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61. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
László Ropolyi Steps in the Hermeneutic Critique of Scientism by Dimitri Ginev
62. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Adam B. Seligman Trust, Tolerance and the Changing Terms of Social Solidarity
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This essay explores the distinction between trust and confidence and its relevance to the terms of social solidarity in contemporary societies. It compares a moral community of trust to communities of confidence and questions the consequences of such distinctions for our ability to abide by and live with difference. It presents the idea of tolerance as a plausible if under-theoretized concept for how to live with ethnic and religious differences in our new multicultural societies.
63. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Petru Bejan Trust As Hermeneutic Principle
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We can speak of a hermeneutics of “the good faith” or the “confiding mood”, centred on the intention of “sense reconfiguration”, and of another one, “suspicious”, malevolent, unconfident in the author’s sincerity or the plausibility of the message displayed by the “piece of work/creation”. Paul Ricoeur saw Marx, Nietzsche and Freud as “the three masters of suspicion” . Their hermeneutics obviously would have been cut in the pattern of distrust. Another tradition, ofAnglo-Saxon inspiration, encourages a rather different direction. Can one count on “trust” as a hermeneutic principle? What are the exigencies to be followed in the practice of an “optimistic” interpretation? Must there be encouraged a certain subjective availability of the interpreter, favourable to either the text, or the author? How efficient are the strategies based on doubt? What about the ones in which the “meaning” is outclassed by insensate or illicit exegetic intervening?We often oscillate between underbidding the meaning and taking it beyond the “letter” of the text or the intentions of the authors. Which one of the interpreter’s inclinations must be sustained and stimulated? The sceptic one, distrustful of the chances of textual performance or, on the contrary, the optimistic one, based on trust?
64. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Claudiu Baciu Ontology and Functionalism in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit
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The paper starts by describing the distinction between substantialist thought and functionalist thought. According to philosophical functionalism the object of human knowledge is always a result of an inner construction, and not a passive reflection of the outer world. The Critique of Pure Reason was the first modern materialization of this new philosophical program. One of the most important results of the Kantian criticism was the reconstruction of the concept of ontology. The possibility of ontology, according to its new concept, was given by the idea of identity between the possibility of reality, pertaining to human thinking andknowledge, and that which we call “reality”. The entire German Idealism took over this new concept of ontology. The specific Hegelian undertaking in the Phenomenology of Spirit was to show that this identity is not posited at the beginning, but is described in its development for consciousness. The study tries to show that this undertaking is a functionalistic one because here reality, as an object of consciousness, receives its specific configuration on the ground of the logical unity of the moments belonging to each form of consciousness and to their totality.
65. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Rosen Lutskanov Hilbert’s Program: the Transcendental Roots of Mathematical Knowledge
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The design of the following paper is to establish an interpretative link between Kant’s transcendental philosophy and Hilbert’s foundational program. Through a regressive reading of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason (1781), we can see the motivation of his philosophical project as bound with the task to expose the a priori presuppositions which are the grounds for the possibility of actual knowledge claims. Moreover, according to him the sole justification for such procedure is the (informal) proof of consistency and (architectonical) completeness. Hilbert tried to strip Kant’s philosophy of its last anthropomorphic vestiges which led to the formulation of his “finite standpoint” and the prooftheoretical methods for axiomatic reconstruction of classical mathematics. Therefore, contrary to the received view, the proofs of consistency and completeness which were envisaged as part of his metamathematical program were not conceived as a means to secure to epistemic basis of mathematical knowledge. Accordingly, the program itself was not confuted by Gödel’s theorems and remains as viable as ever.
66. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Ioan Biris The Formal Structure of Experience in Carnap’s Aufbau
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The transformation of the relations between reflection and reality and between concepts and their correspondent objects into themes represents even in the present a field for most heated discussions. The joining of conceptual schemes corresponding to the intellect and reality represents a problem which is still to be solved. A solution to this problem was proposed by R. Carnap in his extremely ambitious project from Der logische Aufbau der Welt (1928). Overlooked for a long time, this work has returned to the philosophical spotlight in recent years, because philosophers finally realized that Carnap’s project comprises almost allthe major themes of contemporary epistemology, such as the relation between theory and reality, between concepts and experience, the major lines of a phenomenology and of a “logic of experience” or the status of language and of the concepts of science. Situated at the confluence of some philosophical traditions such as neo-kantian philosophy, the logical analysis of Russell and Wittgenstein, but also phenomenology, Carnap’s program in Aufbau starts from some premises such: the need to control experience (= major stake of any scientific knowledge); the orientation towards form of the modern concept of scientific knowledge (under Kant’s direct influence); the assertion of a concept of knowledge mostly relational or structural (issue resulted in the orientation towards form of modern knowledge); the need for a methodology engaged in a constructive way and modelled on mathematical thinking; our reporting to the instance of sensitivity in the formation of experience (under E. Mach’s influence).
67. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Sergiu Bălan Ancient and Modern Perspectives in the Theory of Categories
68. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Aneta Karageorgieva Austin on Truth
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J. L. Austin’s article ‘Truth’ is a remarkable example of his method of ordinary language analysis by which he investigates the notoriously recalcitrant philosophical concept of truth. This paper attempts to specify the character of Austin’s truth conception, defending the view that despite his opinion of it being a semantic one, it is actually of a mixed nature. Correspondence is what determines the truth or falsity of a statement, but semantics delineates the segment of the world to which our statements correspond. An explication of the notions of demonstrative and descriptive conventions is given in order to add flash to the outlinegiven by Austin.
69. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Christfried Tögel Freud and Religion
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The paper deals with Freud’s attitude towards religion. It developed from a rather ironic and anecdotal criticism in his youth to fundamental writings about the origin and the future of religion in his later life. Freud believed that "the voice of the intellect is a soft one, but it does not rest till it has gained a hearing” and would overcome religion. Because of the "undeniable conflict” between religion and science Freud expressed his strong opinion, that all believers should be prevented from attending university.
70. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Nathan Houser Imagination and the Form of Life to Come
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This is a reflective paper on the future of human life in the context of the finitude of our universe. A teleological approach is recommended and imagination is presumed to be the key to ushering in an advanced form of life that incorporates the advances of the new technological age we have begun to inhabit. The amazing possibilities of the coming posthuman age come with a great risk, however: we may be following seductive techno-visions that will bring an end to human life long before its natural demise. Reflecting on life along these lines leads one to a local and pragmatic perspective on human achievement and a more generalized understanding of consciousness.
71. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Dragan Todorović, Dragoljub B. Đorđević The Profile of Roma in Majority Media: A Scheme for a Theoretical Research Framework
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Having recently acquired national minority status, Roma in Serbia were and still are the most frequent target of social distance practiced by the majority people as well as other minorities. Apart from refusing to socialize with them, the majority has created a series of negative stereotypes and prejudices, with few examples of positive attitude. The Serbian media have rarely stood up against such tirades, usually fuelling or, more often than not, instigating them.Having ascertained the conditions through the analysis of several empirical reports, the authors in this work suggest a list of concrete acts in the media, whose realization would contribute to the genuine appreciation and overcoming of the unenviable position of the Romani national minority in our country, as well as the countries in the region.
72. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Paul Gochet The Logic of Intentional Constructions: its Philosophical Significance
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The logic of intentional verbs and constructions has been intensively studied over the last twenty years in different logical fields : pure logic, philosophy of logic, logic for AI and logic computer science. There is little interaction among these scientific communities. In this paper I shall bring together the more significant results which have been obtained and offer an up to date status quaestionis. I will reduce logical technicalities to a minimum. and lay emphasis on what is philosophically and ethically significant in the recent formalizations of intentional verb and adverbs.
73. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Tea Logar “Diagnostic Hedonism” and the Role of Incommensurability in Plato’s Protagoras
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The dispute over Socrates’ apparent endorsement of hedonism in the Protagoras has persisted for ages among scholars and students of Plato’s work. The solution to the query concerning the seriousness and sincerity of Socrates’ argument from hedonism established in the dialogue is of considerable importance for the interpretation of Plato’s overall moral theory, considering how blatantly irreconcilable the defense of this doctrine is with Plato’s other early dialogues. In his earlier works, Socrates puts supreme importance on virtue and perfection of the soul, so the puzzle apparent in the Protagoras merits a thorough examination.Several scholars have argued that, since Socrates’ defense of hedonism in this work clashes significantly with his views on morality in other dialogues, Socrates must only have been defending hedonism ironically, or with the intention of “diagnosing” his opponent’s point of view. In this paper, I examine the approaches according to which Socrates didn’t in fact mean to defend hedonism, but merely used it as a diagnostic tool; I argue that there is no compelling evidence for this resolution of Socrates’ defense of hedonism, and that the views that attempt to defend it really have no convincing grounds for it apart from the desire to reconcilethe Protagoras with other Socratic dialogues.
74. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Lester Embree Letter to the Editorial Board about the divide ‘analytical – continental’
75. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Editorial Board Special issue devoted to “The dialogue between analytic and continental philosophy”
76. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Michel Weber Much Ado About Duckspeak
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The so-called bifurcation between analytic and continental philosophies is discussed, from the perspective of Whiteheadian process thought, with the help of four questions: what is the scope and goal of philosophy? do philosophical debates require radical empiricism? could or should philosophy become anexpertise? how does the analytical divide impacts the democratic ideal?
77. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Sabin Totu About Greek Foundations of Modern Metaphysics
78. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Bojan Blagojević Kierkegaard and Rational Justification of Morality -A Critique of Macintyre’s Account
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This essay is the critique of MacIntyre’s thesis that Kierkegaard isn’t trying to justify morality at all. Using MacIntyre’s account of Kierkegaard’s work Either/Or, andcomparing his interpretation to Kierkegaard’s works, I aim to show that MacIntyre’s conclusions are wrong. In doing so, I will provide a different interpretation of Either/Or, while arguing that it is possible to use later Kierkegaard’s works in that interpretation. Contrary to MacIntyre’s assertion, Kierkegaard does not change his characterization of the ethical in his later works, but outlines in Either/Or the same problems he will deal with in Fear and Trembling. The foundation of his conception of the ethical lies in his conception of the self, given in The Sickness unto Death. Analyzing this conception of self through Kierkegaard’s accountof the forms of despair, I will argue that the significance of morality lies in delivering the self from various forms of despair. As Kierkegaard’s thesis on the ubiquity of despair provides a horizon for the debate between the aesthetic and the ethical individual, we can say that the concept of despair provides a basis for his justification of morality.
79. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Scott O'Leary Reconsidering Authorial Intention - Perspectives From Continental And Analytic Tradition
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Paul Ricoeur’s narrative and critical hermeneutics provides the conceptual resources to accommodate Barthes’ and similar critiques of subjectivity whilepositing a revised form of authorial intention similar to the “postulated author” of Alexander Nehamas and the “creative process” of Richard Wollheim. Though influenced by Barthian critiques, all three thinkers retain a notion of authorial intent*one distinct from the intentions of the historical author*necessary for the understanding of meaning in the philosophy of literature. Yet, the implications of this allow us to reverse the Ricoeurian insight of understanding human action as a text, and show how human action provides clarification on authorial intention. Using Ricoeur and Nehamas, I would like to revisit the issue of authorialintention in order to show the insights this offers for hermeneutics and philosophy of literature. If authorial intention is properly reestablished as distinct from theintentions of the historical writer, we can turn to a minimalistic version of the analytic philosophy of action based on Ricoeur and Carlos Moya to provide auseful heuristic conceptual framework to look at both authorial and ‘readerly’ intention.In employing the philosophy of action, this conceptual framework will be used instrumentally in aid of interpreting the text and providing further analysisand conceptual clarity to the notion of authorial intention. Further, analyzing ‘writerly’ and ‘readerly’ intention as action*communicative action*sidesteps thephilosophical issue of the ‘artistic process’ which had absorbed the attention of aesthetics since Plato, without sidestepping the issues of authorial intention andreaderly intention.1 I will argue that in using variants of the philosophy of action, we can ignore psychological issues and instead focus on the broader issues ofmeaning-expression at the heart of both readerly and writerly intention. I will then demonstrate this heuristic framework using Hölderlin’s epic poetry and Blanchot’s The Writing of the Disaster.
80. Balkan Journal of Philosophy: Volume > 3 > Issue: 1
Maria Trofimova Phenomenology of Prepredicative Experience
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The paper reconstructs Husserl’s investigations into prepredicative experience supposed to ground predicative thinking and logic. It suggest that this investigation is one of the crucial points where phenomenology should seek out cooperation with cognitive science, especially with experimental neuropsychology and psychopathology. It suggests that these disciplines can present us with valuable descriptions of prepredicative experience, whether they be records of brain activity, observations of infant behavior, or descriptions of pathological changes in self-awareness and intentionality, although the naturalistic approach of positive science and the transcendental stance of phenomenology are based on different methodological and metaphysical grounds. It suggests a fertile dialog between phenomenology, essentially based on rational predicative thought, and cognitive science rich with information about deeper preconceptual processes of our cognitive processing.