeida A Cegueira na Origem do Desenho - Jacques Derrida em Mémoires d'aveugle
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La réflexion qui suit a pour but de suivre le texte de Jacques Derrida, intitulé Mémoires d'aveugle, L'autoportrait et autres ruines. Ce texte constitue le catalogue de l’exposition que le philosophe a organisé au Musée du Louvre sur la cécité et le dessin. En ayant pour réflexion le mythe de Dibutade qui est à l’origine du dessin, surgiront comme traits fondamentaux dans l’argumentation derridienne la reconduction de la vision à la mémoire, la radication du dessin dans la partie d’ombre, dans l’absence, et la nature ambivalente de la trace du dessin. En tenant compte du mythe de l’origine du dessin et du rôle de la vision et de la cécité, Jacques Derrida arrive à la formulation de sa thèse centrale: chaque fois qu’un dessinateur dessine un aveugle, il fait son auto-portrait. Ensuite, on analyse la figuration des aveugles, cherchant à souligner les aspects les plus importants, comme le besoin d’un “théâtre des mains”, la relation entre haptique et optique, ou encore la singulière vocation des aveugles pour devenir des êtres de lumière, élus du divin, donc témoins d’une rédemption et d’une ascèse. Suivant la suggestion du texte de Jacques Derrida, on aboutit au fait que la vision et la cécité ont une importance pour ce qui est de la définition de toute Anthropologie, pour ce cas d’une “Anthropologie des larmes”.
70. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Victor Silva Estética e Ética em Monroe C. Bearsdley
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Monroe C. Beardsley is an American philosopher who argues for the relative independence of aesthetic value and moral value in the artistic field. The key concept of aesthetic experience provides the basis for his definition of artwork and much of the analysis of the value issue.
71. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Américo Marcelino Imagem e Representação
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The boundaries between figuration and abstraction, artistic and non-artistic, or between depiction and other forms of reference repeatedly arise in discussions about images and representation, usually ending up in ambiguous distinctions between the innate and natural versus the constructed and cultural. Nelson Goodman’s account to what we call a conventionalist theory of pictures can answer some questions concerning the puzzling nature of representation. The relativity of such boundaries become clear if we accept a multidirectional perspective of reference, determined by the several symbolic function contexts in whith pictures and other signs are brought in. In spite of this, the significance and range we take from the concepts of picture and depiction is crucial to the dilution of those distinctions. Following Goodman, this paper seeks to explore the correlation between these two connected but even so distinctive concepts.
72. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Ana Mantero Contraponto. Klee e Kandinsky - Diálogos numa Terra Fértil
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Klee and Kandinsky, companions in adventure both in the world of painting and music, opened the paths of creation and built the beginning of an epistemology of art. From this intense intellectual and artistic exchange sprang a strong inspiration that heard the echoes of the cosmological order as reflected in the mysteries of nature and the sounds of the human soul. It is worth finding the counterpoint of their investigations, carefully written down at the time they taught together at the Bauhaus. Explorers of secret worlds, listeners of inaudible sounds, they discovered the profound similarities between the laws of nature and the arts.
73. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
José Artur Ramos No Traço dos Traços do Nosso Rosto
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The essay Tracing the Traces of our Face concerns the relationship between the drawing, the self-portrait and the image in the mirror. This is accomplished following some ideas exposed in Bachelard's The wather an d the dreams (L'Eau et les Rêves) where the mirroring on still water is put up into debate. The present paper tries to explore a concept of self-portrait departing of Bachelard’s notion of naturalization of the image. In this way it is set up the idea that the drawing self-portrait can be an action that gives back natural presence to identity, which was lost in a too much artificial and fixed world. So, drawing dissolves the image with such a naturality as if it was deep lake water.
74. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Manuel Pedro Ferreira Juízo Estético e Filologia Musical: Em Torno de um Cancioneiro Polifónico do Século XV
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The author defines his view of music in the Western classical tradition as an evanescent, phenomenological object dependent both on written parameters and an adequate interpretative framework. For him, this implies, on the one hand, that philological reasoning should not ignore hermeneutics (thus rejecting positivism) and on the other, that an aesthetical judgement of a historical object should aim at historical adequacy (thus rejecting subjectivism). Against current musicological undervaluation of editorial tasks, he proposes to dignify their intellectual reach, demonstrating how philological reasoning and aesthetical judgement converge in the edition of polyphonic music, namely, three songs in MS. 714 of the Oporto Public Library, recently published in facsimile (Porto, Campo das Letras, 2001), newly transcribed in the Appendix. He painstakingly describes the steps that lead to editorial corrections, interpretation of variants, suggestions of musica ficta, and text underlay in Joye’s “Poy che crudel fortuna” and anonymous’ “Hélas!, n’aray-je jamais mieux?”. Then he discusses the technical, aesthetical, and rhetorical significance of implied E-flats in “Fortune, laisse moy la vie”. The conclusion draws the reader’s attention to the fact that a good musical edition depends as much on sound philological reasoning, as on pure musicianship.
75. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Cristina Beckert Da Obliteração: Reflexões Levinasianas Sobre a Obra de Sosno
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This paper aims to reflect upon the relation between Aesthetic and Ethics through the work of Sacha Sosno, a Latvan sculptor, and the comments on it produced by the Lithuanian philosopher Emmanuel Levinas who regards Ethics as “first philosophy”. The concept of obliteration that dominates Sosno’s sculptures of human figures expresses the condition in which modern man is placed or the “scandal of suffering”, as Levinas puts it, giving an ethical sense to the aesthetic works as it aims to a mysterious sense impossible to display by plastic representations but which is always present in its own absence.
76. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Mafalda de Faria Blanc Henologia e Constituição Espiritual do Princípio
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Dans un premier temps, l’Hénologie, entendue au sens néo-platonicien d’une interprétation méontologique du fondement de l’étant, est présentée dans son développement historique comme une possibilité qui toujours se présente à la réflexion philosophique sur le Principe en alternative à l’Onto-théo-logie. Dans un deuxième moment, l’Hénologie est entendue comme une pensée de la génèse et de la justification de l’existence, où l’homme, compris comme liberté et action - dans la tradition spéculative de l’Idéalisme Allemand - est pris dans son rôle central comme le médiateur universel de l’esprit, le rédempteur même de l ’Absolu dans sa volonté d’existence.
77. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Cristiana Veiga Simão As Ideias Embaraçosas. A Natureza da Razão e a sua Relação com a Experiência do Sublime
78. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Diogo Sardinha Justiça e Produção de Verdade: Foucault e a Psiquiatria Criminal
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Cette étude traite de l’approche foucaldienne de la psychiatrie criminelle. Elle montre d’abord comment la justice y est soupçonnée de se prononcer sur la base d’une production problématique de vérité. Elle explique ensuite comment les concepts de champ et d’engrenage contribuent à décrire l’existence de l’ordre et sa transformation dans les liens entre la psychiatrie et le système judiciaire. Enfin, elle s’intéresse au danger comme valeur cruciale pour comprendre ces liens.
79. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 6 > Issue: 12
Joaquim Cerqueira Gonçalves Direitos Humanos e Filosofia
80. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 6 > Issue: 12
Norberto Ferreira da Cunha A Declaração Universal dos Direitos do Homem (Luzes e Sombras da sua Recepção em Portugal, em 1948)
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Salazar had always been opposed to the Human Rights such as the French Revolution, in 1789, realized them. On the contrary, Opposition has always revindicated them requiring their replacement and denunciating their constant violation by the regimen. We would expected the regimen should take avantage of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) approval to denunciate, once more, the horrors of that Revolution, the abstract ballast of the Human Rights comitted in it and the recent disorders of our I Republica; we would expect Opposition to make the most of this opportunity in order to denunciate the violence of the regimen forces and the abolishment of freedom. Neither the Government nor the Opposition assumed their positions. Because of political-strategical reasons: Government didn’t want to affront the U.S.A. and England which promised to support the regimen and the “Empire”; Opposition because of its compromises towards the unitary policy of MUD (Movimento de Unidade Democrática) and the disillusion that the Allies support to the Estado Novo caused. Both, reduced to silence whats divided them essentially - The Human Rights - in order to preserve the secondary.